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Portal:COVID-19

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The COVID-19 portal

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by a virus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease quickly spread worldwide, resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimise the risk of transmission. While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.

The pandemic has triggered severe social and economic disruption around the world, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression. Widespread supply shortages, including food shortages, were caused by supply chain disruption. Reduced human activity saw an unprecedented pollution decrease. Educational institutions and public areas were partially or fully closed in many jurisdictions, and many events were cancelled or postponed. Misinformation circulated through social media and mass media, and political tensions intensified. The pandemic raised issues of racial and geographic discrimination, health equity, and the balance between public health imperatives and individual rights. (Full article)
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About the virus

SARS‑CoV‑2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species. Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.

Like the SARS-related coronavirus implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS‑CoV‑2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B). Coronaviruses undergo frequent recombination. The mechanism of recombination in unsegmented RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 is generally by copy-choice replication, in which gene material switches from one RNA template molecule to another during replication. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length, relatively long for a coronavirus—which in turn carry the largest genomes among all RNA families. Its genome consists nearly entirely of protein-coding sequences, a trait shared with other coronaviruses. (Full article)

Disease progress

As of 5 October 2022, 619,115,458 cases of COVID-19 have been reported, resulting in 6,549,664 reported deaths.[1]


Updated October 5, 2022.
COVID-19 pandemic by location[1]
Location Cases Deaths
World[a] 619,115,458 6,549,664
European Union European Union[b] 168,578,766 1,149,190
United States United States 96,481,081 1,060,408
India India 44,601,892 528,733
France France 35,635,373 155,341
Brazil Brazil 34,684,529 686,371
Germany Germany 33,519,761 150,192
South Korea South Korea 24,882,894 28,544
United Kingdom United Kingdom 23,672,856 206,865
Italy Italy 22,602,840 177,257
Japan Japan 21,396,066 45,208
Russia Russia 20,793,041 379,829
Turkey Turkey 16,873,793 101,139
Spain Spain 13,431,098 114,262
Vietnam Vietnam 11,482,334 43,151
Australia Australia 10,244,727 15,234
Argentina Argentina 9,711,355 129,937
Netherlands Netherlands 8,452,092 22,750
Iran Iran 7,550,401 144,458
Mexico Mexico 7,090,965 330,139
Taiwan Taiwan 6,630,642 11,232
Indonesia Indonesia 6,437,750 158,156
Colombia Colombia 6,307,372 141,794
Poland Poland 6,302,275 117,631
Portugal Portugal 5,499,469 25,063
Ukraine Ukraine 5,479,048 117,043
Austria Austria 5,176,787 20,767
Greece Greece 4,975,067 33,200
Malaysia Malaysia 4,846,592 36,385
Thailand Thailand 4,682,132 32,771
Israel Israel 4,666,011 11,706
Chile Chile 4,634,889 61,227
Belgium Belgium 4,553,333 32,690
Canada Canada 4,287,508 45,486
Peru Peru 4,146,000 216,626
Switzerland Switzerland 4,129,096 14,010
Czech Republic Czech Republic 4,113,902 41,142
South Africa South Africa 4,019,800 102,185
Philippines Philippines 3,957,112 63,078
Denmark Denmark 3,303,935 7,088
Romania Romania 3,272,010 67,054
Slovakia Slovakia 2,627,964 20,465
Sweden Sweden 2,588,441 20,225
Iraq Iraq 2,460,572 25,356
Serbia Serbia 2,369,245 17,042
Hungary Hungary 2,094,142 47,503
Bangladesh Bangladesh 2,027,565 29,372
Singapore Singapore 1,924,139 1,624
New Zealand New Zealand 1,789,505 2,038
Georgia (country) Georgia 1,780,691 16,900
Hong Kong Hong Kong 1,779,695 10,184
Jordan Jordan 1,746,997 14,122
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 1,663,653 7,942
Pakistan Pakistan 1,572,778 30,619
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1,483,793 19,052
Norway Norway 1,462,647 4,121
Finland Finland 1,292,940 5,981
Morocco Morocco 1,265,008 16,278
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,262,224 37,733
Lithuania Lithuania 1,253,167 9,330
Croatia Croatia 1,234,358 16,930
Lebanon Lebanon 1,216,190 10,681
Slovenia Slovenia 1,191,573 6,827
Tunisia Tunisia 1,145,829 29,254
Guatemala Guatemala 1,126,214 19,811
Costa Rica Costa Rica 1,117,989 8,970
Cuba Cuba 1,111,207 8,530
Bolivia Bolivia 1,108,472 22,237
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 1,029,082 2,346
Ecuador Ecuador 1,005,521 35,899
Nepal Nepal 999,829 12,018
China China[c] 994,570 5,226
Belarus Belarus 994,037 7,118
Panama Panama 987,613 8,502
Uruguay Uruguay 986,446 7,495
Mongolia Mongolia 983,275 2,131
Latvia Latvia 933,476 6,006
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 821,757 9,921
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 816,975 9,360
Paraguay Paraguay 716,543 19,591
State of Palestine Palestine 702,768 5,707
Bahrain Bahrain 682,114 1,520
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 670,813 16,764
Kuwait Kuwait 658,520 2,563
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 646,209 4,384
Myanmar Myanmar 622,802 19,459
Estonia Estonia 603,347 2,692
Moldova Moldova 590,752 11,858
Cyprus Cyprus 587,994 1,182
Venezuela Venezuela 544,884 5,816
Egypt Egypt 515,645 24,797
Libya Libya 507,008 6,437
Ethiopia Ethiopia 493,627 7,572
Honduras Honduras 456,391 10,993
Qatar Qatar 454,244 682
Armenia Armenia 443,785 8,691
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 398,796 16,138
Oman Oman 398,424 4,628
North Macedonia North Macedonia 343,143 9,539
Kenya Kenya 338,455 5,678
Zambia Zambia 333,555 4,017
Albania Albania 332,337 3,589
Botswana Botswana 326,329 2,789
Luxembourg Luxembourg 292,788 1,131
Montenegro Montenegro 280,715 2,782
Kosovo Kosovo 272,079 3,200
Algeria Algeria 270,690 6,879
Nigeria Nigeria 265,505 3,155
Mauritius Mauritius 262,648 1,026
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 257,568 5,603
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 244,257 1,637
Mozambique Mozambique 230,312 2,222
Brunei Brunei 229,665 225
Laos Laos 215,926 758
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 206,160 2,991
Iceland Iceland 205,823 213
El Salvador El Salvador 201,785 4,229
Afghanistan Afghanistan 199,690 7,803
Maldives Maldives 185,082 308
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 183,181 4,207
Ghana Ghana 169,685 1,459
Uganda Uganda 169,396 3,630
Namibia Namibia 169,253 4,080
Jamaica Jamaica 151,931 3,320
Cambodia Cambodia 137,897 3,056
Rwanda Rwanda 132,504 1,467
Cameroon Cameroon 121,652 1,935
Malta Malta 114,757 806
Angola Angola 103,131 1,917
Barbados Barbados 102,580 560
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 92,893 1,443
Senegal Senegal 88,408 1,968
Malawi Malawi 88,034 2,682
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 87,316 826
Suriname Suriname 81,114 1,385
French Polynesia French Polynesia 76,603 649
New Caledonia New Caledonia 74,288 314
Eswatini Eswatini 73,410 1,422
Guyana Guyana 71,353 1,281
Belize Belize 68,884 686
Fiji Fiji 68,242 878
Madagascar Madagascar 66,684 1,410
Sudan Sudan 63,285 4,961
Mauritania Mauritania 62,840 995
Cape Verde Cabo Verde 62,383 410
Bhutan Bhutan 62,095 21
Syria Syria 57,314 3,163
Burundi Burundi 50,193 38
Gabon Gabon 48,713 306
Seychelles Seychelles 47,141 169
Andorra Andorra 46,227 155
Curaçao Curaçao 45,368 287
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 45,010 668
Aruba Aruba 42,970 230
Tanzania Tanzania 39,440 845
Togo Togo 39,116 285
Isle of Man Isle of Man 38,008 116
Guinea Guinea 37,909 453
The Bahamas Bahamas 37,309 833
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands 34,658 28
Lesotho Lesotho 34,490 706
Haiti Haiti 33,756 857
Mali Mali 32,686 742
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands 30,661 32
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 29,517 400
Benin Benin 27,638 163
Somalia Somalia 27,216 1,361
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 24,837 386
East Timor Timor-Leste 23,257 138
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 21,631 387
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 21,544 153
San Marino San Marino 20,892 118
Gibraltar Gibraltar 20,095 108
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 19,883 86
Grenada Grenada 19,536 237
Bermuda Bermuda 18,154 148
South Sudan South Sudan 17,823 138
Tajikistan Tajikistan 17,786 125
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 17,016 183
Tonga Tonga 16,182 12
Samoa Samoa 15,941 29
Dominica Dominica 15,747 74
Djibouti Djibouti 15,690 189
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 15,305 17
Nicaragua Nicaragua 15,070 245
Central African Republic Central African Republic 14,923 113
Monaco Monaco 14,666 63
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 14,466 33
The Gambia Gambia 12,508 372
Vanuatu Vanuatu 11,974 14
Greenland Greenland 11,971 21
Yemen Yemen 11,935 2,157
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands 11,345 38
Eritrea Eritrea 10,173 103
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9,448 116
Niger Niger 9,411 313
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 9,098 146
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 8,796 175
Comoros Comoros 8,471 161
Liberia Liberia 7,974 294
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 7,751 126
Chad Chad 7,590 193
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands 7,305 64
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 6,545 46
Cook Islands Cook Islands 6,389 1
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands 6,380 36
São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe 6,230 77
Palau Palau 5,460 6
Nauru Nauru 4,611 1
Anguilla Anguilla 3,866 12
Kiribati Kiribati 3,430 13
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon 3,188 1
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands 1,930
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 1,783
Montserrat Montserrat 1,403 8
Macau Macau 793 6
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna 761 7
Vatican City Vatican City 29 0
Tuvalu Tuvalu 20
North Korea North Korea 1 6
  1. ^ Countries which do not report data for a column are not included in that column's world total.
  2. ^ Data on member states of the European Union are individually listed, but are also summed here for convenience. They are not double-counted in world totals.
  3. ^ Does not include special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau) or Taiwan.

About the symptoms

The symptoms of COVID-19 are variable depending on the type of variant contracted, ranging from mild symptoms to critical and possibly fatal illness. Common symptoms include coughing, fever, loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia), with less common ones including headaches, nasal congestion and runny nose, muscle pain, sore throat, diarrhea, eye irritation, and toes swelling or turning purple, and in moderate to severe cases breathing difficulties. People with the COVID-19 infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of symptomatic cases. (Full article)

About the spread

COVID-19 is mainly transmitted when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets/aerosols and small airborne particles containing the virus. Infected people exhale those particles as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing. Transmission is more likely the more physically close people are. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors.

The number of people generally infected by one infected person varies, but it is estimated that the R0 ("R nought" or "R zero") number is around 2.5. The disease often spreads in clusters, where infections can be traced back to an index case or geographical location. Often in these instances, superspreading events occur, where many people are infected by one person. (Full article)

Containment measures

Goals of mitigation include delaying and reducing peak burden on healthcare (flattening the curve
) and lessening overall cases and health impact.
Many countries attempted to slow or stop the spread of COVID-19 by recommending, mandating or prohibiting behaviour changes, while others relied primarily on providing information. Measures ranged from public advisories to stringent lockdowns. Outbreak control strategies are divided into elimination and mitigation. Experts differentiate between" zero-COVID", which is an elimination strategy, and mitigation strategies that attempt to lessen the effects of the virus on society, but which still tolerate some level of transmission within the community. Containment strategies consists of the use of public health measures such as contact tracing, mass testing, border quarantine, lockdowns and mitigation software.These strategies can be pursued sequentially or simultaneously during the acquired immunity phase through natural and vaccine-induced immunity.

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3 October 2022 –
North Korea restricts movement due to COVID-19. The announcement was made minutes after it launched a missile over Japan. (RFA)
1 October 2022 – COVID-19 pandemic
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Canada formally ends all COVID-19 border measures, including vaccination requirements, pre-arrival testing, and quarantine, allowing all travellers to enter the country unrestricted without needing to submit public health information through the ArriveCAN government mobile app. (Global News)
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Economic impact

The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching economic consequences including the COVID-19 recession, the second largest global recession in recent history, decreased business in the services sector during the COVID-19 lockdowns, the 2020 stock market crash, which included the largest single-week stock market decline since the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the impact of the COVID-19 on financial markets, the 2021–2022 global supply chain crisis, the 2021–2022 inflation surge, shortages related to the COVID-19 pandemic including the 2020–present global chip shortage, panic buying, and price gouging. It led to governments providing an unprecedented amount of stimulus. The pandemic was also a factor in the 2021–2022 global energy crisis and 2022 food crises.

Many fashion, sport, and technology events have been canceled or have changed to be online. While the monetary impact on the travel and trade industry is yet to be estimated, it is likely to be in the billions and increasing. (Full article)

Workplace

Hazard controls for COVID-19 in workplaces are the application of occupational safety and health methodologies for hazard controls to the prevention of COVID-19. Vaccination is the most effective way to protect against severe illness or death from COVID-19. Multiple layers of controls are recommended, including measures such as remote work and flextime, increased ventilation, personal protective equipment (PPE) and face coverings, social distancing, and enhanced cleaning programs. (Full article)

Misinformation

False information, including intentional disinformation and conspiracy theories, about the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease has been spread through social media, text messaging, and mass media. False information has been propagated by celebrities, politicians, and other prominent public figures. Many countries have passed laws against "fake news", and thousands of people have been arrested for spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The spread of COVID-19 misinformation by governments has also been significant. (Full article)

Testing

COVID-19 testing involves analyzing samples to assess the current or past presence of SARS-CoV-2. The two main types of tests detect either the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to infection. Molecular tests for viral presence through its molecular components are used to diagnose individual cases and to allow public health authorities to trace and contain outbreaks. Antibody tests (serology immunoassays) instead show whether someone once had the disease. They are less useful for diagnosing current infections because antibodies may not develop for weeks after infection. It is used to assess disease prevalence, which aids the estimation of the infection fatality rate. (Full article)

Vaccine research

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19).

The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the spread of COVID-19 and reducing the severity and death caused by COVID‑19. According to a June 2022 study, COVID-19 vaccines prevented an additional 14.4 to 19.8 million deaths in 185 countries and territories from 8 December 2020 to 8 December 2021. Many countries implemented phased distribution plans that prioritized those at highest risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as healthcare workers. (Full article)

Drug research

COVID-19 drug development is the research process to develop preventative therapeutic prescription drugs that would alleviate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From early 2020 through 2021, several hundred drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing therapeutic candidates for COVID-19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research (506 total candidates in April 2021), with 419 potential COVID-19 drugs in clinical trials, as of April 2021. (Full article)

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Get involved by joining WikiProject COVID-19. We discuss collaborations and all manner of issues on our talk page. As of 5 October 2022, there are 2,355 articles within the project's scope. A full list is available here.

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References

  1. ^ a b Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2022). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2022-10-05.

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