COVID-19 pandemic in South America

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

COVID-19 pandemic in South America
COVID-19 cases by territories of the countries of South America.svg
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationSouth America
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseSão Paulo, Brazil
Arrival date26 February 2020
(2 years, 7 months, 1 week and 1 day ago)
Confirmed cases34,359,631[1]

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached South America on 26 February 2020 when Brazil confirmed a case in São Paulo.[2] By 3 April, all countries and territories in South America had recorded at least one case.[3]

On 13 May 2020, it was reported that Latin America and the Caribbean had reported over 400,000 cases of COVID-19 infection with, 23,091 deaths. On 22 May 2020, citing the rapid increase of infections in Brazil, the World Health Organization declared South America the epicentre of the pandemic.[4][5]

As of 16 July 2021, South America had recorded 34,359,631 confirmed cases and 1,047,229 deaths from COVID-19. Due to a shortage of testing and medical facilities, it is believed that the outbreak is far larger than the official numbers show.[6]

Statistics by country and territory

Summary table of confirmed cases in South America (as of 30 September 2022)[7]
Country/Territory Cases Active cases Deaths Recoveries Ref
Brazil 34,654,190 129,627 685,927 33,838,636 [8][9][10]
Argentina 9,708,420 no data 129,897 no data [11]
Colombia 6,306,552 no data 141,769 no data [12][13]
Chile 4,620,377 14,394 61,141 4,535,218 [14]
Peru 4,143,085 no data 216,539 no data [15][16]
Bolivia 1,108,055 no data 22,233 no data [7][17][18]
Ecuador 1,003,778 no data 35,894 no data [19][20][21]
Uruguay 985,422 no data 7,485 no data [22][23]
Paraguay 716,059 no data 19,583 no data [24][25]
Venezuela 543,811 1,868 5,809 536,134 [7][26][27]
French Guiana 93,974 no data 410 no data [7][28]
Suriname 81,106 30,094 1,385 49,627 [29]
Guyana 71,191 166 1,279 69,746 [30][10]
Falkland Islands 1,930 no data 0 no data [31][32]
Total 34,359,631 1,947,427 1,047,229 32,102,586

South America and Latin America

Summary table of confirmed cases in Latin America (selected regions as of 16 July 2021)[7]
Countries and territories Cases Deaths Recoveries[a] Population
(in millions)
South America 34,359,631 1,047,229 32,102,586 430 [7]
Mexico Mexico 2,629,648 235,740 2,068,175 128 [7]
Panama Panama 418,604 6,661 398,300 4 [7]
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 336,144 3,907 277,426 11 [7]
Costa Rica Costa Rica 388,298 4,857 312,474 5 [7]
Guatemala Guatemala 327,755 9,834 286,201 17 [7]
Honduras Honduras 276,989 7,356 95,000 10 [7]
Total 38,736,873 1,315,584 35,540,162 605 [7]

Timeline by country and territory


The COVID-19 pandemic in Argentina is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). On 3 March 2020, the virus was confirmed to have spread to Argentina.[33][34][35][36] As of 4 October 2022, a total of 9,711,355 people were confirmed to have been infected, and 129,937 people were known to have died because of the virus.[37] On 7 March 2020, the Ministry of Health confirmed the country's first documented death, a 64-year-old man who had travelled to Paris, France, who also had other health conditions; the case was only confirmed as positive after the patient's demise.[38]

On 19 March 2020, a nationwide lockdown was established in Argentina.[39][40] The lockdown was lifted throughout all the country, excepting the Greater Buenos Aires urban area (where 31.9% of the country's population live),[41] on 10 May, with Greater Buenos Aires locked down until 17 July, where the lockdown was due to be gradually loosened in several stages to lead to the return to normality.[42] However, restrictions were extended several times until 8 November 2020.[43] During the second wave, another nationwide lockdown took place from 22 to 31 May 2021.[44]

Responses to the outbreak have included restrictions on commerce and movement, closure of borders, and the closure of schools and educational institutions.[45] Clusters of infections and deaths have occurred in nursing homes, prisons and other detention centers, and urban areas.[46][47] The number of tests increased over time, although there were some concerns as there was less testing than in other countries of the region such as Chile and Peru.[48] Even so, the government's responses to the pandemic were among the best received by the population in the region during the early stages of the pandemic.[49]


The COVID-19 pandemic in Bolivia is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have spread to Bolivia on 10 March 2020, when its first two cases were confirmed in the departments of Oruro and Santa Cruz.[50][51]

On 12 March, Bolivia suspended all public school sessions until 31 March, as well as all commercial flights to and from Europe indefinitely. They also prohibited large-scale public gatherings of more than 1,000 people.[52]


The COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil has resulted in 34,684,529[53] confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 686,371[53] deaths.

The virus was confirmed to have spread to Brazil on 25 February 2020,[54] when a man from São Paulo who had traveled to Italy[55] tested positive for the virus. The disease had spread to every federative unit of Brazil by 21 March. On 19 June 2020, the country reported its one millionth case and nearly 49,000 reported deaths.[56][57] One estimate of under-reporting was 22.62% of total reported COVID-19 mortality in 2020.[58][59][60]

The pandemic has triggered a variety of responses from federal, state and local governments, having an impact on politics, education, the environment,[61] and the economy. On 27 March 2020 Brazil announced a temporary ban on foreign air travelers[62] and most state governors have imposed quarantines to prevent the spread of the virus.[63] President Jair Bolsonaro has perpetuated conspiracy theories surrounding COVID-19 treatments[64] and its origins,[65] and was accused of downplaying effective mitigations and pursuing a strategy of herd immunity.[66] In October 2021, a congressional panel recommended criminal charges against the president for his handling of the pandemic, including crimes against humanity.[66]

As of 04 October 2022, Brazil, with 34,684,529[53] confirmed cases and 686,371[53] deaths, has the third-highest number of confirmed cases and second-highest death toll from COVID-19 in the world, behind only those of the United States and of India.


The worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) severely affected Chile. The virus was confirmed to have reached Chile on 3 March 2020.[67] Initial cases had been imported from Southeast Asia and Europe, and expanded into a large number of untraceable infections, placing the country within phase 4 of the pandemic as defined by the World Health Organization, with over 1,000 confirmed cases by 25 March 2020.

The cases are concentrated in the Santiago metropolitan area, with outbreaks in other regions in the country. No national lockdown was established in Chile, unlike in neighboring Argentina and Peru, although a night curfew was implemented throughout the country. Quarantines were established locally in different cities and neighborhoods. However, in May 2020 the whole city of Santiago was put under mandatory quarantine due to an increase of cases, and similar situations were extended to most of the largest cities in Chile.

Considering its population, by June 2020 Chile had one of the worst outbreaks in the world.[68] Initially, the number of fatalities reported was lower than in other countries in South America, even those with fewer cases. However, in May 2020, the number of cases and deaths increased rapidly, while several sources reported excess deaths not officially attributed to covid, which were not counted.[69][70] By June 2020, the government confirmed thousands of additional deaths due to COVID-19, including suspected cases where PCR tests were not available.[71] The pandemic reached a peak on 13 June with 195 daily confirmed deaths and nearly 7,000 positive cases.[72] By July 2020, 10,000 people had died, and Chile had the sixth largest number of cases in the world.[73][74] In the following weeks, the number of daily cases and deaths started to decrease slowly, although some local outbreaks appeared. The number of cases increased later in the year, and by March 2021 the number of daily cases exceeded those in the initial wave.[75]

Chile became one of the first countries to start a nationwide program to vaccinate against COVID-19. On 24 December 2020, the first batch of vaccines arrived in the country to inoculate mainly health workers.[76] With larger batches of vaccines (mainly Sinovac's CoronaVac) arriving from February 2021, Chile became one of the fastest countries in the world to inoculate their population: by March 2021 a quarter of the population had received at least one dose. This fast response was due to signing contracts with multiple providers, a strong public immunization program, and little anti-vaccine sentiment.[77] Despite the success of the vaccination program the number of cases increased, which has been attributed to early relaxation of restrictions and a false sense of security.[78][79][80]

With more than 92,000 cases and 2,500 deaths per million inhabitants,[72] the impact of the pandemic has been great in the South American country. In March 2020, when the first cases of COVID-19 were reported, the country was still facing protests and riots[b] that had begun in October 2019, and the pandemic affected the scheduled 2020 Chilean national plebiscite, which was rescheduled and held later in the year. Partial lockdowns and quarantines were established in the first months, hitting the economy of the country. By April 2020, unemployment had reached 9%, a ten-year high.[82][83] A wave of protests sparked in late May, mainly in Santiago, due to food shortages in certain sectors of the population.[84] The Chilean GDP shrank by a 5.8% in 2020, the largest recession in 40 years in the country.[85] Chile is the only country in the world with entry procedures such as requiring homologation of vaccines to travel to.[86]


The COVID-19 pandemic in Colombia is part of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Colombia on 6 March 2020.[87][88]

Up to January 2022, four waves affected Colombia: Infections and deaths peaked in August 2020, again in January 2021 following the Christmas holidays, reached new highs between April and June 2021, and a fourth wave was confirmed in late December 2021 following the arrival of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2.[89]

"Confirmed COVID-19" was the primary cause of death in Colombia in 2020, where the virus caused over 50,000 fatalities by the end of the calendar year. An additional 13,000 deaths in Colombia that year were suspected to be caused by COVID-19, making "suspected COVID-19" the third most common cause of death.[90] The "confirmed COVID-19" death toll doubled during the first half of 2021, reaching 100,000 before the end of June (including all deaths from the beginning of the pandemic).[91]


On 29 February 2020, the Minister of Health in Ecuador, Catalina Andramuño, confirmed the first case of the virus in the country.[92][non-primary source needed] The patient, a woman in her 70s, Ecuadorian citizen who resides in Spain, had arrived to Guayaquil on 14 February.[92]

On 1 March 2020, Andramuño announced that five new cases of coronavirus have been confirmed in Ecuador.[93]

As of 31 March 2020, there have been 2240 confirmed cases, plus 75 deaths linked to COVID-19. The Health Ministry also reported 61 deaths probably related to COVID-19.[94]

Ecuador was described in April 2020 as emerging as the "epicentre" of the pandemic in Latin America.[3] The Guayas Province was particularly strongly affected, with thousand of excess deaths reported compared to the figure for a normal period.[95] It was reported on 17 April 2020 that 10,939 people had died in six weeks since the start of March in the Guayas Province, compared to a normal figure of 3,000 for the province.[96]

Falkland Islands

On 3 April 2020, the British Overseas Territory of the Falkland Islands confirmed its first case on 3 April 2020.[97][non-primary source needed] Furthermore, as a precaution, the islands' government has closed all schools and nurseries until 4 May.[98] As of 30 April, all 13 cases have recovered.[99]

French Guiana

On 4 March 2020, the first 5 cases were found the French overseas department and region of French Guiana,[100] and the first death was announced on 20 April 2020.[101]


The COVID-19 pandemic in Guyana is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Guyana on 11 March 2020. The first case was a woman who travelled from New York,[102] a 52-year-old woman with underlying health conditions, including diabetes and hypertension.[103] The woman died at the Georgetown Public Hospital.[104]


On 7 March the first confirmed case in Paraguay was announced, a 32-year-old Paraguayan who arrived from Ecuador.[105]

On 10 March, Paraguay suspended public school sessions and large-scale public events for 15 days due to the coronavirus.[106]

On 13 March, Paraguay suspended flights coming from Europe.[107]


The COVID-19 pandemic in Peru has resulted in 4,145,301[53] confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 216,596[53] deaths.

The virus spread to Peru on 6 March 2020, when a 25-year-old man who had travelled to Spain, France, and the Czech Republic tested positive.[108] On 15 March 2020, President Martín Vizcarra announced a country-wide lockdown, closing borders, restricting domestic flights, and forbidding nonessential business operations, excluding health facilities, grocery stores, pharmacies, and banks.

Peru, with a total population of 32 million people,[109] had a total of 1,002 intensive care unit (ICU) beds available as of May 2020,[110] and was working on expanding its nationwide ventilator stock from 40 to a desired 540 machines. Engineering and production are supplied by the Peruvian Armed Forces.[citation needed] As of June 2020, oxygen was in short supply.[111][needs update]


On 13 March 2020, Vice President Ashwin Adhin announced the first confirmed case in the country.[112]

On 3 April, the first death was announced.[113]

On 3 May, all remaining COVID-19 cases recovered.[114]

On 18 May, an eleventh case was identified.[115]

On 11 August, President Santokhi announced a series of measures requiring the use of face masks, reducing operating practices of restaurants, and prohibiting groups of 5 or people from gathering except for work, education, religious gatherings and funerals. A national curfew would be in place from 21:00 to 5:00 everyday until 23 August.[116]


The COVID-19 pandemic in Uruguay has resulted in 986,446[53] confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 7,495[53] deaths.

The first cases in Uruguay were reported on 13 March 2020 by the Ministry of Public Health.[117] The early cases were imported from Italy and Spain, with some local transmissions.[118] The majority of early cases were traced to a wedding with 500 people in attendance in Montevideo, attended by a Uruguayan fashion designer who returned from Spain and later tested positive.[119][120] Various containment measures were introduced in mid-March, and major restrictions on movement followed in late March. Uruguay is one of the few countries in Latin America to have been able to avoid large outbreaks for a considerable amount of time due to their closing of borders with neighboring countries. The country had one of the lowest numbers of active cases per population in South America up until December when the public health authorities announced that large outbreaks had led to community transmission in Montevideo.[121] On 23 January 2021, President Luis Lacalle Pou announced during a press conference that the government purchased doses of COVID-19 vaccines from Pfizer and Sinovac Biotech, while negotiating with a third manufacturer.[122]


On 13 March, Vice President Delcy Rodríguez announced the first two confirmed cases in the country.[123]

On 14 March, Communication Minister Jorge Rodríguez informed that eight new cases were detected in the country.[124]

On 26 March, the first death was reported.[125]

Diosdado Cabello, vice-president of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela and president of the pro-government Constituent National Assembly announced he tested positive for COVID-19 on 9 July.[126]

Tareck El Aissami, the Minister of Petroleum and Omar Prieto, the Governor of Zulia also tested positive on 10 July.[127]

A member of the 2017 National Constituent Assembly and the Governor of the Capital District, Darío Vivas tested positive for COVID-19 on 19 July.[128]

Venezuela Minister of Communication and Information Jorge Rodríguez tested positive for COVID-19 on 13 August.[129] On the same day, Darío Vivas died of COVID-19 at the age of 70.[128]

Venezuela is particularly vulnerable to the wider effects of the pandemic because of its ongoing socioeconomic and political crisis causing massive shortages of food staples and basic necessities, including medical supplies. The mass emigration of Venezuelan doctors has also caused chronic staff shortages in hospitals.[130]

Prevention in other countries and territories

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

This remote territory is uninhabited, save for small communities of scientists; the territory is also occasionally visited by small groups of tourists.[131] On 17 March tourist facilities in Grytviken were closed as a precaution,[132] with various other measures being implemented to protect workers on the islands.[133] South Georgia is open for visitors with a permit and is still virus free as of 22 April.[134]


  1. ^ Reported recoveries. May not correspond to actual current figures and not all recoveries may be reported. Total recoveries may not necessarily add up due to the frequency of values updating for each location.
  2. ^ As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many of those who suffered eye injuries during the 2019–2020 protests have not been able to continue their treatments.[81] In the cases where injured have gone to hospital for treatment and supervision some have had to share rooms with COVID-19 patients.[81]


  1. ^ a b c d "Coronavirus update (live)". 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020.
  2. ^ Horwitz L, Nagovitch P, Sonnel HK, Zissis C. "Where Is the Coronavirus in Latin America?". AS/COA. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Uncollected bodies lie for days in the streets of Ecuador the emerging epicentre of the coronavirus in Latin America". Stuff/Fairfax. 4 April 2020.
  4. ^ "WHO declares that South America is the new coronavirus epicenter". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  5. ^ Ward, Alex (26 May 2020). "How South America became a coronavirus epicenter". Vox. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  6. ^ "How Brazil went from carnival floats to mass graves. Photos show what it's like in the world's latest coronavirus hotspot". Business Insider. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". Johns Hopkins University. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ "Painel Coronavírus" (in Portuguese). Ministry of Health (Brazil). Retrieved 30 September 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. ^ "Casos de coronavírus e número de mortes no Brasil em 10 de maio". G1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). 10 May 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  10. ^ a b "COVID-19 Coronavirus - Update". Retrieved 12 September 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. ^ "Información epidemiológica". Gobierno de Argentina. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  12. ^ "Coronavirus en Colombia". Instituto Nacional de Salud. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  13. ^ "Colombia: WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard". Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  14. ^ "Casos confirmados COVID-19". Gobierno de Chile (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  15. ^ Ministry of Health (Peru). "Covid 19 en el Perú" (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  16. ^ "Minsa: Casos confirmados de COVID-19 ascienden a 4 143 085 en el Perú (Comunicado Oficial N° 1115)" (in Spanish). 29 September 2022. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  17. ^ "Datos Oficiales". Bolivia Segura (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  18. ^ "Bolivia: WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard". Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  19. ^ "Actualización de casos de coronavirus en Ecuador". Ministerio de Salud Pública. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  20. ^ "COVID-19 Ecuador" (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  21. ^ "Ecuador: WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard". Retrieved 30 September 2021.
  22. ^ "Visualizador de casos coronavirus COVID-19 en Uruguay". Sistema Nacional de Emergencias (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  23. ^ "Uruguay: WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard". Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  24. ^ "CONTADOR COVID-19 PY". Ministerio de Salud Publica y Bienestar Social. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  25. ^ "Uruguay: WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard". Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  26. ^ "Venezuela registra un fallecido y 156 casos de coronavirus en las últimas 24 horas #2Jun". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  27. ^ "Estadísticas Venezuela". MPPS COVID Patria (in Spanish). 11 September 2022. Retrieved 12 September 2022.
  28. ^ "French Guiana: WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard". Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  29. ^ "COVID SURINAME". Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  30. ^ "Home". Ministry of Health (Guyana). Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  31. ^ "COVID-19: Information and Guidance". Falkland Islands Government. 11 May 2022. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  32. ^ "Falkland Islands: WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard". Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  33. ^ "Confirmaron el primer caso de coronavirus en la Argentina: es un hombre que viajó a Italia". Clarín (in Spanish). 3 March 2020. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  34. ^ "Confirmaron el primer caso de coronavirus en la Argentina". Infobae (in Spanish). 3 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  35. ^ Quinn, Sarah Marsh (now); Ben; Campbell, Lucy; Rourke (earlier), Alison; Tondo, Lorenzo; Marsh, Sarah; Mason, Rowena; Campbell, Lucy (3 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Iran to mobilise 300,000 soldiers and volunteers as 23 MPs infected – latest news". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  36. ^ "Se confirmó el segundo caso de coronavirus en Argentina: es un hombre de 23 años que vino de Italia". Infobae (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  37. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2022). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  38. ^ "Primera muerte por coronavirus en Argentina: era un hombre que había viajado a Francia y estaba internado en el Argerich". Infobae (in Spanish). 7 March 2020. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  39. ^ "Argentina announces mandatory quarantine to curb coronavirus". Reuters. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  40. ^ Do Rosario, Jorgelina; Gillespie, Patrick (20 March 2020). "Argentina Orders 'Exceptional' Lockdown in Bid to Stem Virus". Bloomberg News.
  41. ^ "Población | Instituto Geográfico Nacional" [Population | National Geographic Institute] (in Spanish). National Geographic Institute. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  42. ^ Misculin, Nicolás (17 July 2020). "Argentina to ease Buenos Aires restrictions after nearly four months of tight lockdown". Reuters. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  43. ^ "AMBA moves from 'isolation' to 'distancing'; Fernández talks up vaccine hopes". Buenos Aires Times (Perfil). 6 November 2020.
  44. ^ Misculin, Nicolás (20 May 2021). "Argentina announces 'circuit-breaker' lockdown as pandemic rages". Reuters. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  45. ^ "Argentina to close borders for non-residents to combat coronavirus". Reuters. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  46. ^ "Confirmaron al menos cinco muertes por coronavirus y otros 19 casos positivos en un geriátrico de San Martín". Infobae (in Spanish). 12 May 2020.
  47. ^ "Coronavirus en Argentina: dio positivo un penitenciario en la cárcel de Devoto y otros seis agentes fueron aislados". Clarín (in Spanish). 23 April 2020.
  48. ^ Arambillet, Delfina; Ruiz, Iván (4 May 2020). "Coronavirus: la Argentina es uno de los países que menos testeos hacen en la región". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  49. ^ Misculin, Nicolás (3 July 2020). "Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina get best marks in Latin America for pandemic response – poll". Reuters. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  50. ^ @MinSaludBolivia (10 March 2020). "#ULTIMO" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  51. ^ "Confirman los dos primeros casos de coronavirus en Bolivia". Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 10 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  52. ^ "Gobierno suspende clases hasta el 31 de marzo y todos los vuelos europeos desde el sábado". Los Tiempos (in Spanish). 12 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2022). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  54. ^ "Brasil confirma primeiro caso da doença". Ministry of Health (Brazil). 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 6 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  55. ^ "Ministério da Saúde confirma primeiro caso de coronavírus no Brasil". G1. 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  56. ^ Charner, Flora (19 June 2020). "Brazil tops 1 million Covid-19 cases. It may pass the US next, becoming the worst-hit country on the planet". CNN. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  57. ^ "Painel Coronavírus". Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  58. ^ Kupek, E (18 May 2021). "How many more? Under-reporting of the COVID-19 deaths in Brazil in 2020". Tropical Medicine & International Health. 26 (9): 1019–1028. doi:10.1111/tmi.13628. PMC 8242696. PMID 34008266.
  59. ^ Ibrahim, NK (November 2020). "Epidemiologic surveillance for controlling Covid-19 pandemic: types, challenges and implications". Journal of Infection and Public Health. 13 (11): 1630–1638. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.07.019. PMC 7441991. PMID 32855090.
  60. ^ Santos, Alcione Miranda Dos; Souza, Bruno Feres de; et al. (2021). "Excess deaths from all causes and by COVID-19 in Brazil in 2020". Rev Saude Publica. 55: 71. doi:10.11606/s1518-8787.2021055004137. PMC 8522736. PMID 34730751.
  61. ^ "Deforestation of Amazon rainforest accelerates amid COVID-19 pandemic". US: ABC News. 6 May 2020.
  62. ^ Pedro Fonseca; Jamie McGeever (28 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Brazil bans foreign air travelers". The Mercury News. San Jose, Calif. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  63. ^ "Brazil reports more than 1,000 coronavirus deaths". BBC News. 11 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  64. ^ "World leaders' posts deleted over false virus info". BBC News. 31 March 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  65. ^ "Brazil's Bolsonaro links pandemic to 'germ warfare'". France 24. 5 May 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  66. ^ a b Pedroso, Rodrigo (27 October 2021). "Brazilian commission votes in favor of recommending criminal charges against Bolsonaro". CNN. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  67. ^ "Chile records first confirmed case of coronavirus: health ministry". Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  68. ^ Fuentes, Valentina; Sanders, Philip (16 June 2020). "Once a Covid Role Model, Chile Now Among the World's Worst". Bloomberg. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  69. ^ Wu, Jin; McCann, Allison; Katz, Josh; Peltier, Elian (21 April 2020). "87,000 Missing Deaths: Tracking the True Toll of the Coronavirus Outbreak". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  70. ^ "Coronavirus tracked: the latest figures as countries fight to contain the pandemic". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Death rates have climbed far above historical averages in may countries that have faced Covid-19 outbreaks. Chile: 1,600 (+24%) by May 20.
  71. ^ "Gobierno informa 3.069 fallecidos sospechosos de Covid-19". (in Spanish). 20 June 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  72. ^ a b "Cifras Oficiales COVID-19". Ministerio de Salud (in Spanish). No. December 2021. Government of Chile. 28 December 2021. Retrieved 28 December 2021.
  73. ^ "Informe Epidemiológico Nº31 – Enfermedad por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)" (PDF). Department of Statistics and Health Information – Ministry of Health of Chile (in Spanish). 5 July 2020. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  74. ^ Díaz, Nicolás (3 July 2020). "Chile supera a Reino Unido y se convierte en el sexto país con más casos de Covid-19 en el mundo". BioBioChile. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  75. ^ "Chile registró una cifra récord de casos diarios de coronavirus: más de 7.000 en las últimas 24 horas". infobae (in European Spanish). Archived from the original on 20 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  76. ^ Flores Belmar, Jonathan; Borcoski, Christian (24 December 2020). "Chile recibe el primer cargamento de vacunas contra el covid-19". Bío Bío Chile (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  77. ^ Farzan, Antonia Noori. "How Chile's vaccination push outpaced the rest of the Western Hemisphere". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  78. ^ Bonnefoy, Pascale; Londoño, Ernesto (30 March 2021). "Despite Chile's Speedy Covid-19 Vaccination Drive, Cases Soar". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  79. ^ Hutcheon, Paul (30 March 2021). "Nicola Sturgeon is concerned about the implications of covid rises in Chile". Daily Record. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  80. ^ Mussa, Yasna. "Opinion | El exitismo del gobierno chileno eclipsa una campaña de vacunación que pudo ser ejemplar". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  81. ^ a b "Heridos oculares del estallido chileno, "abandonados" en medio de la pandemia". El Diario (in Spanish). 6 June 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  82. ^ "Directo hacia los dígitos: desempleo aumentó al 9% en el trimestre febrero-abril en todo Chile". El Mostrador. 29 May 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  83. ^ Carvajal G., Claudia (1 June 2020). "Oscuro panorama: Imacec de abril cae en 14,1 por ciento y la economía chilena se desploma". Radio Universidad de Chile. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  84. ^ Ramos, Natalia; Sherwood, Dave (18 May 2020). "Chile's poor clash with police amid concerns over food shortages in outskirts of Santiago". Reuters. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  85. ^ San Juan, Patricia; Alonso, Carlos (19 March 2021). "Economía chilena tuvo su mayor caída en casi 40 años el 2020, pero cierre de año alienta expectativas para 2021". La Tercera. Archived from the original on 18 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  86. ^ "Partido Republicano solicita al gobierno eliminar exigencia del Pase de Movilidad". Veritas Capitur. 7 June 2022. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  87. ^ "Colombia confirms its first case of coronavirus". Reuters. 6 March 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  88. ^ "Colombia confirma su primer caso de COVID-19". Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  89. ^ "Colombia enters fourth wave with Omicron and Delta". The City Paper Bogotá. 30 December 2021. Archived from the original on 30 December 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  90. ^ "El covid-19 fue la primera causa de muerte el año pasado". El Tiempo (in Spanish). 26 March 2021. Archived from the original on 27 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  91. ^ "Covid-19: la tragedia que está dejando dos muertos cada cinco minutos". El Tiempo (in Spanish). 20 June 2021. Archived from the original on 20 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  92. ^ a b "Ministra de Salud confirma primer caso de #coronavirus en Ecuador. La paciente llegó desde España el pasado 14 de febrero". Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  93. ^ @elcomerciocom (1 March 2020). "#ATENCIÓN La ministra de Salud, Catalina Andramuño, informa cinco nuevos casos positivos de #COVID19 en Ecuador. Los afectados son del círculo primario familiar de la paciente. Y se encuentran con sintomatología leve y se mantiene la vigilancia permanente" (Tweet) (in Spanish) – via Twitter.
  94. ^ Ministerio de Salud Pública, Gaceta epidemiológica 030
  95. ^ "Coronavirus: Ecuador sees massive surge in deaths in April". BBC. 17 April 2020.
  96. ^ Collyns D (17 April 2020). "Ecuador's death rate soars as fears grow over scale of coronavirus crisis". The Guardian.
  97. ^ FalklandsinUK (3 April 2020). "A case of coronavirus #COVID19 has been confirmed in the #FalklandIslands. An inpatient in the #Falklands hospital who is in isolation has tested positive for the virus. The patient was admitted from the Mount Pleasant Complex on 31 March with a range of COVID19 like". @FalklandsinUK. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  98. ^ "Falkland Islands: New stage in Government COVID-19 response". Merco Press. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  99. ^ "COVID-19 Public Update – 30 April 2020". Falkland Islands Government. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  100. ^ "Five coronavirus cases confirmed in French Guiana March 4, 2020". Antigua Observer. 4 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  101. ^ "Un premier mort du Covid-19 en Guyane". France Guyane (in French). Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  102. ^ "Breaking News! Guyana records first coronavirus-related death". Kaieteur News. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  103. ^ "Guyana confirms first case of coronavirus in woman who returned from U.S." Reuters. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  104. ^ "Breaking News! Guyana records first coronavirus-related death". Kaieteur News. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  105. ^ "Paraguay reports first coronavirus case". Deccan Herald. 8 March 2020.
  106. ^ "Paraguay Suspends Public Schools for 15 Days Due to Coronavirus". The New York Times. Reuters. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  107. ^ "Paraguay Suspends Flights from Spain Due to Coronavirus". ABC Color. ABC. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  108. ^ "Peru records first confirmed case of coronavirus, President Vizcarra says". Reuters. 6 March 2020.
  109. ^ "Peru Population (2020)". Worldometer.
  110. ^ "Perú tendrá 4.486 nuevas camas de hospitalización y 232 de UCI para atender la pandemia" (in Spanish). 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  111. ^ Guy, Jack; Rebaza, Claudia (5 June 2020). "Peruvians cry out for oxygen as coronavirus takes its toll". CNN.
  112. ^ "Suriname confirms first coronavirus case, authorities will close borders". Reuters. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  113. ^ "Suriname confirms first death". COVID SURINAME. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  114. ^ "Suriname free of COVID-19 positives border situation requires alertness (in Dutch)". Covid Suriname. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  115. ^ "Again a COVID-19 infected person in Suriname". Covid-19 Suriname. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  116. ^ McLeod, Sheri-Kae (11 August 2020). "Suriname Government Extends National Curfew to Curb COVID-19 Spike". Caribbean News. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  117. ^ "A brand-new challenge" (in Spanish). El Observador. 15 March 2020.
  118. ^ "Confirmaron primeros 4 casos de coronavirus en Uruguay; todos habían regresado de Italia" (in Spanish). EL PAIS. 13 March 2020.
  119. ^ "Half of Uruguay's coronavirus cases traced to a single guest at a society party". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  120. ^ "Half of Uruguay's COVID-19 cases can be traced to one fashion designer". 20 March 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  121. ^ "El GACH proyecta a Uruguay en "zona roja" el 27 de diciembre si se mantiene la tendencia actual". El Observador. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  122. ^ "Pfizer y Sinovac: las primeras vacunas elegidas por el gobierno". El Observador. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  123. ^ "Régimen de Maduro confirma dos primeros casos de coronavirus". (in Spanish). 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  124. ^ Torrealba D (14 March 2020). "Suben a 10 los casos por coronavirus en Venezuela". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  125. ^ "Venezuela confirms first coronavirus death: official". Reuters. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  126. ^ "Venezuela socialist party boss announces he has COVID-19". AP NEWS. 9 July 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  127. ^ "Venezuela oil minister El Aissami tests positive for COVID-19". Reuters. 10 July 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  128. ^ a b "Governor of Venezuela's capital district, key Maduro ally, dies of COVID-19". Reuters. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  129. ^ "Close adviser to Venezuela's president has coronavirus". Associated Press. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  130. ^ "Venezuela Conducts 'Tens' of Virus Tests and Bans Europe Flights". Bloomberg. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  131. ^ "About SGSSI – Government of South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands". Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  132. ^ "Precautionary Measures at Grytviken – Government of South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands". Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  133. ^ "GSGSSI COVID-19 Update – Government of South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands". Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  134. ^ "South Georgia remains free of COVID-19; Grytviken closed to visitors until next August". Merco Press. Retrieved 25 April 2020.

External links