British Virgin Islands
(English: "Be Vigilant")
|Anthem: "God Save the King"|
|Territorial song: "Oh, Beautiful Virgin Islands"|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Before annexation||Dutch West Indies|
|Cooper Island sold to UK||1905|
and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Parliamentary dependency under a constitutional monarchy|
|Legislature||House of Assembly|
|Government of the United Kingdom|
|Rishi Sunak MP|
|153 km2 (59 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
|Highest elevation||521 m (1,709 ft)|
• 2019 estimate
• 2010 census
|260/km2 (673.4/sq mi) (68th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||United States dollar (US$) (USD)|
|Time zone||UTC-4:00 (AST)|
|ISO 3166 code||VG|
The British Virgin Islands (BVI), officially the Virgin Islands, are a British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean, to the east of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands and north-west of Anguilla. The islands are geographically part of the Virgin Islands archipelago and are located in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles and part of the West Indies.
The British Virgin Islands consist of the main islands of Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Anegada and Jost Van Dyke, along with more than 50 other smaller islands and cays. About 16 of the islands are inhabited. The capital, Road Town, is on Tortola, the largest island, which is about 20 km (12 mi) long and 5 km (3 mi) wide. The islands had a population of 28,054 at the 2010 Census, of whom 23,491 lived on Tortola; current estimates put the population at 35,802 (July 2018).
The islands were named "Santa Úrsula y las Once Mil Vírgenes" by Christopher Columbus in 1493 after the legend of Saint Ursula and the 11,000 virgins. The name was later shortened to "the Virgin Islands".
The official name of the territory is still simply the "Virgin Islands", but the prefix "British" is often used. This is commonly believed to distinguish it from the neighbouring American territory which changed its name from the "Danish West Indies" to "Virgin Islands of the United States" in 1917. However, local historians have disputed this, pointing to a variety of publications and public records dating from between 21 February 1857 and 12 September 1919 where the territory is referred to as the British Virgin Islands. British Virgin Islands government publications continue to begin with the name "The territory of the Virgin Islands", and the territory's passports simply refer to the "Virgin Islands", and all laws begin with the words "Virgin Islands". Moreover, the territory's Constitutional Commission has expressed the view that "every effort should be made" to encourage the use of the name "Virgin Islands". But various public and quasi-public bodies continue to use the name "British Virgin Islands" or "BVI", including BVI Finance, BVI Electricity Corporation, BVI Tourist Board, BVI Athletic Association, BVI Bar Association and others.
In 1968 the British Government issued a memorandum requiring that the postage stamps in the territory should say "British Virgin Islands" (whereas previously they had simply stated "Virgin Islands"), a practice which is still followed today. This was likely to prevent confusion following on from the adoption of US currency in the territory in 1959, and the references to US currency on the stamps of the territory.
It is generally thought that the Virgin Islands were first settled by the Arawak from South America around 100 BC to AD 200, though there is some evidence of Amerindian presence on the islands as far back as 1500 BC. The Arawaks inhabited the islands until the 15th century when they were displaced by the more aggressive Caribs, a tribe from the Lesser Antilles islands.
The Spanish Empire claimed the islands by discovery in the early 16th century, but never settled them, and subsequent years saw the English, Dutch, French, Spanish, and Danish all jostling for control of the region, which became a notorious haunt for pirates. There is no record of any native Amerindian population in the British Virgin Islands during this period; it is thought that they either fled to safer islands or were killed.
The Dutch established a permanent settlement on the island of Tortola by 1648, frequently clashing with the Spanish who were based on nearby Puerto Rico. In 1672, the English captured Tortola from the Dutch, and the English annexation of Anegada and Virgin Gorda followed in 1680. Meanwhile, over the period 1672–1733, the Danish gained control of the nearby islands of Saint Thomas, Saint John and Saint Croix (i.e. the modern US Virgin Islands).
The British islands were considered principally a strategic possession. The British introduced sugar cane which was to become the main crop and source of foreign trade, and large numbers of slaves were forcibly brought from Africa to work on the sugar cane plantations. The islands prospered economically until the middle of the nineteenth century, when a combination of the abolition of slavery in the British Empire in 1834, a series of disastrous hurricanes, and the growth in the sugar beet crop in Europe and the United States significantly reduced sugar cane production and led to a period of economic decline.
In 1917, the United States purchased the Danish Virgin Islands for US$25 million, renaming them the United States Virgin Islands. Economic linkages with the US islands prompted the British Virgin Islands to adopt the US dollar as its currency in 1959.
The British Virgin Islands were administered variously as part of the British Leeward Islands or with St. Kitts and Nevis, with an administrator representing the British Government on the islands. The islands gained separate colony status in 1960 and became autonomous in 1967 under the new post of Chief Minister. Since the 1960s, the islands have diversified away from their traditionally agriculture-based economy towards tourism and financial services, becoming one of the wealthiest areas in the Caribbean. The constitution of the islands was amended in 1977, 2004 and 2007, giving them greater local autonomy.
The British Virgin Islands comprise around 60 tropical Caribbean islands, ranging in size from the largest, Tortola, being 20 km (12 mi) long and 5 km (3 mi) wide, to tiny uninhabited islets, altogether about 150 square kilometres (58 square miles) in extent. They are located in the Virgin Islands archipelago, a few miles east of the US Virgin Islands, and about 95 km (59 mi) from the Puerto Rican mainland. About 150 km (93 mi) east south-east lies Anguilla. The North Atlantic Ocean lies to the east of the islands, and the Caribbean Sea lies to the west. Most of the islands are volcanic in origin and have a hilly, rugged terrain. The highest point is Mount Sage on Tortola at 521m. Anegada is geologically distinct from the rest of the group, being a flat island composed of limestone and coral. The British Virgin Islands contain the Leeward Islands moist forests and Leeward Islands xeric scrub terrestrial ecoregions.
The British Virgin Islands have a tropical rainforest climate, moderated by trade winds. Temperatures vary little throughout the year. In the capital, Road Town, typical daily maxima are around 32 °C (89.6 °F) in the summer and 29 °C (84.2 °F) in the winter. Typical daily minima are around 26 °C (78.8 °F) in the summer and 23 °C (73.4 °F) in the winter. Rainfall averages about 1,150 mm (45.3 in) per year, higher in the hills and lower on the coast. Rainfall can be quite variable, but the wettest months on average are September to November and the driest months on average are February and March.
|Climate data for Cyril E. King Airport (1991–2020 normals)|
|Average high °C (°F)||28.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||26.0
|Average low °C (°F)||23.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||67
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||15.0||13.5||10.7||10.6||11.9||10.9||14.8||15.8||15.2||17.3||18.5||17.4||171.6|
Hurricanes occasionally hit the islands, with the Atlantic hurricane season running from June to November.
On 6 September 2017, Hurricane Irma struck the islands, causing extensive damage, especially on Tortola, and killing four people. The Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency declared a state of emergency. Visiting Tortola on 13 September 2017, UK Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson said that he was reminded of photos of Hiroshima after it had been hit by the atom bomb.
By 8 September, the UK government sent troops with medical supplies and other aid. More troops were expected to arrive a day or two later, but HMS Ocean, carrying more extensive assistance, was not expected to reach the islands for another two weeks.
Entrepreneur Richard Branson, a resident of Necker Island, called on the UK government to develop a massive disaster recovery plan to include "both through short-term aid and long-term infrastructure spending". Premier Orlando Smith also called for a comprehensive aid package to rebuild the territory. On 10 September UK Prime Minister Theresa May pledged £32 million to the Caribbean for a hurricane relief fund and promised that the UK government would match donations from the public to the British Red Cross appeal. Specifics were not provided to the news media as to the amount that would be allocated to the Virgin Islands. Boris Johnson's visit to Tortola on 13 September 2017 during his Caribbean tour was intended to confirm the UK's commitment to helping restore British islands but he provided no additional comments on the aid package. He did confirm that HMS Ocean had departed for the BVI carrying items like timber, buckets, bottled water, food, baby milk, bedding and clothing, as well as ten pickup trucks, building materials and hardware.
The UK offered to underwrite rebuilding loans up to US$400m as long as there was accountability as to how the monies were spent. Successive NDP and VIP governments declined, despite there having been created a Recovery & Development Authority led by highly skilled infrastructure personnel, many of whom were ex-military with decades of infrastructure rebuilding expertise from war zones and natural disaster sites. Many wealthy residents also proposed a large rebuilding plan, starting with key infrastructure, such as the high school. Nearly five years later, there was no sign of any such rebuilding of the high school or certain other key infrastructure.
The territory operates as a parliamentary democracy. Ultimate executive authority in the British Virgin Islands is vested in the King, and is exercised on his behalf by the Governor of the British Virgin Islands. The governor is appointed by the King on the advice of the British Government. Defence and most foreign affairs remain the responsibility of the United Kingdom.
The most recent constitution was adopted in 2007 (the Virgin Islands Constitution Order, 2007) and came into force when the Legislative Council was dissolved for the 2007 general election. The head of government under the constitution is the Premier (before the new constitution the office was referred to as Chief Minister), who is elected in a general election along with the other members of the ruling government as well as the members of the opposition. Elections are held roughly every four years. A cabinet is nominated by the Premier and appointed and chaired by the Governor. The Legislature consists of the King (represented by the Governor) and a unicameral House of Assembly made up of 13 elected members plus the Speaker and the Attorney General.
The British Virgin Islands is a unitary territory. The territory is divided into nine electoral districts, and each voter is registered in one of those districts. Eight of the nine districts are partly or wholly on Tortola, and encompass nearby neighbouring islands. Only the ninth district (Virgin Gorda and Anegada) does not include any part of Tortola. At elections, in addition to voting their local representative, voters also cast votes for four "at-large" candidates who are elected upon a territory-wide basis.
The territory is also technically divided into five administrative districts (one for each of the four largest islands, with the fifth covering all other islands), and into six civil registry districts (three for Tortola, Jost Van Dyke, Virgin Gorda and Anegada) although these have little practical relevance.
Law and criminal justice
Crime in the British Virgin Islands is comparatively low by Caribbean standards. Whilst statistics and hard data are relatively rare, and are not regularly published by governmental sources in the British Virgin Islands, the Premier did announce that in 2013 there has been a 14% decline in recorded crime as against 2012. Homicides are rare, with just one incident recorded in 2013.
The Virgin Islands Prison Service operates a single facility, His Majesty's Prison in East End, Tortola.
The British and US Virgin Islands sit at the axis of a major drugs transshipment point between Latin America and the continental United States. The American Drug Enforcement Administration regards the adjacent US territories of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands as a "High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area". A co-operation agreement exists between the British Virgin Islands and the US Coast Guard allowing American forces to pursue suspected drug traffickers through the territorial waters of the British Virgin Islands. In August 2011 a joint raid between the American DEA and the Royal Virgin Islands Police Force arrested a number of British Virgin Islands residents who are accused of being involved in major drugs transshipments, although their extradition to the United States has since become stalled in protracted legal wrangling.
As a British Overseas territory, defence of the islands is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.
The twin pillars of the economy are financial services (60%) and tourism (roughly 40-45% of GDP). Politically, tourism is the more important of the two, as it employs a greater number of people within the territory, and a larger proportion of the businesses in the tourist industry are locally owned, as are a number of the highly tourism-dependent sole traders (for example, taxi drivers and street vendors).
Economically however, financial services associated with the territory's status as an offshore financial centre are by far the more important. 51.8% of the Government's revenue comes directly from licence fees for offshore companies, and considerable further sums are raised directly or indirectly from payroll taxes relating to salaries paid within the trust industry sector (which tend to be higher on average than those paid in the tourism sector).
The British Virgin Islands enjoys one of the more prosperous economies of the Caribbean region, with a per capita average income of around $42,300 (2010 est.) The average monthly income earned by a worker in the territory was US$2,452 as at the time of the 2010 Census. 29% of the population fell into the "low income" category.
Although it is common to hear criticism in the British Virgin Islands' press about income inequality, no serious attempt has been made by economists to calculate a Gini coefficient or similar measure of income equality for the territory. A report from 2000 suggested that, despite the popular perception, income inequality was actually lower in the British Virgin Islands than in any other OECS state, although in global terms income equality is higher in the Caribbean than in many other regions.
Tourism accounts for approximately 45% of national income. The islands are a popular destination for US citizens. Tourists frequent the numerous white sand beaches, visit The Baths on Virgin Gorda, snorkel the coral reefs near Anegada, or experience the well-known bars of Jost Van Dyke. The BVI are known as one of the world's greatest sailing destinations, and charter sailboats are a very popular way to visit less accessible islands. Established in 1972, the BVI hosts the BVI Spring Regatta and Sailing Festival. A substantial number of the tourists who visit the BVI are cruise ship passengers, and although they produce far lower revenue per head than charter boat tourists and hotel based tourists, they are nonetheless important to the substantial - and politically important - taxi driving community. Only Virgin Islanders are permitted to work as taxi drivers.
Financial services account for over half of the income of the territory. The majority of this revenue is generated by the licensing of offshore companies and related services. The British Virgin Islands is a significant global player in the offshore financial services industry. Since 2001, financial services in the British Virgin Islands have been regulated by the independent Financial Services Commission.
The BVI is relied upon for its sophisticated Commercial Court division of the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, as well as the more recent BVI Arbitration Centre. Caribbean KCs and British KCs preside over the majority of important cases and the laws of the Virgin Islands are based on English laws, meaning the jurisdiction provides clarity and consistency should parties require commercial disputes to be resolved. Owing to the international nature of BVI companies' operations and asset holdings, the BVI Commercial Court routinely hears highly sophisticated matters at the cutting edge of cross-border litigation and enforcement, where billions of dollars are at issue.
Citco, also known as the Citco Group of Companies and the Curaçao International Trust Co., is a privately owned global hedge fund administrator headquartered in the British Virgin Islands, founded in 1948. It is the world's largest hedge fund administrator, managing over $1 trillion in assets under administration.
In May 2022, the banking sector of the British Virgin Islands comprised seven commercial banks and one restricted bank, 12 authorised custodians, two licensed money services businesses and one licensed financing service provider.
As such the British Virgin Islands is frequently referred to as a "tax haven" by campaigners and NGOs, including Oxfam, which itself has investment funds registered in lesser regulated jurisdictions such as Lichtenstein and Delaware  and has been expressly named in anti-tax-haven legislation in other countries on various occasions. Successive governments in the British Virgin Islands have implemented tax exchange agreements and verified beneficial ownership information of companies following the 2013 G8 summit putting their governance and regulatory regimes far ahead of many "onshore" jurisdictions.
On 10 September 2013, British Prime Minister David Cameron said "I do not think it is fair any longer to refer to any of the Overseas Territories or Crown Dependencies as tax havens. They have taken action to make sure that they have fair and open tax systems. It is very important that our focus should now shift to those territories and countries that really are tax havens." Yet journalist and author for The Economist, Nicholas Shaxson, writes in his 2016 Treasure Islands, tax havens and the men who stole the world: "...Britain sits, spider-like, at the centre of a vast international web of tax havens, which hoover up trillions of dollars' worth of business and capital from around the globe and funnel it up to the City of London. The British Crown Dependencies and Overseas Territories - ...the British Virgin Islands... are some of the biggest players in the offshore world."(pp. vii-viii) Shaxson points out that despite BVI having fewer than 25000 inhabitants, hosts over 800,000 companies. "Companies and capital migrate not where they are most productive, but to where they can get the best tax break...and the worlds top secrecy jurisdictions" (pp. 13, 16). For example, News Corporation had 62 subsidiaries in the British Virgin Islands, 33 in Cayman and 21 in Hong Kong, while the Commonwealth Development Corporation has 78 subsidiaries in tax havens including the British Virgin Islands. The British Virgin Islands is a "top secrecy jurisdiction, actively supported and managed from Britain and intimately linked to the City of London."(Ibid., p. 90). For these reasons, Shaxson says that "tax havens help explain why international investment flows often look so strange. The two biggest sources of foreign investment into China in 2007 were not Japan, or the US or South Korea, but Hong Kong and the British Virgin Islands."(Ibid., p. 164).
In the April 2016 Panama Papers leak, while all of the wrongdoing by Mossack Fonseca personnel occurred in Panama and the US, the British Virgin Islands was by far the most commonly-used jurisdiction by clients of Mossack Fonseca.
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act
On 30 June 2014, The British Virgin Islands was deemed to have an Inter- Governmental Agreement (IGA) with the United States of America with respect to the "Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act" of the United States of America.
The Model 1 Agreement (14 Pages) recognizes that: The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland provided a copy of the Letter of Entrustment which was sent to the Government of the British Virgin Islands, to the Government of the United States of America "via diplomatic note of 28 May 2014".
The Letter of Entrustment dated 14 July 2010 was originally provided to the Government of the British Virgin Islands and authorised the Government of the BVI "to negotiate and conclude Agreements relating to taxation that provide for exchange of information on tax matters to the OECD standard" (Paragraph 2 of the FATCA Agreement). Via an "Entrustment Letter" dated 24 March 2014, The Government of the United Kingdom, authorised the Government of the BVI to sign an agreement on information exchange to facilitate the Implementation of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act. On 27 March 2017, the US Treasury site disclosed that the Model 1 agreement and related agreement were "In Force" on 13 July 2015.
Sanctions and Anti-Money Laundering Act
Under the UK Sanctions and Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2018, beneficial ownership of companies in British overseas territories such as the British Virgin Islands must be publicly registered for disclosure by 31 December 2020. The Government of the British Virgin Islands plans to challenge this law, arguing that it violates the Constitutional sovereignty granted to the islands, would in practice be relatively ineffective in anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism financing and would raise serious privacy and human rights issues. Further, this would put the British Virgin Islands in a position where it would be at a severe disadvantage because other International Finance Centres do not have this in place, and in the case of the US and the UK, there is very little near-term prospect of the same.
Agriculture and industry
Agriculture and industry account for only a small proportion of the islands' GDP. Agricultural produce includes fruit, vegetables, sugar cane, livestock and poultry, and industries include rum distillation, construction and boat building. Commercial fishing is also practised in the islands' waters.
The British Virgin Islands is heavily dependent on migrant workers, and over 50% of all workers on the islands are of a foreign descent. Only 37% of the entire population were born in the territory. The national labour-force is estimated at 12,770, of whom approximately 59.4% work in the service sector but less than 0.6% are estimated to work in agriculture (the balance working in industry). The British Virgin Islands has met challenges in recruiting sufficient numbers in recent years, having been affected by hurricanes Irma and Maria, and having continued to lag behind other jurisdictions in providing a reliable permanent residence regime. This has had a knock-on effect in limiting schooling and amenities when compared to IFCs like Cayman, UAE, Singapore, Hong Kong.
CARICOM status and the CARICOM Single Market Economy
As of 2 July 1991, the British Virgin Islands holds Associate Member status in CARICOM, the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME).
In recognition of the CARICOM (Free Movement) Skilled Persons Act which came into effect in July 1997 in some of the CARICOM countries such as Jamaica and which has been adopted in other CARICOM countries, such as Trinidad and Tobago, it is possible that CARICOM nationals who hold the "A Certificate of Recognition of Caribbean Community Skilled Person" may be allowed to work in the BVI under normal working conditions.
There are 113 kilometres (70 mi) of roads. The main airport, Terrance B. Lettsome International Airport, also known as Beef Island Airport, is located on Beef Island, which lies off the eastern tip of Tortola and is accessible by the Queen Elizabeth II Bridge. Cape Air, and Air Sunshine are among the airlines offering scheduled service. Virgin Gorda and Anegada have their own smaller airports. Private air charter services operated by Island Birds Air Charter fly directly to all three islands from any major airport in the Caribbean. Helicopters are used to get to islands with no runway facilities; Antilles Helicopter Services is the only helicopter service based in the country.
The main harbour is in Road Town. There are also ferries that operate within the British Virgin Islands and to the neighbouring United States Virgin Islands. Cars in the British Virgin Islands drive on the left just as they do in the United Kingdom and the United States Virgin Islands. However, most cars are left hand drive, because they are from the United States. The roads are often quite steep, narrow and winding, and ruts, mudslides and rockfall can be a problem when it rains.
As of the 2010 Census, the population of the territory was 28,054. Estimates put the population at 35,800 (July 2018) yet in 2022, it is thought to be much less than 30,000 post-Irma and with people having left during COVID lockdowns due to unemployment in the tourism industry. The majority of the population (76.9%) are Afro-Caribbean, descended from slaves brought to the islands by the British. Other large ethnic groups include Latinos (5.6%), those of European ancestry (5.4%), Mixed ancestry (5.4%) and Indian (2.1%).
The 2010 Census reports:
The 2010 Census reports the main places of origin of residents as follows:
- 39.1% local born (though note that many locals go to St. Thomas or the United States for maternity services)
- 7.2% Guyana
- 7.0% St. Vincent and the Grenadines
- 6.0% Jamaica
- 5.5% United States
- 5.4% Dominican Republic
- 5.3% United States Virgin Islands
The islands are heavily dependent upon migrant labour. In 2004, migrant workers accounted for 50% of the total population. 32% of workers employed in the British Virgin Islands work for the government.
Unusually, the territory has one of the highest drowning mortality rates in the world, being higher than other high-risk countries such as China and India. 20% of deaths in the British Virgin Islands during 2012 were recorded as drownings, all of them being tourists. Despite this, the territory's most popular beach still has no lifeguard presence.
Over 90% of the population who indicated a religious affiliation at the 2010 Census were Christian with the largest individual Christian denominations being Methodist (17.6%), Anglican (9.5%), Church of God (10.4%) and Roman Catholic (8.9%). The largest non-Christian faiths in 2010 were Hinduism (1.9%) and Islam (0.9%). However Hindus and Muslims constitute each approximately 1.2% of the population according to Word Religion Database 2005.
|Church of God||10.4||11.4||9.2|
|Seventh Day Adventist||9.0||8.4||6.3|
The British Virgin Islands operates several government schools as well as private schools. There is also a community college, H. Lavity Stoutt Community College, that is located on the eastern end of Tortola. This college was named after Lavity Stoutt, the first Chief Minister of the British Virgin Islands. There remains segregation in the school system; while BVIslander and Belonger children make up a significant proportion of pupils in private schools, Non-Belongers are prohibited from attending government schools. It is extremely common for students from the British Virgin Islands to travel overseas for secondary and tertiary education, either to the University of the West Indies, or to colleges and universities in either the United Kingdom, United States or Canada. Coaching in certain sports, such as athletics, squash and football is of a high level.
The literacy rate in the British Virgin Islands is high at 98%.
The traditional music of the British Virgin Islands is called fungi after the local cornmeal dish with the same name, often made with okra. The special sound of fungi is due to a unique local fusion between African and European music. It functions as a medium of local history and folklore and is therefore a cherished cultural form of expression that is part of the curriculum in BVI schools. The fungi bands, also called "scratch bands", use instruments ranging from calabash, washboard, bongos and ukulele, to more traditional western instruments like keyboard, banjo, guitar, bass, triangle and saxophone. Apart from being a form of festive dance music, fungi often contains humorous social commentaries, as well as BVI oral history.
Because of its location and climate, the British Virgin Islands has long been a haven for sailing enthusiasts. Sailing is regarded as one of the foremost sports in all of the BVI. Calm waters and steady breezes provide some of the best sailing conditions in the Caribbean.
Many sailing events are held in the waters of this country, the largest of which is a week-long series of races called the Spring Regatta, the premier sailing event of the Caribbean, with several races hosted each day. Boats include everything from full-size mono-hull yachts to dinghies. Captains and their crews come from all around the world to attend these races. The Spring Regatta is part race, part party, part festival. The Spring Regatta is normally held during the first week of April.
Since 2009, the BVI have made a name for themselves as a host of international basketball events. The BVI hosted three of the last four events of the Caribbean Basketball Championship (FIBA CBC Championship).
- The BVI Beacon "Portrait of a population: 2010 Census published" p. 4, 20 November 2014
- "British Virgin Islands". The World Factbook (2022 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. 22 April 2022.
- "British Virgin Islands". The World Factbook (2022 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 July 2019. (Archived 2019 edition)
- According to the Virgin Islands Constitution Order, 2007, the territory's official name is simply 'Virgin Islands'.
- "Encyclopedia Britannica - BVI". Retrieved 13 July 2019.
- Moll, Peter (15 December 2016). "Victorian news mined for VI history". BVI Beacon.
- "About the Territory". Government of the Virgin Islands. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Wilson, Samuel M. ed. The Indigenous People of the Caribbean. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. ISBN 0-8130-1692-4
- "Government of the Virgin Islands - Our History". Retrieved 13 July 2019.
- Meditz, Sandra; Hanratty, Dennis (1987). "British Virgin Islands, Anguilla and Montserrat". countrystudies.us. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- In the United Kingdom, a major market for sugar from the territory, the Sugar Duties Act 1846 also created a considerable downward effect on the price of Caribbean sugar cane.
- Eliza Mackintosh and Donie O'Sullivan (12 September 2017). "Don't forget about us: Irma's desperate Caribbean survivors". CNN.
- Dinerstein, Eric; et al. (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
- "Station: Charlotte Amalie AP, VI VQ". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
- "Richard Branson 'devastated' about Hurricane Irma destruction". 7 September 2017.
- Eliza Mackintosh; Donie O'Sullivan (11 September 2017). "Don't forget about us: Irma's desperate Caribbean survivors". CNN.
- "Paradise lost: Tortola seeks UK aid after Irma". Sky News.
- "British Virgin Islands financial centre hit hard by Irma". Financial Times. 10 September 2017. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
- Bosotti, Aurora (8 September 2017). "Hurricane Irma damage UPDATE: British Virgin Islands Destroyed by deadly storm". Daily Express.
- "Boris Johnson reminded of Hiroshima on visit to Irma-hit Tortola". Sky News.
- (now), Naaman Zhou; Yuhas, Alan; Weaver, Matthew; Farrer, Martin; (earlier), and Martin Pengelly; Pilkington, Ed (12 September 2017). "Caribbean in chaos as Irma brings floods to Florida Keys – as it happened". The Guardian.
- Farmer, Ben; Swinford, Steven (8 September 2017). "British response to Hurricane Irma 'found wanting', senior MPs say, as Royal Navy arrives in Caribbean". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022.
- (now), Naaman Zhou; Yuhas, Alan; Weaver, Matthew; Farrer, Martin; (earlier), and Martin Pengelly (12 September 2017). "Caribbean in chaos as Irma brings floods to Florida Keys – as it happened". The Guardian.
- Hilary Clarke; Samantha Beech (11 September 2017). "European leaders step up Irma relief effort in Caribbean". CNN.
- Siddique, Haroon; Pengelly, Martin (11 September 2017). "What we know so far as Hurricane Irma lashes Florida". The Guardian.
- "Hurricane Irma: Foreign Secretary's visit to the UK Overseas Territories in the Caribbean - GOV.UK". Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "French, British officials view Irma's damage, vow island aid". 14 September 2017. Archived from the original on 14 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- Stinson, Nicole (14 September 2017). "Hurricane Irma: British marines hunt Caribbean prison inmates after storm jailbreak".
- "Explanatory Memorandum to the Virgin Islands Constitution Order 2007" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- "The Virgin Islands Constitution Order 2007".
- "British Virgin Islands: UK decides against direct rule of territory". BBC News. 8 June 2022. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
- "The Virgin Islands Constitution Order 2007" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
- "Crimes down by 14% – Premier". BVI News. 13 January 2014. Archived from the original on 15 January 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "How safe is the Caribbean? An Island by Island Look". International Business Times. 22 December 2011.
- "Her Majesty's Prison". Government of the British Virgin Islands. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
Her Majesty's Prison P.O. Box 627 East End, Tortola Virgin Islands (British) VG1120
- "US sees shift in cocaine trafficking". BVI Beacon. 9 February 2012.
- US Justice Department (25 August 2011). "Thirteen Indicted for Airdropping Multi-Hundred Kilogram Quantities of Cocaine in the Caribbean Sea and for Money Laundering Offenses". Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "Three Years On & Extradition Proceedings Still Unsettled". BVI Platinum. 8 September 2014.
- "New Company Incorporations Down But Premier Remains Optimistic". 14 March 2010. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
- "Encyclopedia Britannica - BVI". Retrieved 13 July 2019.
- "Government of the Virgin Islands- Our Economy". Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- CIA. Economy: British Virgin Islands. The World Factbook, CIA publications, 19 December. 2006. Retrieved 25 December. 2006.
- Dennis C. Canterbury (2010). European Bloc Imperialism. ISBN 978-9004184954.
- "News". BVI Sprint Regatta & Sailing Festival. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
- Review of Financial Regulation in the Crown Dependencies (Cmnd Paper 4855 of 2000). HMSO. 2000. Part III, paragraph 1.3. ISBN 0-10-148554-9. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- Halah Touryalai (6 April 2011). "Protection Racket," Forbes.
- Ambrogio Visconti (4 March 2019). "Firefighters' Retirement System v. Citco Group Limited". Global Legal Chronicle.
- "Banking & Fiduciary". British Virgin Islands Financial Services Commission. 12 October 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
- "Annual Report 2012 (Final)". bvifsc.vg. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- Leigh, David; Frayman, Harold; Ball, James (25 November 2012). "Offshore secrets: British Virgin Islands, land of sand, sea and secrecy". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- See for example the Stop Tax Haven Abuse Act
- International Adviser (12 September 2013). "Jersey, Guernsey, IoM revel in Cameron's 'not tax havens' comments". Archived from the original on 17 November 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013."David Cameron: Crown dependency tax haven banner 'not fair'". BBC News. 10 September 2013.
- "An Ill Wind". IFC Review.
- Karmanau, Yuras (4 April 2016). "Ukrainian president under fire over Panama Papers". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- "Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA)". treasury.gov.
- "Agreement Between the Government of the British Virgin Islands to Improve Tax Compliance and to Implement FATCA" (PDF). treasury.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
- Walters2018-06-06T10:19:00+01:00, Max. "Overseas territories to fight public register demands". Law Gazette.
- "British Virgin Islands – workforce". The Times. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- CARICOM Secretariat. "Country Profiles – British Virgin Islands". CARICOM – Caribbean Community. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
- CARICOM Secretariat. "Caribbean Community (CARICOM)". caricom.org.
- "Caribbean Single Market Economy (CSME)". Ministry of Labour and Social Security.
- "CSME". Immigration Division Ministry of National Security. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
- "How to Apply for a CARICOM Skills Certificate". Caribbeanjobs.com. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
- "Airlines-BVI Airport". bviaa.com. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- "Private Air Charter throughout the entire Caribbean". Island Birds. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- "British Virgin Islands (British Overseas Territory) travel advice". Government of the United Kingdom.
- "Virgin Islands 2010 Population and Housing Census Report" (PDF). Virgin Islands: Government of the Virgin Islands. 2010. p. 63. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
- "Managing Highly-Skilled Labour Migration". OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers. 18 March 2009. doi:10.1787/225505346577. ISSN 1815-199X.
- Thomas-Hope, Elizabeth (2002). Skilled labour migration from developing countries study on the Caribbean Region. International Migration Programme, International Labour Office. ISBN 92-2-113282-X. OCLC 493627212.
- ""Drowning", publication World Health Organization" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- The BVI Beacon, Thursday, 15 August 2013 article entitled "Report: Passports up, marriages down last year".
- Annual Report of the Civil Registry and Passport Office for 2012 which includes "For the 20 per cent that represented drowning, all were tourists who died from snorkelling or diving in the VI waters in and around caves at Norman Island, as well as near Virgin Gorda...The Virgin Islands should, therefore put safety measures in place such as the dissemination of information to hotels, dive shops and marinas." The same report confirms that the deaths of 86 persons were recorded in the territory during 2012.
- "No lifeguards at Cane Garden Bay & Virgin Gorda beaches". virginislandsnewsonline.com.
- The BVI Beacon "Portrait of a population: 2010 Census published" pg. 6, 20 November 2014
- Virgin Islands 2010 Population and Housing Census Report (PDF). pp. 58–61. Retrieved 23 November 2022.
- cited in "Mapping the Global Muslim Population" (PDF). Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- The second paragraphs of the recitals (appearing between Article 1 and Article 2) contains the words: "[T]he society of the Virgin Islands is based upon certain moral, spiritual and democratic values including a belief in God".
- British Virgin Islands Schools Archived 23 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine, BVI Government website
- "The Open Campus in British Virgin Islands - Open Campus". open.uwi.edu.
- Penn, Dexter J.A. Music of the British Virgin Islands: Fungi Archived 26 May 2012 at archive.today. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
- "The Best Sailing". Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- "Yacht Races". vacationtortola.com.
- "VI set to host 2015 Caribbean Basketball Confederation Championships". bviolympics.org. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
- British Virgin Islands from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- British Virgin Islands at Curlie
- British Virgin Islands Guide from The Moorings
- NGO sources
- "Non-Self-Governing Territories listed by General Assembly in 2002". United Nations Special Committee of 24 on Decolonization. Retrieved 10 March 2005.
- Official websites and overviews
- Government of the British Virgin Islands official website
- British Virgin Islands - London Office
- Old Government House Museum, British Virgin Islands
- British Virgin Islands Tourist Board
- National Parks Trust of the British Virgin Islands—Official site
- British Virgin Islands Financial Services Commission—Official site
- The British Virgin Islands Ports Authority—Official site
- British Virgin Islands. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Wikimedia content