|King of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms|
|Reign||8 September 2022 – present|
|Heir apparent||William, Prince of Wales|
|Prime ministers||See list|
|Born||Prince Charles of Edinburgh|
14 November 1948
Buckingham Palace, London, United Kingdom
|Father||Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh|
|Alma mater||Trinity College, Cambridge (MA)|
|Allegiance||United Kingdom[fn 3]|
|Commands held||HMS Bronington|
|Royal family of|
the United Kingdom and the
other Commonwealth realms
Charles III (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is King of the United Kingdom and 14 other Commonwealth realms.[fn 4] He acceded to the throne on 8 September 2022 upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II. He was the longest-serving heir apparent in British history and, at the age of 73, is the oldest person to ascend the British throne.
Charles was born in Buckingham Palace during the reign of his maternal grandfather, King George VI. Charles was three when his mother ascended the throne in 1952, making him the heir apparent. In 1958, he was made Prince of Wales, and his investiture was held in 1969. He was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun schools, as was his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Charles later spent a year at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cambridge, Charles served in the Air Force and Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer, with whom he had two sons, William and Harry. In 1996, the couple divorced after they had each engaged in well-publicised extramarital affairs. In 2005, Charles married his long-time partner, Camilla Parker Bowles.
As Prince of Wales, Charles undertook official duties on behalf of Queen Elizabeth II. He founded the youth charity the Prince's Trust in 1976, sponsors the Prince's Charities, and is a patron, president, or a member of over 400 other charities and organisations. He has advocated for the conservation of historic buildings and the importance of architecture in society. A critic of modernist architecture, Charles worked on the creation of Poundbury, an experimental new town based on his architectural tastes. He is also an author or co-author of over 20 books. An environmentalist, Charles supported organic farming and action to prevent climate change during his time as the manager of the Duchy of Cornwall estates, earning him awards and recognition from environmental groups. He is also a prominent critic of the adoption of genetically modified food. Charles's support for homeopathy and other alternative medicine has been the subject of criticism. Following allegations concerning the offering of honours and British citizenship to donors, the conduct of one of his charities, the Prince's Foundation, attracted criticism; currently, the charity is the subject of an ongoing Metropolitan Police investigation into cash-for-honours allegations.
Early life, family and education
Charles was born at 21:14 (GMT) on 14 November 1948, during the reign of his maternal grandfather, George VI. He was the first child of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh (later Elizabeth II), and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. His parents would have three additional children, Anne (born 1950), Andrew (born 1960) and Edward (born 1964). On 15 December 1948, at four weeks old, he was christened in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher.[fn 5]
In February 1952, upon the death of his grandfather and the accession of his mother as Queen Elizabeth II, Charles became the heir apparent. Under a charter of King Edward III in 1337, and as the monarch's eldest son, he automatically assumed the traditional titles of the Duke of Cornwall and, in the Scottish peerage, the titles Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. On 2 June 1953, Charles attended his mother's coronation at Westminster Abbey.
When he turned five, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed to oversee his education at Buckingham Palace. On 7 November 1956, Charles commenced classes at Hill House School in west London. He was the first heir apparent to attend school rather than be educated by a private tutor. He did not receive preferential treatment from the school's founder and headmaster, Stuart Townend, who advised the Queen to have Charles train in football because the boys were never deferential to anyone on the football field. Charles then attended two of his father's former schools, Cheam Preparatory School in Hampshire, England, from 1958, followed by Gordonstoun in the north-east of Scotland, beginning classes there in April 1962.
In his 1994 authorised biography by Jonathan Dimbleby, Elizabeth and Philip were described as physically and emotionally distant parents, and Philip was blamed for his disregard of Charles's sensitive nature and forcing him to attend Gordonstoun, where he was bullied. Though Charles reportedly described Gordonstoun, noted for its especially rigorous curriculum, as "Colditz in kilts", he subsequently praised Gordonstoun, stating it had taught him "a great deal about myself and my own abilities and disabilities. It taught me to accept challenges and take the initiative." In a 1975 interview, he said he was "glad" he had attended Gordonstoun and that the "toughness of the place" was "much exaggerated". He spent two terms in 1966 at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia, during which time he visited Papua New Guinea on a school trip with his history tutor, Michael Collins Persse. In 1973, Charles described his time at Timbertop as the most enjoyable part of his whole education. Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming head boy. He left in 1967 with six GCE O-levels and two A-levels in history and French, at grades B and C respectively. On his early education, Charles later remarked, "I didn't enjoy school as much as I might have, but that was only because I'm happier at home than anywhere else."
Charles broke royal tradition a second time when he proceeded straight to university after his A-levels, rather than joining the British Armed Forces. In October 1967, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he read archaeology and anthropology for the first part of the Tripos, and then changed to history for the second part. During his second year, Charles attended the University College of Wales in Aberystwyth, studying Welsh history and language for a term. He graduated from the University of Cambridge with a 2:2 Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree on 23 June 1970, the first British heir apparent to earn a university degree. On 2 August 1975, he was awarded a Master of Arts (MA Cantab) degree by Cambridge. At Cambridge, Master of Arts is an academic rank, not a postgraduate degree.
Prince of Wales
Charles was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 26 July 1958, though his investiture was not held until 1 July 1969, when he was crowned by his mother in a televised ceremony held at Caernarfon Castle. He took his seat in the House of Lords in 1970, and he made his maiden speech in June 1974, the first royal to speak from the floor since the future Edward VII in 1884. He spoke again in 1975. Charles began to take on more public duties, founding the Prince's Trust in 1976, and travelling to the United States in 1981. In the mid-1970s, Charles expressed an interest in serving as Governor-General of Australia, at the suggestion of Australian prime minister Malcolm Fraser, but because of a lack of public enthusiasm nothing came of the proposal. Charles commented: "So, what are you supposed to think when you are prepared to do something to help and you are just told you're not wanted?"
Military training and career
Charles served in the Royal Air Force and, following in the footsteps of his father, grandfather and two of his great-grandfathers, in the Royal Navy. During his second year at Cambridge, he requested and received Royal Air Force training, learning to fly the Chipmunk aircraft with Cambridge University Air Squadron. On 8 March 1971, he flew himself to the Royal Air Force College Cranwell to train as a jet pilot. After the passing-out parade that September, he embarked on a naval career and enrolled in a six-week course at the Royal Naval College Dartmouth. He then served on the guided-missile destroyer HMS Norfolk (1971–1972) and the frigates HMS Minerva (1972–1973) and HMS Jupiter (1974). In 1974, he qualified as a helicopter pilot at RNAS Yeovilton, and then joined 845 Naval Air Squadron, operating from HMS Hermes. He gave up flying after crash-landing a BAe 146 in Islay in 1994, for which the crew was found negligent by a board of inquiry.
Relationships and marriages
In his youth, Charles was amorously linked to a number of women. His great-uncle Lord Mountbatten advised him:
In a case like yours, the man should sow his wild oats and have as many affairs as he can before settling down, but for a wife he should choose a suitable, attractive and sweet-charactered girl before she has met anyone else she might fall for ... It is disturbing for women to have experiences if they have to remain on a pedestal after marriage.
Charles's girlfriends included Georgiana Russell, the daughter of Sir John Russell, who was British ambassador to Spain; Lady Jane Wellesley, the daughter of the 8th Duke of Wellington; Davina Sheffield; Lady Sarah Spencer; and Camilla Shand, who later became his second wife.
Early in 1974, Mountbatten began corresponding with Charles about a potential marriage to Amanda Knatchbull, who was Mountbatten's granddaughter. Charles wrote to Amanda's mother—Lady Brabourne, who was also his godmother—expressing interest in her daughter, to which she replied approvingly, though she suggested that a courtship with the not yet 17-year-old girl was premature. Four years later, Mountbatten arranged for Amanda and himself to accompany Charles on his 1980 tour of India. Both fathers, however, objected; Philip feared that Charles would be eclipsed by his famous uncle (who had served as the last British Viceroy and first Governor-General of India), while Lord Brabourne warned that a joint visit would concentrate media attention on the cousins before they could decide on becoming a couple. However, in August 1979, before Charles would depart alone for India, Mountbatten was assassinated by the Irish Republican Army. When Charles returned, he proposed to Amanda, but in addition to her grandfather, she had lost her paternal grandmother and youngest brother Nicholas in the bomb attack and was now reluctant to join the royal family. In June 1980, Charles officially turned down Chevening House, placed at his disposal since 1974, as his future residence. Chevening, a stately home in Kent, was bequeathed, along with an endowment, to the Crown by the last Earl Stanhope, Amanda's childless great-uncle, in the hope that Charles would eventually occupy it. In 1977, a newspaper report mistakenly announced his engagement to Princess Marie-Astrid of Luxembourg.
Marriage to Lady Diana Spencer
Charles first met Lady Diana Spencer in 1977 while he was visiting her home, Althorp. He was the companion of her elder sister, Sarah, and did not consider Diana romantically until mid-1980. While Charles and Diana were sitting together on a bale of hay at a friend's barbecue in July, she mentioned that he had looked forlorn and in need of care at the funeral of his granduncle Lord Mountbatten. Soon, according to Charles's chosen biographer, Jonathan Dimbleby, "without any apparent surge in feeling, he began to think seriously of her as a potential bride", and she accompanied Charles on visits to Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House.
Charles's cousin Norton Knatchbull and his wife told Charles that Diana appeared awestruck by his position and that he did not seem to be in love with her. Meanwhile, the couple's continuing courtship attracted intense attention from the press and paparazzi. When Prince Philip told him that the media speculation would injure Diana's reputation if Charles did not come to a decision about marrying her soon, and realising that she was a suitable royal bride (according to Mountbatten's criteria), Charles construed his father's advice as a warning to proceed without further delay.
Charles proposed to Diana in February 1981; she accepted and they married in St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July of that year. Upon his marriage, Charles reduced his voluntary tax contribution from the profits generated by the Duchy of Cornwall from 50% to 25%. The couple lived at Kensington Palace and at Highgrove House, near Tetbury, and had two children: Princes William (b. 1982) and Henry (known as "Harry") (b. 1984). Charles set a precedent by being the first royal father to be present at his children's births.
Within five years, the marriage was in trouble due to the couple's incompatibility and near 13-year age difference. By November 1986, Charles had fully resumed his affair with Camilla Parker Bowles (née Shand). In a videotape recorded by Peter Settelen in 1992, Diana admitted that by 1986, she had been "deeply in love with someone who worked in this environment." It is thought she was referring to Barry Mannakee, who was transferred to the Diplomatic Protection Squad in 1986 after his managers had determined that his relationship with Diana had been inappropriate. Diana later commenced a relationship with Major James Hewitt, the family's former riding instructor. Charles and Diana's evident discomfort in each other's company led to them being dubbed "The Glums" by the press. Diana exposed Charles's affair with Camilla in a book by Andrew Morton, Diana, Her True Story. Audio tapes of her own extramarital flirtations also surfaced. Persistent suggestions that Hewitt is Prince Harry's father have been based on a physical similarity between Hewitt and Harry. However, Harry had already been born by the time Diana's affair with Hewitt began.
Legal separation and divorce
In December 1992, British prime minister John Major announced the couple's legal separation in Parliament. Earlier that year, the British press had published transcripts of a passionate bugged telephone conversation between Charles and Camilla from 1989, which was dubbed Camillagate by the press. Charles sought public understanding in a television film, Charles: The Private Man, the Public Role, with Jonathan Dimbleby that was broadcast on 29 June 1994. In an interview in the film, he confirmed his own extramarital affair with Camilla, saying that he had rekindled their association in 1986 only after his marriage to Diana had "irretrievably broken down". This was followed by Diana's own admission of marital troubles in an interview with the BBC current affairs show Panorama, broadcast on 20 November 1995. Referring to Charles's relationship with Camilla, she said: "Well, there were three of us in this marriage, so it was a bit crowded." She also expressed doubt about her husband's suitability for kingship. Charles and Diana divorced on 28 August 1996, after being formally advised by the Queen in December 1995 to end the marriage. Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris on 31 August of the following year; Charles flew to Paris with Diana's sisters to accompany her body back to Britain.
Marriage to Camilla Parker Bowles
The engagement of Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles was announced on 10 February 2005; he presented her with an engagement ring that had belonged to his grandmother. The Queen's consent to the marriage (as required by the Royal Marriages Act 1772) was recorded in a Privy Council meeting on 2 March. In Canada, the Department of Justice announced its decision that the Queen's Privy Council for Canada was not required to meet to give its consent to the marriage, as the union would not result in offspring and would have no impact on the succession to the Canadian throne.
Charles was the only member of the royal family to have a civil rather than a church wedding in England. Government documents from the 1950s and 1960s, published by the BBC, stated that such a marriage was illegal, though these were dismissed by Charles's spokesman, and explained to be obsolete by the sitting government.
The marriage was scheduled to take place in a civil ceremony at Windsor Castle, with a subsequent religious blessing at St George's Chapel. The venue was subsequently changed to Windsor Guildhall, because a civil marriage at Windsor Castle would oblige the venue to be available to anyone who wished to be married there. Four days before the wedding, it was postponed from the originally scheduled date of 8 April until the following day in order to allow Charles and some of the invited dignitaries to attend the funeral of Pope John Paul II.
Charles's parents did not attend the civil marriage ceremony; the Queen's reluctance to attend possibly arose from her position as Supreme Governor of the Church of England. The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh did attend the service of blessing and later held a reception for the newlyweds at Windsor Castle. The blessing, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, was televised.
During his time as Prince of Wales, Charles undertook official duties on behalf of the Queen. He officiated at investitures and attended the funerals of foreign dignitaries. Charles made regular tours of Wales, fulfilling a week of engagements each summer, and attending important national occasions, such as opening the Senedd. The six trustees of the Royal Collection Trust met three times a year under his chairmanship.
In 1970, Charles visited Bermuda to mark the Parliament of Bermuda's 350th anniversary. In his speech to parliament and referring to the actions of Charles I, Charles said "Bearing in mind I am the first Charles to have anything to do with a Parliament for 350 years, I might have turned nasty and dissolved you". Charles also represented the Queen at the independence celebrations in Fiji in 1970, the Bahamas in 1973, Papua New Guinea in 1975, Zimbabwe in 1980, and Brunei in 1984.
In 1983, Christopher John Lewis, who had fired a shot with a .22 rifle at the Queen in 1981, attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital in order to assassinate Charles, who was visiting New Zealand with his first wife Diana and son William. While Charles was visiting Australia on Australia Day in January 1994, David Kang fired two shots at him from a starting pistol in protest of the treatment of several hundred Cambodian asylum seekers held in detention camps. In 1995, Charles became the first member of the royal family to visit the Republic of Ireland in an official capacity. In 1997, Charles represented the Queen at the Hong Kong handover ceremony. At the ceremony, he read the Queen's message to Hong Kongers, which said: "Britain is part of Hong Kong's history and Hong Kong is part of Britain's history. We are also part of each other's future".
In 2000, Charles revived the tradition of the Prince of Wales having an official harpist, in order to foster Welsh talent at playing the harp, the national instrument of Wales. His service to the Canadian Armed Forces permits him to be informed of troop activities, and allows him to visit these troops while in Canada or overseas, taking part in ceremonial occasions. For instance, in 2001 he placed a specially commissioned wreath, made from vegetation taken from French battlefields, at the Canadian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, and in 1981 he became the patron of the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum. At the funeral of Pope John Paul II in 2005, Charles unintentionally caused controversy when he shook hands with Robert Mugabe, the President of Zimbabwe, who had been seated next to him. Charles's office subsequently released a statement saying: "The Prince of Wales was caught by surprise and not in a position to avoid shaking Mr Mugabe's hand. The Prince finds the current Zimbabwean regime abhorrent. He has supported the Zimbabwe Defence and Aid Fund, which works with those being oppressed by the regime. The Prince also recently met Pius Ncube, the Archbishop of Bulawayo, an outspoken critic of the government." In November 2001, Charles was struck in the face with three red carnations by teenager Alina Lebedeva, whilst he was on an official visit to Latvia.
In 2010, Charles represented the Queen at the opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi, India. He attends official events in the United Kingdom in support of Commonwealth countries, such as the Christchurch earthquake memorial service at Westminster Abbey in 2011. From 15 to 17 November 2013, he represented the Queen for the first time at a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
In 2013, Charles donated an unspecified sum of money to the British Red Cross Syria Crisis appeal and DEC Syria appeal, which is run by 14 British charities to help victims of the Syrian civil war. According to The Guardian, it is believed that after turning 65 years old in 2013, Charles donated his state pension to an unnamed charity that supports elderly people. In March 2014, Charles arranged for five million measles-rubella vaccinations for children in the Philippines on the outbreak of measles in South-East Asia. According to Clarence House, Charles was affected by news of the damage caused by Typhoon Yolanda in 2013. International Health Partners, of which he has been Patron since 2004, sent the vaccines, which are believed to protect five million children below the age of five from measles.
Letters sent by Charles to government ministers during 2004 and 2005 – the so-called black spider memos – presented potential embarrassment following a challenge by The Guardian newspaper to release the letters under the Freedom of Information Act 2000. In March 2015, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom decided that Charles's letters must be released. The letters were published by the Cabinet Office on 13 May 2015. Reaction to the memos upon their release was largely supportive of Charles, with little criticism of him. The memos were variously described in the press as "underwhelming" and "harmless" and that their release had "backfired on those who seek to belittle him", with reaction from the public also supportive. In 2015, it was revealed that Charles had access to confidential UK cabinet papers.
Charles and Camilla made their first joint trip to the Republic of Ireland in May 2015. The trip was called an important step in "promoting peace and reconciliation" by the British Embassy. During the trip, Charles shook hands in Galway with Gerry Adams, leader of Sinn Féin and widely believed to be the leader of the IRA, the militant group that had murdered Charles's relatives in a terror attack. The Galway event was described by the media as a "historic handshake" and a "significant moment for Anglo-Irish relations". In the run up to Charles's visit, two Irish republican dissidents were arrested for planning a bomb attack. Semtex and rockets were found at the Dublin home of suspect Donal Ó Coisdealbha, member of a self-styled Óglaigh na hÉireann organisation, who was later jailed for five and a half years. He was connected to a veteran republican, Seamus McGrane of County Louth, a member of the Real IRA, who was jailed for 11 and a half years.
Charles has made frequent visits to Saudi Arabia in order to promote arms exports for companies such as BAE Systems. In 2013, 2014, and 2015, he met with the commander of Saudi Arabia's National Guard Mutaib bin Abdullah. In February 2014, he took part in a traditional sword dance with members of the Saudi royal family at the Janariyah festival in Riyadh. At the same festival, British arms company BAE Systems was honoured by Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz. Charles was criticised by Scottish MP Margaret Ferrier in 2016 over his role in the sale of Typhoon fighter jets to Saudi Arabia. According to Charles's biographer Catherine Mayer, a Time magazine journalist who claims to have interviewed several sources from Charles's inner circle, he "doesn't like being used to market weaponry" in deals with Saudi Arabia and other Arab Gulf states. According to Mayer, Charles has only raised his objections to being used to sell weapons abroad in private. Commonwealth heads of government decided at their 2018 meeting that Charles would be the next Head of the Commonwealth after the Queen. The head is chosen and therefore not hereditary.
On 7 March 2019, the Queen hosted a Buckingham Palace event to mark the 50th anniversary of Charles's investiture as the Prince of Wales. Guests at the event included the Duchess of Cornwall, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, Prime Minister Theresa May and Welsh first minister Mark Drakeford. The same month, at the request of the British government, Charles and Camilla went on an official tour to Cuba, making them the first British royalty to visit the country. The tour was seen as an effort to form a closer relationship between the UK and Cuba.
In January 2020, Charles became the first British patron of the International Rescue Committee, a charity which aims to help refugees and those displaced by war, persecution, or natural disaster. In April 2021 and following a surge in COVID-19 cases in India, Charles issued a statement, announcing the launch of an emergency appeal for India by the British Asian Trust, of which he is the founder. The appeal, called Oxygen for India, helped with buying oxygen concentrators for hospitals in need.
On 25 March 2020, it was announced that Charles had contracted COVID-19 during the pandemic. He and his wife subsequently isolated at their Birkhall residence. Camilla was also tested but returned a negative result. Clarence House stated that he showed "mild symptoms" but "remains in good health". They further explained, "It is not possible to ascertain from whom the prince caught the virus owing to the high number of engagements he carried out in his public role during recent weeks." Several newspapers were critical that Charles and Camilla were tested promptly at a time when many NHS doctors, nurses and patients had been unable to be tested expeditiously. On 30 March 2020, Clarence House announced that Charles had recovered from the virus, and that, after consulting his doctor, he was no longer isolating. Two days later, he stated in a video that he would continue to practise social distancing.
In October 2020, a letter sent by Charles to Australian governor-general John Kerr after the 1975 dismissal from office of Prime Minister Gough Whitlam was released as a part of the collection of palace letters regarding the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis. In the letter, Charles appeared to be supportive of Kerr's decision, writing that what Kerr "did last year was right and the courageous thing to do – and most Australians seemed to endorse your decision when it came to the point," adding that he should not worry about "demonstrations and stupidities" that arose following his decision.
In November 2021, Charles attended the ceremonies held to mark Barbados's transition into a parliamentary republic, which removed the Queen as Barbadian head of state. Charles was invited by Prime Minister Mia Mottley as the future head of the Commonwealth, and it was the first time that a member of the royal family attended the transition of a realm to a republic.
On 10 February 2022, it was announced that Charles had tested positive for COVID-19 for a second time and was self-isolating. His wife later also confirmed contracting the virus, followed by the Queen herself 10 days after Charles's second diagnosis. Charles and his wife had received doses of a COVID-19 vaccine in February 2021.
In May 2022, Charles attended the State Opening of Parliament and delivered the Queen's Speech on behalf of his mother as a counsellor of state for the first time. In June 2022, The Times reported that Charles had privately described the UK Government's Rwanda asylum plan as "appalling" and feared that it would overshadow the June Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Rwanda, where Charles represented the Queen. It was later reported that cabinet ministers had warned Charles to avoid making political comments, as they feared a constitutional crisis could arise if he continued to make such statements once he became king.
Prior to acceding to the British throne, opinion polls put Charles's popularity with the British people at 42 per cent, with a 2018 BMG Research poll finding that 46 per cent of Britons wanted Charles to abdicate immediately upon accession to the throne, in favour of William. A 2021 opinion poll reported that 60 per cent of the British public had a favourable opinion of him.
Accession and coronation plans
Charles acceded to the British throne on 8 September 2022, following the death of his mother, Queen Elizabeth II. Charles was the longest-serving British heir apparent, surpassing Edward VII's record on 20 April 2011. When he became monarch at the age of 73, he was the oldest person to do so, the previous record holder being William IV, who was 64 when he became king in 1830.
Plans for Charles's coronation have been made for many years, under the code name Operation Golden Orb. The committee is chaired by Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk, who holds the hereditary title of Earl Marshal. The operation is made up of leading members of the aristocracy and other dignitaries, and is constitutionally separate from the private offices of Charles or the Queen. Reports before his accession suggested that Charles's coronation would be simpler and smaller in scale than his mother's in 1953, with the ceremony expected to be "shorter, smaller, less expensive and more representative of different faiths and community groups – falling in line with the King's wish to reflect the ethnic diversity of modern Britain".
There had been speculation as to what regnal name Charles would choose upon his succession to the throne. In 2005, it was reported that Charles had suggested he might choose to reign as George VII in honour of his grandfather George VI, and to avoid associations with previous royals named Charles.[fn 6] Charles's office said at the time that no decision had yet been made. Following the death of Queen Elizabeth II, Clarence House confirmed that Charles would use the regnal name "Charles III".
On 10 September 2022, Charles was publicly proclaimed king by the Accession Council. The ceremony was televised for the first time. Attendees included William, Prince of Wales, Queen Camilla, British prime minister Liz Truss, and her predecessors John Major, Tony Blair, Gordon Brown, David Cameron, Theresa May and Boris Johnson.
Philanthropy and charity
Since founding the Prince's Trust in 1976, Charles has established 16 more charitable organisations and now serves as president of all of those. Together, these form a loose alliance called the Prince's Charities, which describes itself as "the largest multi-cause charitable enterprise in the United Kingdom, raising over £100 million annually ... [and is] active across a broad range of areas including education and young people, environmental sustainability, the built environment, responsible business and enterprise and international."
In 2010, the Prince's Charities Canada was established in a similar fashion to its namesake in the UK. Charles is also patron of over 400 other charities and organisations. He uses his tours of Canada as a way to help draw attention to youth, the disabled, the environment, the arts, medicine, the elderly, heritage conservation, and education. In Canada, Charles has supported humanitarian projects. Along with his two sons, he took part in ceremonies that marked the 1998 International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Charles has also set up the Prince's Charities Australia, which is based in Melbourne, Victoria. The Prince's Charities Australia is to provide a coordinating presence for Charles's Australian and international charitable endeavours.
Charles was one of the first world leaders to express strong concerns about the human rights record of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu, initiating objections in the international arena, and subsequently supported the FARA Foundation, a charity for Romanian orphans and abandoned children.
Charles has openly expressed his views on architecture and urban planning; he fostered the advancement of New Classical Architecture and asserted that he "care[s] deeply about issues such as the environment, architecture, inner-city renewal, and the quality of life." In a speech given for the 150th anniversary of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) on 30 May 1984, he memorably described a proposed extension to the National Gallery in London as a "monstrous carbuncle on the face of a much-loved friend" and deplored the "glass stumps and concrete towers" of modern architecture. He asserted that "it is possible, and important in human terms, to respect old buildings, street plans and traditional scales and at the same time not to feel guilty about a preference for facades, ornaments and soft materials," called for local community involvement in architectural choices, and asked:
Why can't we have those curves and arches that express feeling in design? What is wrong with them? Why has everything got to be vertical, straight, unbending, only at right angles – and functional?
His book and BBC documentary A Vision of Britain (1987) were also critical of modern architecture, and he has continued to campaign for traditional urbanism, human scale, restoration of historic buildings, and sustainable design, despite criticism in the press. Two of his charities (the Prince's Regeneration Trust and the Prince's Foundation for Building Community, which were later merged into one charity) promote his views, and the village of Poundbury was built on land owned by the Duchy of Cornwall to a master plan by Léon Krier under the guidance of Charles and in line with his philosophy.
Charles helped establish a national trust for the built environment in Canada after lamenting, in 1996, the unbridled destruction of many of the country's historic urban cores. He offered his assistance to the Department of Canadian Heritage in creating a trust modelled on Britain's National Trust, a plan that was implemented with the passage of the 2007 Canadian federal budget. In 1999, Charles agreed to the use of his title for the Prince of Wales Prize for Municipal Heritage Leadership, awarded by the Heritage Canada Foundation to municipal governments that have shown sustained commitment to the conservation of historic places. While visiting the United States and surveying the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina, Charles received the National Building Museum's Vincent Scully Prize in 2005, for his efforts in regard to architecture; he donated $25,000 of the prize money towards restoring storm-damaged communities.
From 1997, Charles has visited Romania to view and highlight the destruction of Orthodox monasteries and Transylvanian Saxon villages during the Communist rule of Nicolae Ceaușescu. Charles is patron of the Mihai Eminescu Trust, a Romanian conservation and regeneration organisation, and has purchased a house in Romania. Historian Tom Gallagher wrote in the Romanian newspaper România Liberă in 2006 that Charles had been offered the Romanian throne by monarchists in that country; an offer that was reportedly turned down, but Buckingham Palace denied the reports. Charles also has "a deep understanding of Islamic art and architecture", and has been involved in the construction of a building and garden at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies that combine Islamic and Oxford architectural styles.
Charles has occasionally intervened in projects that employ architectural styles such as modernism and functionalism. In 2009, Charles wrote to the Qatari royal family, the developers of the Chelsea Barracks site, labelling Lord Rogers's design for the site "unsuitable". Subsequently, Rogers was removed from the project and the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment was appointed to propose an alternative. Rogers claimed the Prince had also intervened to block his designs for the Royal Opera House and Paternoster Square, and condemned Charles's actions as "an abuse of power" and "unconstitutional". Lord Foster, Zaha Hadid, Jacques Herzog, Jean Nouvel, Renzo Piano, and Frank Gehry, among others, wrote a letter to The Sunday Times complaining that the Prince's "private comments" and "behind-the-scenes lobbying" subverted the "open and democratic planning process". Piers Gough and other architects condemned Charles's views as "elitist" in a letter encouraging colleagues to boycott a speech given by Charles to RIBA in 2009. CPC Group, the developer of the project, took a case against Qatari Diar to the High Court, which described Charles's intervention as "unwelcome". After the case was settled, the CPC Group apologised to him "for any offence caused by the decision to commence litigation against Qatari Diar and the allegations made by CPC during the course of the proceedings".
In 2010, the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment decided to help reconstruct and redesign buildings in Port-au-Prince, Haiti after the capital was destroyed by the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The foundation is known for refurbishing historic buildings in Kabul, Afghanistan and Kingston, Jamaica. The project has been called the "biggest challenge yet" for the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment. For his work as patron of New Classical Architecture, in 2012 he was awarded the Driehaus Architecture Prize for patronage. The prize, awarded by the University of Notre Dame, is considered the highest architecture award for New Classical Architecture and urban planning.
Livery company commitments
The Worshipful Company of Carpenters installed Charles as an Honorary Liveryman "in recognition of his interest in London's architecture." Charles is also Permanent Master of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, a Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Drapers, an Honorary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Musicians, an Honorary Member of the Court of Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, and a Royal Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Gardeners.
Since the 1970s, Charles has promoted environmental awareness. At the age of 21, he delivered his first speech on environmental issues in his capacity as the chairman of the Welsh Countryside Committee. In order to decrease his carbon footprint, he has used biomass boilers for heating Birkhall, where he has also installed a hydroelectric turbine in the river beside the estate. He has utilised solar panels at Clarence House and Highgrove, and – besides using electric cars on his estates – runs his Aston Martin DB6 on E85. An avid gardener, Charles has also emphasised the importance of talking to plants, stating that "I happily talk to the plants and trees, and listen to them. I think it's absolutely crucial".
Upon moving into Highgrove House, Charles developed an interest in organic farming, which culminated in the 1990 launch of his own organic brand, Duchy Originals, which now sells more than 200 different sustainably produced products, from food to garden furniture; the profits (over £6 million by 2010) are donated to the Prince's Charities. His organic interest extends beyond farming into landscaped spaces and Highgrove House practices organic lawn management to increase biodiversity. Documenting work on his estate, Charles co-authored (with Charles Clover, environment editor of The Daily Telegraph) Highgrove: An Experiment in Organic Gardening and Farming, published in 1993, and offers his patronage to Garden Organic. Along similar lines, Charles became involved with farming and various industries within it, regularly meeting with farmers to discuss their trade. Although the 2001 foot-and-mouth epidemic in England prevented Charles from visiting organic farms in Saskatchewan, he met the farmers at Assiniboia town hall. In 2004, he founded the Mutton Renaissance Campaign, which aims to support British sheep farmers and make mutton more attractive to Britons. His organic farming has attracted media criticism: According to The Independent in October 2006, "the story of Duchy Originals has involved compromises and ethical blips, wedded to a determined merchandising programme." A prominent critic of the practice, Charles III has also spoken against the use of GM crops and in a letter to British prime minister Tony Blair in 1998, Charles criticised the development of genetically modified foods. He repeated the same sentiments in 2008, arguing that having "one form of clever genetic engineering after another then … will be guaranteed to cause the biggest disaster environmentally of all time."
In 2007, Charles received the tenth annual Global Environmental Citizen Award from the Harvard Medical School's Center for Health and the Global Environment, the director of which, Eric Chivian, stated: "For decades the Prince of Wales has been a champion of the natural world ... He has been a world leader in efforts to improve energy efficiency and in reducing the discharge of toxic substances on land, and into the air and the oceans". Charles's travels by private jet drew criticism from Plane Stupid's Joss Garman.
In 2007, Charles launched the Prince's May Day Network, which encourages businesses to take action on climate change. Speaking to the European Parliament on 14 February 2008, he called for European Union leadership in the war against climate change. During the standing ovation that followed, Nigel Farage, the leader of the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP), remained seated and went on to describe Charles's advisers as "naive and foolish at best." In a speech to the Low Carbon Prosperity Summit in a European Parliament chamber on 9 February 2011, Charles said that climate change sceptics are playing "a reckless game of roulette" with the planet's future and are having a "corrosive effect" on public opinion. He also articulated the need to protect fisheries and the Amazon rainforest, and to make low-carbon emissions affordable and competitive. In 2011, Charles received the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Medal for his engagement with the environment, such as the conservation of rainforests.
On 27 August 2012, Charles addressed the International Union for Conservation of Nature – World Conservation Congress, supporting the view that grazing animals are needed to keep soils and grassland productive:
I have been particularly fascinated, for example, by the work of a remarkable man called Allan Savory, in Zimbabwe and other semi arid areas, who has argued for years against the prevailing expert view that is the simple numbers of cattle that drive overgrazing and cause fertile land to become desert. On the contrary, as he has since shown so graphically, the land needs the presence of feeding animals and their droppings for the cycle to be complete so that soils and grassland areas stay productive. Such that, if you take grazers off the land and lock them away in vast feedlots, the land dies.
In February 2014, Charles visited the Somerset levels to meet residents affected by winter flooding. During his visit, Charles remarked that "There's nothing like a jolly good disaster to get people to start doing something. The tragedy is that nothing happened for so long." He pledged a £50,000 donation, provided by the Prince's Countryside Fund, to help families and businesses. In December 2015, Charles delivered a speech at the opening ceremony for COP21, making a plea to industries to put an end to practices that cause deforestation. In August 2019, it was announced that Charles had collaborated with British fashion designers Vin and Omi to produce a line of clothing made out of nettles found in his Highgrove estate. Nettles are a type of plant which are usually "perceived to have no value". The Highgrove plant waste was also used to create the jewellery worn with the dresses. In September 2020, Charles launched RE:TV, an online platform featuring short films and articles on issues such as climate change and sustainability. He serves as the platform's editor-in-chief. The platform later partnered with Amazon Prime Video and WaterBear, another streaming platform dedicated to environmental issues. In the same month, he stated in a speech that a military-style response similar to the Marshall Plan was required to combat climate change.
In January 2020, Charles launched the Sustainable Markets Initiative at the World Economic Forum's annual meeting in Davos, a project which encourages putting sustainability at the centre of all activities. In May 2020, his Sustainable Markets Initiative and the World Economic Forum launched the Great Reset project, a five-point plan concerned with enhancing sustainable economic growth following the global recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In January 2021, Charles launched Terra Carta ("Earth Charter"), a sustainable finance charter that would ask its signatories to follow a set of rules towards becoming more sustainable and make investments in projects and causes that help with preserving the environment. In July 2021, Charles and Jony Ive announced the Terra Carta Design Lab, a competition conceived by the Royal College of Art to find solutions to climate change and environmental issues, winners of which would be supported financially and introduced to the industry leads of the Sustainable Markets Initiative. In September 2021, he launched the Food for the Future initiative, a programme with contributions from Jimmy Doherty and Jamie Oliver which aims to educate secondary school children about the food system and eliminating food waste. In his role as patron of the National Hedgelaying Society, Charles has hosted receptions for the organisation's rural competition at his Highgrove estate to assist with preserving hedgerows planted in the UK.
In June 2021, Charles attended a reception hosted by the Queen during the 47th G7 summit, and a meeting between G7 leaders and sustainable industry CEOs to discuss governmental and corporate solutions to environmental problems. In October 2021, he delivered a speech at the 2021 G20 Rome summit, describing COP26 as "the last chance saloon" for preventing climate change and asking for actions that would lead to a green-led sustainable economy. In his speech at the opening ceremony for COP26, he repeated his sentiments from the previous year, stating that "a vast military-style campaign" was needed "to marshal the strength of the global private sector" for tackling climate change.
In 2021, Charles spoke to the BBC about the environment and said two days a week he eats no meat nor fish and one day a week he eats no dairy products. In 2022, it was reported that he eats a breakfast of fruit salad, seeds and tea. He does not eat lunch, but takes a break for tea at 5 p.m. and eats dinner at 8:30 p.m. and then returns to work until midnight or after.
Charles, who is patron of the Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership, launched the Climate Action Scholarships for students from small island nations in partnership with University of Cambridge, University of Toronto, University of Melbourne, McMaster University and University of Montreal in March 2022. In September 2022, Charles hosted the Global Allergy Symposium at Dumfries House with the Natasha Allergy Research Foundation and 16 allergy experts from around the world to discuss factors behind new emerging allergies, including biodiversity loss and climate change. In October 2022, it was reported that the prime minister, Liz Truss, had advised the King against attending COP27, to which he had agreed.
Charles has controversially championed alternative medicine. He first expressed his interest in alternative medicine publicly in December 1982 in an address to the British Medical Association (BMA). This speech was seen as 'combative' and 'critical' of modern medicine, and was met with anger by some medical professionals. The Prince's Foundation for Integrated Health (FIH) attracted opposition from the scientific and medical community over its campaign encouraging general practitioners to offer herbal and other alternative treatments to National Health Service patients. In June 2004, during a speech to healthcare professionals at a conference, he advocated using Gerson therapy treatments, such as coffee enemas, to treat cancer patients and said he knew of a terminally ill cancer patient who was cured with them. He said: "I know of one patient who turned to Gerson Therapy having been told that she was suffering from terminal cancer, and would not survive another course of chemotherapy. Happily, seven years later she is alive and well." These comments drew criticism from medical professionals such as Michael Baum. In May 2006, Charles made a speech at the World Health Assembly in Geneva, urging the integration of conventional and alternative medicine and arguing for homeopathy.
In April 2008, The Times published a letter from Edzard Ernst, Professor of Complementary Medicine at the University of Exeter, which asked the FIH to recall two guides promoting alternative medicine, saying "the majority of alternative therapies appear to be clinically ineffective, and many are downright dangerous." A speaker for the FIH countered the criticism by stating: "We entirely reject the accusation that our online publication Complementary Healthcare: A Guide contains any misleading or inaccurate claims about the benefits of complementary therapies. On the contrary, it treats people as adults and takes a responsible approach by encouraging people to look at reliable sources of information ... so that they can make informed decisions. The foundation does not promote complementary therapies." That year, Ernst published a book with Simon Singh, mockingly dedicated to "HRH the Prince of Wales", called Trick or Treatment: Alternative Medicine on Trial. The last chapter is highly critical of Charles's advocacy of complementary and alternative treatments.
Charles's Duchy Originals produced a variety of complementary medicinal products including a "Detox Tincture" that Edzard Ernst denounced as "financially exploiting the vulnerable" and "outright quackery". In 2009, the Advertising Standards Authority criticised an email that Duchy Originals had sent out to advertise its Echina-Relief, Hyperi-Lift and Detox Tinctures products saying that it was misleading. Charles personally wrote at least seven letters to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) shortly before they relaxed the rules governing labelling of such herbal products, a move that has been widely condemned by scientists and medical bodies. In October 2009, it was reported that Charles had personally lobbied the Health Secretary, Andy Burnham, regarding greater provision of alternative treatments in the NHS.
In April 2010, following accounting irregularities, a former official at the FIH and his wife were arrested for fraud believed to total £300,000. Four days later, the FIH announced its closure, claiming that it "has achieved its key objective of promoting the use of integrated health." The charity's finance director, accountant George Gray, was convicted of theft totalling £253,000 and sentenced to three years in prison. The FIH was re-branded and re-launched later in 2010 as The College of Medicine, of which Charles became a patron in 2019. In 2016, Charles said in a speech that he used homeopathic veterinary medicines to reduce antibiotic use at his farm. He drew criticism after becoming a patron of the Faculty of Homeopathy on 27 June 2019.
From his youth until 1992, Charles was an avid player of competitive polo. He continued to play informally, including for charity, until 2005. He was occasionally injured after falling off horses, and underwent two operations in 1990 to fix fractures in his right arm. Charles also frequently took part in fox hunting until the sport was banned in the United Kingdom in 2005. By the late 1990s, opposition to the activity was growing when Charles's participation was viewed as a "political statement" by those who were opposed to it. The League Against Cruel Sports launched an attack against Charles after he took his sons on the Beaufort Hunt in 1999. At that time, the government was trying to ban hunting with hounds. In 2001, he broke a small bone in his left shoulder while hunting in Derbyshire.
Charles has been a keen salmon angler since youth and supports Orri Vigfússon's efforts to protect the North Atlantic salmon. He frequently fishes the River Dee in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, while he claims his most special angling memories are from his time in Vopnafjörður, Iceland. Charles is a supporter of Burnley Football Club.
Visual, performing and contemporary arts
Charles is president or patron of more than 20 performing arts organisations, which include the Royal College of Music, the Royal Opera, the English Chamber Orchestra, the Philharmonia Orchestra, Welsh National Opera, and the Purcell School. In 2000, he revived the tradition of appointing harpists to the Royal Court, by appointing an Official Harpist to the Prince of Wales. As an undergraduate at Cambridge, he played the cello and has sung with the Bach Choir twice. He was a member of Dryden Society, Trinity College's drama group, and appeared in sketches and revues. Charles founded The Prince's Foundation for Children and The Arts in 2002, to help more children experience the arts first-hand. He is president of the Royal Shakespeare Company and attends performances in Stratford-Upon-Avon, supports fundraising events and attends the company's annual general meeting. He enjoys comedy, and is interested in illusionism, becoming a member of The Magic Circle after passing his audition in 1975 by performing the "cups and balls" effect. Charles has also been patron of the British Film Institute since 1978.
Charles is a keen and accomplished watercolourist who has exhibited and sold a number of his works to raise money for his charities and also published books on the subject. To mark the 25th anniversary of his investiture as the Prince of Wales in 1994, the Royal Mail issued a series of postage stamps which featured his paintings. For his 50th birthday, 50 of his watercolours were exhibited at Hampton Court Palace. In 2001, 20 lithographs of his watercolour paintings illustrating his country estates were exhibited at the Florence International Biennale of Contemporary Art. In 2016, it was estimated that he had sold lithographs of his watercolours for a total of £2 million from a shop at his Highgrove House residence. For his 70th birthday in 2018, his works were exhibited at the National Gallery of Australia. In 2022, 79 of his paintings were put on display in London. He is Honorary President of the Royal Academy of Arts Development Trust.
Charles was awarded the 2011 Montblanc de la Culture Arts Patronage Award by the Montblanc Cultural Foundation for his support and commitment to the arts, particularly in regard to young people.
On 23 April 2016, Charles appeared in a comedy sketch for the Royal Shakespeare Company's Shakespeare Live! at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, to commemorate the 400th anniversary of William Shakespeare's death in 1616. The event was televised live by the BBC. Charles made a surprise entrance to settle the disputed delivery of Hamlet's celebrated line, "To be or not to be, that is the question".
In January 2022, Charles commissioned seven artists to paint portraits of seven Holocaust survivors. The paintings were exhibited at the Queen's Gallery in Buckingham Palace and at the Palace of Holyroodhouse and were featured in a BBC Two documentary titled Survivors: Portraits of the Holocaust.
Charles is the author of several books that reflect his own interests. He has also contributed a foreword or preface to books by other writers and has also written, presented and has been featured in documentary films.
Religion and philosophy
The King is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. He is also a member of the Church of Scotland, and he swore an oath to uphold that church immediately after he was proclaimed king in September 2022. Charles was confirmed at age 16 by Archbishop of Canterbury Michael Ramsey at Easter 1965, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He attends services at various Anglican churches close to Highgrove, and attends the Church of Scotland's Crathie Kirk with the rest of the royal family when staying at Balmoral Castle. In 2000, he was appointed as Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Charles has visited (amid some secrecy) Eastern Orthodox monasteries several times on Mount Athos as well as in Romania and Serbia. Charles is also patron of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies at the University of Oxford, and in the 2000s, he inaugurated the Markfield Institute of Higher Education, which is dedicated to Islamic studies in a plural multicultural context.
Laurens van der Post became a friend of Charles in 1977; he was dubbed his "spiritual guru" and was godfather to Charles's son, Prince William. From van der Post, Charles developed a focus on philosophy and interest in other religions. Charles expressed his philosophical views in his 2010 book, Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World, which won a Nautilus Book Award. In November 2016, he attended the consecration of St Thomas Cathedral, Acton, to be Britain's first Syriac Orthodox cathedral. In October 2019, he attended the canonisation of Cardinal Newman. Charles visited Eastern Church leaders in Jerusalem in January 2020 culminating in an ecumenical service in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, after which he walked through that city accompanied by Christian and Muslim dignitaries.
In his 1994 documentary with Jonathan Dimbleby, Charles said that he wished to be seen as the "Defender of Faith" as king, rather than the monarch's traditional title of "Defender of the Faith", in order to respect other people's religious traditions. This attracted controversy at the time, as well as speculation that the coronation oath may be altered. He stated in 2015 that he would retain the title of "Defender of the Faith", whilst "ensuring that other people's faiths can also be practised", which he sees as a duty of the Church of England.
Since his birth, Charles has received close media attention, which increased as he matured. It has been an ambivalent relationship, largely impacted by his marriages to Diana and Camilla and their aftermath, but also centred on his future conduct as king, such as the 2014 play King Charles III. Known for expressing his opinions, when asked during an interview to mark his 70th birthday whether this would continue in the same way once he is king, he responded "No. It won't. I'm not that stupid. I do realise that it is a separate exercise being sovereign. So, of course, you know, I understand entirely how that should operate".
Described as the "world's most eligible bachelor" in the late 1970s, Charles was subsequently overshadowed by Diana. After her death, the media regularly breached Charles's privacy and printed exposés. In 2003, Diana's butler Paul Burrell published a note that he claimed had been written by Diana in 1995, in which there were allegations that Charles was "planning 'an accident' in [Diana's] car, brake failure and serious head injury" so that he could marry again. When questioned by the Metropolitan Police inquiry team as a part of Operation Paget, Charles told the authorities that he did not know about his former wife's note from 1995 and could not understand why she had these feelings.
Other people who were formerly connected with Charles have betrayed his confidence. In 1995, he obtained an injunction that prevented a former housekeeper's memoirs from being published in the United Kingdom, although they eventually sold 100,000 copies in the United States. Later, an ex-member of his household handed the press an internal memo in which Charles commented on ambition and opportunity, and which was widely interpreted as blaming meritocracy for creating a combative atmosphere in society. Charles responded: "In my view, it is just as great an achievement to be a plumber or a bricklayer as it is to be a lawyer or a doctor".
In 2021 and 2022, two of Charles's charities, the Prince's Foundation and the Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund, came under scrutiny for accepting donations that were deemed inappropriate by the media. In August 2021, it was announced that the Prince's Foundation was launching an investigation into the reports that middlemen took cuts for setting up dinners involving wealthy donors and Charles, at that time Prince of Wales, with prices as high as £100,000 and the fixers taking up to 25% of the fees. After temporarily stepping down, Charles's aide Michael Fawcett resigned from his role as chief executive of the Prince's Foundation in November 2021, following reports that he had fixed a CBE for Saudi businessman Mahfouz Marei Mubarak bin Mahfouz who donated more than £1.5 million to royal charities contrary to section 1 of the Honours (Prevention of Abuses) Act 1925. Charles gave Mahfouz his Honorary CBE at a private ceremony in the Blue Drawing Room at Buckingham Palace in November 2016, though the event was not published in the Court Circular. Clarence House responded that Charles had "no knowledge of the alleged offer of honours or British citizenship on the basis of donation to his charities and fully supports the investigation". The auditing firm EY, which carried out the investigation, published a summary report in December 2021, stating that Fawcett had co-ordinated with "fixers", but there was "no evidence that trustees at the time were aware of these communications". The Charity Commission launched its own investigation into allegations that the donations meant for the Prince's Foundation had been instead sent to the Mahfouz Foundation. In 2021, the foundation was also criticised for accepting a £200,000 donation from Russian convict, Dmitry Leus, whom Charles thanked in a letter, and a £500,000 donation from Taiwanese fugitive Bruno Wang. The donations by the Russian convict led to an investigation by the Scottish Charity Regulator. In February 2022 the Metropolitan Police launched an investigation into the cash-for-honours allegations linked to the foundation.
In June 2022, The Times reported that between 2011 and 2015 Charles accepted €3 million in cash from the prime minister of Qatar, Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani. The funds were said to be in the form of €500 notes, handed over in person in three tranches, in a suitcase, holdall and carrier bags. Charles's meetings with Al Thani did not appear in the Court Circular. Coutts collected the cash and each payment was deposited into the accounts of the Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund. There is no evidence that the payments were illegal or that it was not intended for the money to go to the charity. The Charity Commission announced they would review the information, and in July 2022, they announced that they would not be launching an investigation into the donations as the information submitted had provided "sufficient assurance" that due diligence had taken place. In the same month, The Times reported that on the Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund receiving a donation of £1 million from Bakr bin Laden and Shafiq bin Laden, both half-brothers of Osama bin Laden, during a private meeting in 2013. Charles and Bakr bin Laden had known each other since 2000. The Charity Commission described the decision to accept donations as a "matter for trustees" and added that based on the available information no investigation was required. In June 2022, a senior palace aide said that cash donations would no longer be accepted.
Reaction to press treatment
In 1994, German tabloid Bild published nude photos of Charles that were taken while he was vacationing in Le Barroux. They were reportedly put up for sale for £30,000. Buckingham Palace reacted by stating that it was "unjustifiable for anybody to suffer this sort of intrusion".
In 2002, Charles, "so often a target of the press, got his chance to return fire" when addressing "scores of editors, publishers and other media executives" gathered at St Bride's Fleet Street to celebrate 300 years of journalism. Defending public servants from "the corrosive drip of constant criticism", he noted that the press had been "awkward, cantankerous, cynical, bloody-minded, at times intrusive, at times inaccurate and at times deeply unfair and harmful to individuals and to institutions." But, he concluded, regarding his own relations with the press, "from time to time we are probably both a bit hard on each other, exaggerating the downsides and ignoring the good points in each."
Charles's anguish was recorded in his private comments to Prince William, caught on a microphone during a press photo-call in 2005 and published in the national press. After a question from the BBC's royal correspondent, Nicholas Witchell, Charles muttered: "These bloody people. I can't bear that man. I mean, he's so awful, he really is."
In 2006, Charles filed a court case against the Mail on Sunday, after excerpts of his personal journals were published, revealing his opinions on matters such as the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China in 1997, in which Charles described the Chinese government officials as "appalling old waxworks". Mark Bolland, his ex-private secretary, declared in a statement to the High Court that Charles "would readily embrace the political aspects of any contentious issue he was interested in ... He carried it out in a very considered, thoughtful and researched way. He often referred to himself as a 'dissident' working against the prevailing political consensus." Jonathan Dimbleby reported that Charles "has accumulated a number of certainties about the state of the world and does not relish contradiction."
In 2015, The Independent noted that Charles would only speak to broadcasters "on the condition they have signed a 15-page contract, demanding that Clarence House attends both the 'rough cut' and 'fine cut' edits of films and, if it is unhappy with the final product, can 'remove the contribution in its entirety from the programme'." This contract stipulated that all questions directed at Charles must be pre-approved and vetted by representatives of Charles.
Guest appearances on television
Charles has occasionally appeared on television. In 1984, he read his children's book The Old Man of Lochnagar for the BBC's Jackanory series. The UK soap opera Coronation Street featured an appearance by Charles during the show's 40th anniversary in 2000, as did the New Zealand young adult cartoon series bro'Town (2005), after he attended a performance by the show's creators during a tour of the country.
Charles was interviewed with Princes William and Harry by Ant & Dec to mark the 30th anniversary of the Prince's Trust in 2006 and in 2016 was interviewed by them again along with his sons and the Duchess of Cornwall to mark the 40th anniversary.
His saving of the Scottish stately home Dumfries House was the subject of Alan Titchmarsh's documentary Royal Restoration, which aired on TV in May 2012. Also in May 2012, Charles tried his hand at being a weather presenter for the BBC, reporting the forecast for Scotland as part of their annual week at Holyrood Palace alongside Christopher Blanchett. He injected humour in his report, asking, "Who the hell wrote this script?" as references were made to royal residences.
In December 2015, Channel 4 News revealed that interviews with Charles were subject to a contract that restricts questions to those previously approved, and gives his staff oversight of editing and the right to "remove the contribution in its entirety from the programme". Channel 4 News decided not to proceed with an interview on this basis, which some journalists believed would put them at risk of breaching the Ofcom Broadcasting Code on editorial independence and transparency.
Residences and finance
Clarence House, previously the residence of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, was Charles's official London residence from 2003 after being renovated at a cost of £4.5 million. He previously shared Apartments 8 and 9 at Kensington Palace with his first wife Diana, before moving to York House, St James's Palace, which remained his principal residence until 2003. As prince, his primary source of income was generated from the Duchy of Cornwall, which owns 133,658 acres of land (around 54,090 hectares), including farming, residential, and commercial properties, as well as an investment portfolio. Highgrove House in Gloucestershire is owned by the Duchy of Cornwall, having been purchased for his use in 1980, and which Charles rents for £336,000 per annum. The Public Accounts Committee published its 25th report into the Duchy of Cornwall accounts in November 2013 noting that the duchy performed well in 2012–13, increasing its total income and producing an overall surplus of £19.1 million.
In 2007, Charles purchased a 192-acre property (150 acres of grazing and parkland, and 40 acres of woodland) in Carmarthenshire, and applied for permission to convert the farm into a Welsh home for him and the Duchess of Cornwall, to be rented out as holiday flats when the couple is not in residence. A neighbouring family said the proposals flouted local planning regulations, and the application was put on hold temporarily while a report was drafted on how the alterations would affect the local bat population. Charles and Camilla first stayed at the new property, called Llwynywermod, in June 2008. They also stay at Birkhall for some holidays, which is a private residence on the Balmoral Castle estate in Scotland, and was previously used by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.
In 2016, it was reported that his estates received £100,000 a year in European Union agricultural subsidies. Starting in 1993, Charles has paid tax voluntarily under the Memorandum of Understanding on Royal Taxation, updated 2013. In December 2012, Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs were asked to investigate alleged tax avoidance by the Duchy of Cornwall. The Duchy of Cornwall is named in the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment that were leaked to the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung. The papers show that the Duchy invested in a Bermuda-based carbon credits trading company run by one of Charles's Cambridge contemporaries. The investment was kept secret but there is no suggestion that Charles or the estate avoided UK tax.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 14 November 1948 – 6 February 1952: His Royal Highness Prince Charles of Edinburgh
- 6 February 1952 – 26 July 1958: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cornwall[fn 7]
- 26 July 1958 – 8 September 2022: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales
- in Scotland: His Royal Highness The Duke of Rothesay[fn 8]
- 8 September 2022 – present: His Majesty The King
Between the death of his father Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh on 9 April 2021 and the death of his mother Elizabeth II, Charles also held the title of Duke of Edinburgh. The title merged with the Crown upon his accession to the throne.
Honours and military appointments
Charles has held substantive ranks in the armed forces of a number of countries since he was commissioned as a flight lieutenant in the Royal Air Force in 1972. Charles's first honorary appointment in the armed forces was as Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Regiment of Wales in 1969; since then, he has also been installed as Colonel-in-Chief, Colonel, Honorary Air Commodore, Air Commodore-in-Chief, Deputy Colonel-in-Chief, Royal Honorary Colonel, Royal Colonel, and Honorary Commodore of at least 32 military formations throughout the Commonwealth, including the Royal Gurkha Rifles, which is the only foreign regiment in the British army. Since 2009, Charles holds the second-highest ranks in all three branches of the Canadian Forces and, on 16 June 2012, the Queen awarded him the highest honorary rank in all three branches of the British Armed Forces, "to acknowledge his support in her role as Commander-in-Chief", installing him as Admiral of the Fleet, Field Marshal and Marshal of the Royal Air Force.
Charles has been inducted into seven orders and received eight decorations from the Commonwealth realms, and has been the recipient of 20 different honours from foreign states, as well as nine honorary degrees from universities in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand.
On his mother's death, Charles became king and therefore inherited the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom and Canada. The design of King Charles III's royal cypher, featuring the Tudor crown rather than the St Edward's Crown, was announced on 27 September 2022. According to the College of Arms, the Tudor crown will now be used in representations of the Royal Arms, uniforms and crown badges.
As Prince of Wales, Charles used the arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a white label, and an inescutcheon of the Principality of Wales surmounted by the heir-apparent's crown.
|Coat of Arms as Prince of Wales (1958–2022)||Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom||Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom for use in Scotland|
Banners, flags, and standards
The Royal Standard is used to represent the King in the United Kingdom and overseas when he makes official visits. It is the royal arms in banner form undifferentiated, having been used by successive British monarchs since 1702.
As Prince of Wales
The banners used by Charles whilst Prince of Wales varied depending upon location. His Personal Standard was the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom differenced as in his arms with a label of three points Argent, and the escutcheon of the arms of the Principality of Wales in the centre. It is used outside Wales, Scotland, Cornwall, and Canada, and throughout the entire United Kingdom when the prince is acting in an official capacity associated with the UK Armed Forces.
The personal flag for use in Wales was based upon the Royal Badge of Wales (the historic arms of the Kingdom of Gwynedd), which consist of four quadrants, the first and fourth with a red lion on a gold field, and the second and third with a gold lion on a red field. Superimposed is an escutcheon Vert bearing the single-arched coronet of the Prince of Wales.
In Scotland, the personal banner used since 1974 is based upon three ancient Scottish titles: Duke of Rothesay (heir apparent to the King of Scots), High Steward of Scotland and Lord of the Isles. The flag is divided into four quadrants like the arms of the Chief of Clan Stewart of Appin; the first and fourth quadrants comprise a gold field with a blue and silver checkered band in the centre; the second and third quadrants display a black galley on a silver field. The arms are differenced from those of Appin by the addition of an inescutcheon bearing the tressured lion rampant of Scotland; defaced by a plain label of three points Azure to indicate the heir apparent.
In 2011, the Canadian Heraldic Authority introduced a personal heraldic banner for the Prince of Wales for use in Canada, consisting of the shield of the Arms of Canada defaced with both a blue roundel of the Prince of Wales's feathers surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, and a white label of three points.
|William, Prince of Wales||21 June 1982||29 April 2011||Catherine Middleton||Prince George of Wales|
Princess Charlotte of Wales
Prince Louis of Wales
|Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex||15 September 1984||19 May 2018||Meghan Markle|
|Ancestors of Charles III|
- As the reigning monarch, Charles does not usually use a family name, but when one is needed, it is Mountbatten-Windsor.
- As monarch, Charles is the Supreme Governor of the Anglican Church of England. He is also a member of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland.
- In addition to his active service listed here, Charles holds ranks and honorary appointments in the armed forces of Australia, Canada, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea as well as the United Kingdom.
- In addition to the United Kingdom, the King's fourteen other realms are: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu.
- Prince Charles's godparents were: the King of the United Kingdom (his maternal grandfather); the King of Norway (his paternal cousin twice removed and maternal great-great-uncle by marriage, for whom Charles's great-great-uncle the Earl of Athlone stood proxy); Queen Mary (his maternal great-grandmother); Princess Margaret (his maternal aunt); Prince George of Greece and Denmark (his paternal great-uncle, for whom the Duke of Edinburgh stood proxy); the Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven (his paternal great-grandmother); the Lady Brabourne (his cousin); and the Hon David Bowes-Lyon (his maternal great-uncle).
- The Stuart kings Charles I, who was beheaded, and Charles II who was known for his promiscuous lifestyle. Charles Edward Stuart, once a Stuart pretender to the English and Scottish thrones, was called "Charles III" by his supporters.
- As the eldest son of the new monarch, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall upon the death of King George VI, on 6 February 1952. He continued to hold the dukedom until his own accession to the throne, despite generally not using the title.
- As the eldest son of the new monarch, Charles automatically became Duke of Rothesay upon the death of King George VI, on 6 February 1952.
- "The Royal Family name". Official website of the British monarchy. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
- "King Charles vows to protect the security of the Church of Scotland" (Press release). The Church of Scotland. 10 September 2022. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
- "Profession reacts to Prince Charles' 10 design principles". architectsjournal.co.uk. 22 December 2014. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.; Forgey, Benjamin (22 February 1990). "Prince Charles, Architecture's Royal pain". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2018.; "How the Poundbury project became a model for innovation". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- Rourke, Matt (28 January 2007). "Prince Charles to receive environmental award in NYC". USA Today. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.; Alderson, Andrew (14 March 2009). "Prince Charles given 'friend of the forest' award". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.; Lange, Stefan (29 April 2009). "Prince Charles collects award in Germany". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.; "2012 Lifetime Achievement Award Winner – HRH The Prince of Wales". greenawards.com. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "No. 38455". The London Gazette. 15 November 1948. p. 1.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 120.
- "The Christening of Prince Charles". Royal Collection Trust. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
- "HRH The Prince of Wales | Prince of Wales". www.princeofwales.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 September 2022.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 127.
- "50 facts about the Queens Coronation". www.royal.uk. Archived from the original on 7 February 2021. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- Gordon, Peter; Lawton, Denis (2003). Royal Education: Past, Present, and Future. F. Cass. p. 215. ISBN 9780714683867. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
- "About the Prince of Wales". royal.uk. 26 December 2018. Archived from the original on 9 May 2016.
- "Growing Up Royal". Time. 25 April 1988. Archived from the original on 31 March 2005. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
- "Lieutenant Colonel H. Stuart Townend". The Times. 30 October 2002. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- "HRH The Prince of Wales". Debrett's. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 139.
- Rocco, Fiammetta (18 October 1994). "Flawed Family: This week the Prince of Wales disclosed still powerful resentments against his mother and father". The Independent. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
- "Colditz in kilts? Charles loved it, says old school as Gordonstoun hits back at The Crown". The Telegraph. 10 December 2017. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "The Prince of Wales – Education". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- "The New Boy at Timbertop". The Australian Women's Weekly. Vol. 33, no. 37. 9 February 1966. p. 7. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Timbertop – Prince Charles Australia" (Video with audio, 1 min 28 secs). British Pathé. 1966. Archived from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2018 – via YouTube.
- "Prince had happy time at Timbertop". The Canberra Times. Vol. 47, no. 13, 346. 31 January 1973. p. 11. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 145.
- "HRH The Prince of Wales". Prince of Wales. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 151.
- Fiona Holland (10 September 2022). "God Save The King!". Trinity College Cambridge. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
- "No. 41460". The London Gazette. 29 July 1958. p. 4733.
- "The Prince of Wales – Previous Princes of Wales". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- "The Prince of Wales – Investiture". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 20 October 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- "H.R.H. The Prince of Wales Introduced". Hansard. 11 February 1970. HL Deb vol 307 c871. Archived from the original on 19 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2019.; "The Prince of Wales – Biography". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- "Sport and Leisure". Hansard. 13 June 1974. HL Deb vol 352 cc624–630. Archived from the original on 18 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- Shuster, Alvin (14 June 1974). "Prince Charles Speaks in Lords". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- "Voluntary Service in the Community". Hansard. 25 June 1975. HL Deb vol 361 cc1418–1423. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- "The Prince's Trust". The Prince's Charities. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- Ferretti, Fred (18 June 1981). "Prince Charles pays a quick visit to city". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- Daley, Paul (9 November 2015). "Long to reign over Aus? Prince Charles and Australia go way back". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- David Murray (24 November 2009). "Next governor-general could be Prince Harry, William". The Australian. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- Brandreth 2007, pp. 169–170"Military Career of the Prince of Wales". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 170.
- Ranter, Harro. "Incident British Aerospace BAe-146-100 ZE700, 29 Jun 1994". aviation-safety.net. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.; Boggan, Steve (19 July 1995). "Prince gives up flying royal aircraft after Hebrides crash". The Independent. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- Junor 2005, p. 72.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 192.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 193.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 194.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 195.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 178.
- Brandreth 2007, pp. 15–17.
- Dimbleby 1994, pp. 204–206.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 200.
- Dimbleby 1994, p. 263.
- Dimbleby 1994, pp. 263–265.
- Dimbleby 1994, pp. 299–300.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 196.
- Dimbleby 1994, p. 279.
- Dimbleby 1994, pp. 280–282.
- Dimbleby 1994, pp. 281–283.
- "Royally Minted: What we give them and how they spend it". New Statesman. UK. 13 July 2009.
- Brown, Tina (2007). The Diana Chronicles. p. 720.
- Smith 2000, p. 561.
- "The truth behind Charles and Camilla's affair storyline in The Crown". Radio Times. 1 January 2020. Retrieved 9 September 2022.
- "Diana 'wanted to live with guard'". BBC News. 7 December 2004. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- Langley, William (12 December 2004). "The Mannakee file". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- Lawson, Mark (7 August 2017). "Diana: In Her Own Words – admirers have nothing to fear from the Channel 4 tapes". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
- Milmo, Cahal (8 December 2004). "Conspiracy theorists feast on inquiry into death of Diana's minder". The Independent. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- "Princess Diana's Former Lover Maintains He Is Not Prince Harry's Father". Vanity fair. 13 March 2017. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
- Quest, Richard (3 June 2002). "Royals, part 3: Troubled Times" Archived 15 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine, CNN. Retrieved 17 June 2012
- "Hewitt denies Prince Harry link". BBC News. 21 September 2002. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2011.; Holder, Margaret (24 August 2011). "Who Does Prince Harry Look Like? James Hewitt Myth Debunked". The Morton Report. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "The Camillagate Tapes" Archived 1 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine, 18 December 1989, phone transcript, Phone Phreaking; "Royals caught out by interceptions". BBC News. 29 November 2006. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- "The Princess and the Press". PBS. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2017.; "Timeline: Charles and Camilla's romance". BBC. 6 April 2005. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- Dimbleby 1994, p. 395.
- "1995: Diana admits adultery in TV interview". BBC. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- "The Panorama Interview with the Princess of Wales". BBC News. 20 November 1995. Archived from the original on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
- "'Divorce': Queen to Charles and Diana". BBC News. 20 December 1995. Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- "Charles and Diana to divorce". Associated Press. 21 December 1995. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- Whitney, Craig R. (31 August 1997). "Prince Charles Arrives in Paris to Take Diana's Body Home". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- Wickell, Carly. "Camilla's Engagement Ring". About.com. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Order in Council, 2 March 2005". Privy-council.org.uk. Archived from the original on 3 November 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
- Valpy, Michael (2 November 2005). "Scholars scurry to find implications of royal wedding". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
- "Panorama Lawful impediment?". BBC News. 14 February 2005. Archived from the original on 29 September 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2009.
- The Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs and Lord Chancellor (Lord Falconer of Thoroton) (24 February 2005). "Royal Marriage; Lords Hansard Written Statements 24 Feb 2005 : Column WS87 (50224-51)". Publications.parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
The Government are satisfied that it is lawful for the Prince of Wales and Mrs Parker Bowles, like anyone else, to marry by a civil ceremony in accordance with Part III of the Marriage Act 1949. ¶ Civil marriages were introduced in England, by the Marriage Act 1836. Section 45 said that the Act ... shall not extend to the marriage of any of the Royal Family". ¶ But the provisions on civil marriage in the 1836 Act were repealed by the Marriage Act 1949. All remaining parts of the 1836 Act, including Section 45, were repealed by the Registration Service Act 1953. No part of the 1836 Act, therefore, remains on the statute book.
- "Pope funeral delays royal wedding". BBC News. 4 April 2005. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Q&A: Queen's wedding decision". BBC News. 23 February 2005. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- "Charles And Camilla Finally Wed, After 30 Years Of Waiting, Prince Charles Weds His True Love". CBS News. 9 April 2005. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- Oliver, Mark (9 April 2005). "Charles and Camilla wed". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- Swaine, Jon (31 December 2008). "Prince Charles 'becomes hardest-working Royal'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Prince Charles is hardest working royal". Female First. 4 January 2011. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- Landler, Mark (8 September 2022). "Long an Uneasy Prince, King Charles III Takes On a Role He Was Born To". The New York Times.
- Brandreth 2007, p. 325.
- "Opening of the Senedd". assemblywales.org. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Administration of Royal Collection trust". royalcollection.org. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Holden, Anthony (1980). Charles, Prince of Wales. p. 287. ISBN 9780330261678.
- Trumbull, Robert (10 October 1970). "Fiji Raises the Flag of Independence After 96 Years of Rule by British". The New York Times – via NYTimes.com.
- "1973: Bahamas' sun sets on British Empire". BBC News. 9 July 1973.
- "Papua New Guinea Celebrates Independence". The New York Times. 16 September 1975 – via NYTimes.com.
- Ross, Jay (18 April 1980). "Zimbabwe Gains Independence". The Washington Post.
- "Brunei celebrated its independence from Britain Thursday with traditional..." UPI.
- Ainge Roy, Eleanor (13 January 2018). "'Damn ... I missed': the incredible story of the day the Queen was nearly shot". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- Newman, John (12 May 1994). "Cambodian Refugees". New South Wales Legislative Assembly Hansard. Parliament of New South Wales. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.; "Student fires 2 blanks at Prince Charles". Los Angeles Times. 27 January 1994. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- "Archive: Prince Charles visits Ireland in 1995". BBC. 21 April 2015. Archived from the original on 11 May 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.; McCullagh, David; Milner, Cathy. "Prince Charles Makes First Royal Visit to Ireland 1995". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- Brendon, Piers (2007). The Decline and Fall of the British Empire, 1781–1997. Random House. p. 660. ISBN 978-0-224-06222-0.; Brown, Judith (1998). The Twentieth Century, The Oxford History of the British Empire Volume IV. Oxford University Press. p. 594. ISBN 978-0-19-924679-3.
- "Britain and Hong Kong". Sino-American Relations. 23: 4. 1997.
- "TRH continue their annual tour of Wales". Prince of Wales website. Archived from the original on 19 November 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- "Prince Charles recalls military service at CFB Gagetown as royal tour kicks off". National Post. 21 May 2012. Archived from the original on 25 March 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- Bates, Stephen (26 April 2001). "Cautious Canada underwhelmed by Charles's visit". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- "Patron of Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum". warplane.com. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- "Charles shakes hands with Mugabe at Pope's funeral". The Times. 8 April 2005. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2007.(subscription required)
- Gentleman, Amelia (13 November 2001). "Flower power". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 May 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- "The Prince of Wales opens the Commonwealth Games". Prince of Wales. 3 October 2010. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- "Press & Communications". Westminster Abbey News. 21 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 August 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2011.; "Prince Charles at London service for NZ quake victims". BBC News. 27 March 2011. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Tears flow at quake memorial service in London". Stuff.co.nz. 28 March 2011. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Queen to miss Colombo CHOGM". The Hindu. 8 May 2013. Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.; "Queen to miss Commonwealth meeting for first time since 1973". The Guardian. 7 May 2013. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "Prince Charles makes 'generous' Syria donation". thecommentator.com. 27 March 2013. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.; "Prince Charles makes 'generous' Syria donation". www.turknewsline.com. 28 March 2013. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Addley, Esther (7 November 2013). "Prince Charles to claim state pension – and donate it to charity". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "The Prince of Wales organises Measles-Rubella vaccination donation to the Phillippines [sic]". Prince of Wales. 26 March 2014. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.; Foster, Max (26 March 2014). "Prince Charles arranges mass vaccination for Typhoon Haiyan victims". CNN. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Evans, Rob (26 March 2015). "Supreme court clears way for release of secret Prince Charles letters". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- "Cabinet Office". www.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 18 December 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2015.; Vinter, Robyn (14 May 2015). "What are the Black Spider Memos? Read Prince Charles's letters in full". londonlovesbusiness.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.; "Prince Charles's black spider memos in 60 seconds". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "Prince Charles, the toothfish and the toothless 'black spider' letters". The Washington Post. 14 May 2015. Archived from the original on 6 April 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Spector, Dina (13 May 2015). "There are 3 reasons why Britain might be completely underwhelmed by Prince Charles' black spider memos". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Jenkins, Simon (13 May 2015). "The black spider memos: a royal sigh of woe at a world gone to the dogs". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Roberts, Andrew (13 May 2015). "All the 'black spider memos' expose is the passion and dignity of Prince Charles". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Mills, Joe (14 May 2015). "'Black spider' memos: Prince Charles successfully badgered Blair over health rules". IB Times. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Booth, Robert (15 December 2015). "Revealed: Prince Charles has received confidential cabinet papers for decades". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 10 January 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
- "Prince Charles Shakes the Hand of Irish Republican Leader Gerry Adams". Time. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
- McDonald, Henry (19 May 2015). "Prince Charles and Gerry Adams share historic handshake". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "Historic handshake between Prince Charles and Gerry Adams". The Independent. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015.; Adam, Karla (19 May 2015). "Prince Charles, in Ireland, meets with Sinn Fein party leader Gerry Adams". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
- Hickey, Daniel (6 December 2016). "Man jailed over explosives find before Prince Charles's visit". Irish Times. Archived from the original on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- "Man jailed over Prince Charles bomb plot". BBC News. 7 December 2017. Archived from the original on 12 October 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.; "Dissident leader McGrane jailed for directing terrorism". RTÉ.ie. 7 December 2017. Archived from the original on 31 December 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
- "Prince Miteb bin Abdullah Receives Britain's Heir Apparent The official Saudi Press Agency". Archived from the original on 7 February 2017.
- "BAE agrees price on Typhoon jet deal with Saudi Arabia government". The Guardian. 19 February 2014. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
- "Prince Charles meets members of the Saudi royal family". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- Davies, Caroline (19 February 2014). "Prince Charles performs sword dance in Saudi Arabia". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "Crown Prince Honours BAE Systems Saudi Arabia". Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "MP criticises Prince Charles' role in BAE Systems' sale of fighter jets to Saudi Arabia". The National. 9 June 2016. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Prince Charles does not want to be used to sell arms in the Middle East". The Independent. 3 February 2015. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- "Queen's Funeral Set for Sept. 19 at Westminster Abbey". New York Times. 10 September 2022. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
- Adam, Karla (20 April 2018). "Commonwealth backs Prince Charles as its next leader". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 6 August 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
- "Event marks 50 years of Prince of Wales". BBC News. 7 March 2019. Archived from the original on 8 March 2019. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Prince Charles and Camilla make history in Cuba". BBC News. 25 March 2019. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
- Cooney, Rebecca (10 January 2020). "Prince Charles becomes International Rescue Committee's first UK patron". Third Sector. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- Hill, Erin (28 April 2021). "Prince Charles Sends Message to India amid 'Horrific' COVID-19 Surge: 'We Will Win This Battle'". People. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
- Reynolds, Emma; Foster, Max; Wilkinson, David (25 March 2020). "Prince Charles tests positive for novel coronavirus". CNN. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "Coronavirus: Prince Charles tests positive but 'remains in good health'". BBC. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- Davies, Gareth (25 March 2020). "Prince Charles tests positive for coronavirus: These are his most recent engagements". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "Warning to all as Prince Charles catches coronavirus amid 'queue jump' claims – The Yorkshire Post says". The Yorkshire Post. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.; Rudd, Andy (25 March 2020). "Coronavirus: NHS workers' fury that Prince Charles had test with "mild symptoms"". Daily Mirror. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "Prince Charles out of Self isolation after recovering from virus". The Independent. 30 March 2020. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.; Picheta, Rob; Foster, Max (30 March 2020). "Prince Charles is out of isolation after contracting coronavirus". CNN. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- "Prince Charles addresses coronavirus diagnosis, says he's 'on the other side of the illness'". USA Today. 1 April 2020. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Boseley, Matilda (24 October 2020). "Prince Charles's letter to John Kerr reportedly endorsing sacking of Whitlam condemned". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February 2022.
- Mills, Rhiannon (30 November 2021). "Barbados: Prince Charles acknowledges 'appalling' history of slavery as island becomes a republic". Sky News. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
- "All About Prince Charles's Visit to Barbados as the Country Cuts Ties with the Monarchy". Town & Country. 28 November 2021.
- "Regretful Prince Charles flies to Barbados to watch his realm become a republic". The Times. 28 November 2021.
- Ott, Haley (10 February 2022). "Britain's Prince Charles tests positive for COVID-19 for the 2nd time". CBS News. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
- Foster, Max; Said-Moorhouse, Lauren. "Britain's Queen Elizabeth tests positive for Covid-19". CNN.
- "Covid: Prince Charles and Camilla get first vaccine". BBC News. 10 February 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- Davies, Caroline (10 May 2022). "Queen remains 'very much in charge' even as Charles makes speech". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
- Dathan, Matt; Low, Valentine (10 June 2022). "Prince Charles: Flying migrants to Rwanda is 'appalling'". The Times. Retrieved 11 June 2022.(subscription required); "Rwanda deportation plan: Prince Charles 'says policy is appalling' as court rules first asylum seekers can be sent away". Sky News. 11 June 2022. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
- Wheeler, Caroline; Shipman, Tim; Nikkah, Roya (12 June 2022). "Charles won't be Prince Charming if he keeps on meddling, say ministers". The Times. Retrieved 3 July 2022.(subscription required)
- "Queen Elizabeth II passes away, Prince Charles succeeds as king". The Statesman (India). 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
- Barnes, Tom (2 January 2019). "Almost half of British public want Prince Charles to give throne to William upon Queen's death, survey finds". The Independent. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
- Kirk, Isabelle. "Public opinion of Prince Charles improves in latest royal favourability poll". YouGov. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
- "Prince Charles becomes longest-serving heir apparent". BBC News. 20 April 2011. Archived from the original on 18 July 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
- Rayner, Gordon (19 September 2013). "Prince of Wales will be oldest monarch crowned". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Pepinster, Catherine (2022). "Chapter 9: Vivat! Vivat! Vivat Rex! the next coronation". Defenders of the Faith: Queen Elizabeth II's funeral will see Christianity take centre stage. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-1399800068.
- Mahler, Kevin (14 February 2022). "Ghosts? Here's the true tale of things that go bump in the night". The Times. Retrieved 9 September 2022.
the codename for the coronation planning: 'Operation Golden Orb'
- Wheatstone, Richard (11 September 2016). "Secret committee arranging Prince Charles' coronation 'revealed after blunder'". The Mirror.
- Hyde, Nathan; Field, Becca (17 February 2022). "Prince of Wales plans for a 'scaled back' coronation ceremony with Camilla". CambridgeshireLive. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
- Arasteh, Amira (23 September 2022). "King Charles III coronation: When is he officially crowned and what happens next?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 September 2022.
- Dixon, Hayley; Gurpreet, Narwan (13 September 2022). "Coronation for the cost of living crisis as King expresses wish for 'good value'". The Times. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
- Pierce, Andrew (24 December 2005). "Call me George, suggests Charles". The Times. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2009.
- White, Michael (27 December 2005). "Charles denies planning to reign as King George". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Britain's new monarch to be known as King Charles III". Reuters. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
- "King Charles III pays tribute to his 'darling mama' in first address". BBC.com. 9 September 2022.
- "Charles formally confirmed as king in ceremony televised for first time". BBC News. 10 September 2022. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
- Ratcliffe, Rebecca (10 September 2022). "Charles III is proclaimed King". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
- "The Prince's Charities". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Mackreal, Kim (18 May 2012). "Prince Charles rallies top-level support for his Canadian causes". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "HRH The Prince of Wales". Official website. Archived from the original on 31 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
- "Royal Visit 2001". Canadianheritage.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- "Contact Us". The Prince's Charities Australia. Archived from the original on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- Dimbleby 1994, p. 250.
- "FARA Charity". FARA Enterprises. Archived from the original on 12 October 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "Charles, Prince of Wales". Planetizen. 13 September 2009. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- "Prince Charles' 60th". 10 interesting facts about Prince Charles. Planned Seniorhood. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- Text of the Prince of Wales's speech at the 150th anniversary of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Royal Gala Evening at Hampton Court Palace, 30 May 1984. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- "The Prince of Wales Accepts Vincent Scully Prize". artdaily.com. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Department of Finance (19 March 2007), The Budget Plan 2007: Aspire to a Stronger, Safer, Better Canada (PDF), Queen's Printer for Canada, p. 99, archived (PDF) from the original on 12 June 2009, retrieved 1 May 2012
- "Heritage Services". Heritage Canada Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- Hales, Linda (26 October 2005). "Prince Charles to Accept Scully Prize at Building Museum". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2013.; "The Prince of Wales Accepts Vincent Scully Prize". artdaily.com. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- "Prinţul Charles, fermier de Fălticeni" [Prince Charles, farm owner in Fălticeni]. Evenimentul Zilei (in Romanian). 13 May 2003. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013.
- "Prince opposes Dracula park". BBC News. 6 May 2002. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.; "Prince of Wales inspects IHBC work in Transylvania". Institute of Historic Building Conservation. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- "The Mihai Eminescu Trust". Mihaieminescutrust.org. Archived from the original on 24 October 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- "Cum merg afacerile printului Charles in Romania" (in Romanian). Hotnews.ro. 18 October 2006. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- "EXPLOZIV: Charles de România" (in Romanian). Ziua de Cluj. 27 October 2011. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
- "Romania: Hurray for King Charles! Palace: Vlad off, he's ours!". The Herald (Glasgow). 6 November 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
- "HRH visits the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies new building". The Prince of Wales. 9 February 2005. Archived from the original on 19 June 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2008.
- "Architects urge boycott of Prince Charles speech". NBC News. 11 May 2009. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- "Prince Charles Faces Opponents, Slams Modern Architecture". Bloomberg L.P. 12 May 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- "Architects to hear Prince appeal". BBC News. 12 May 2009. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- Booth, Robert (15 June 2009). "Prince Charles's meddling in planning 'unconstitutional', says Richard Rogers". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- Brooks, Richard (19 April 2009). "Top architects attack Prince Charles – again". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.(subscription required)
- "Chelsea Barracks developer apologises to Prince Charles". BBC. 24 July 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
- Fletcher, Pascal (2 October 2010). "Haiti taps Prince Charles charity for city makeover". Reuters. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- Booth, Robert (10 October 2010). "Prince Charles drafted in to help rebuild quake damaged Port-au-Prince". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 September 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
- Dame, Marketing Communications: Web // University of Notre. "Prince Charles honored for his architectural patronage". Notre Dame News. Archived from the original on 24 August 2020. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "About Us". Carpenters' Company website. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- Shipwrights' Company website Archived 25 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Drapers' Company website, Gardeners' Company website Archived 10 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine, and Carpenters' Company website Archived 17 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine. All Retrieved 17 June 2012. Leslie East, "Tradition and Innovation," in "Preserve Harmony," Issue 35, Autumn 2007 Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Journal of the Musicians' Company. Retrieved 27 June 2012. "HRH The Prince of Wales and HRH The Duchess of Cornwall Visit Goldsmiths' Hall," Archived 28 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine Goldsmiths' Hall website, 24 February 2011. Accessed 28 June 2013.
- "Prince Charles honored with HMS's Global Environmental Citizen Award". The Harvard Gazette. 1 February 2007. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
- Low, Valentine (19 February 2020). "No one is calling my fears over the climate dotty now, says Prince Charles". The Times. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
- Rowlatt, Justin (11 October 2021). "Prince Charles: I understand climate activists' anger". BBC. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
- Ferran, Lee (20 September 2010). "Prince Charles Eavesdrops on Tourists, Speaks to Plants". ABC News. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
- "Our Story". Duchyoriginals.com. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- Rainey, Sarah (12 November 2013). "Why Prince Charles's Duchy Originals takes the biscuit". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "The Royal Gardens at Highgrove | Prince of Wales". www.princeofwales.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 September 2022.; Aslet, Clive (12 November 2018). "Inside the private world of Prince Charles: What's life really like for our future king?". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
- "Prince Charles charms Assiniboia". CBC. 27 April 2001. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2014.; "Prince helps 'suicidal' farmers". CNN. 15 March 2001. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "What is The Mutton Renaissance?". Mutton Renaissance Campaign. Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- "Oatcakes at dawn: The truth about Duchy Originals". The Independent. 7 October 2006. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- Spangenburg, Ray; Moser, Diane (2004). "Organic and GMO-Free Foods: A Luxury?". Open For Debate: Genetic Engineering. Benchmark Books. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-8129-7980-0.
- Rosenbaum, Martin (23 January 2019). "Prince Charles warned Tony Blair against GM foods". BBC News. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
- Carrington, Damian (22 March 2017). "Princess Anne backs GM crops and livestock – unlike Prince Charles". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
- "The Prince of Wales – The Prince of Wales is presented with the 10th Global Environmental Citizen Award in New York". Prince of Wales. 28 January 2007. Archived from the original on 16 June 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- Milmo, Cahal (27 January 2007). "Prince Charles jets in to US to collect environment award". The Independent. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2014.; "Prince Charles accused of 'green hypocrisy'". CBC.ca. 19 January 2007. Archived from the original on 19 March 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Farage continued: "How can somebody like Prince Charles be allowed to come to the European Parliament at this time to announce he thinks it should have more powers? It would have been better for the country he wants to rule one day if he had stayed home and tried to persuade Gordon Brown to give the people the promised referendum [on the Treaty of Lisbon]." "UKIP anger at prince's EU speech". BBC News. 14 February 2008. Archived from the original on 17 February 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- "UK's Prince Charles blasts climate-change skeptics". Apnews.myway.com. 9 February 2011. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- "The Prince of Wales Receives Medal". KFW. 10 March 2011. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- "Prince Charles sends a message to IUCN's World Conservation Congress". International Union for Conservation of Nature. Archived from the original on 15 March 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- "Prince Charles donates £50,000 to support flooded Somerset residents". The Independent. 4 February 2014. Archived from the original on 18 June 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2014.; Rayner, Gordon (8 July 2014). "Prince Charles says speaking his mind is 'in my blood' as he returns to Somerset Levels". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.; "Prince Charles gives £50,000 to Somerset flood victims". Channel 4. 4 February 2014. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "No plan B for climate change without forests, Prince Charles tells Paris summit". The Guardian. 1 December 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
- Cartner-Morley, Jess (29 August 2019). "Vin + Omi team up with Prince Charles to launch clothing line made of nettles". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- Furness, Hannah (21 September 2020). "Prince Charles launches his own climate change 'content platform'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 30 December 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- Stacey, Danielle (25 September 2021). "Prince Charles' exciting new TV project revealed". Hello!. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
- Green, Matthew (21 September 2020). "Military-style Marshall Plan needed to combat climate change, says Prince Charles". Reuters. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
- Myers, Joe (22 January 2020). "This member of the British Royal Family has a vital message if we are to save the planet". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
- Inman, Phillip (3 June 2020). "Pandemic is chance to reset global economy, says Prince Charles". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 November 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
- Greenfield, Patrick (11 January 2021). "Prince Charles urges businesses to sign Terra Carta pledge to put planet first". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 January 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2021.; Barbiroglio, Emanuela (15 January 2021). "Prince Charles Wants Companies To Raise £7.3bn For His Earth Charter". Forbes. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- "HRH Prince Charles and Sir Jony Ive's Terra Carta Design Lab Reveals its 20 Finalists". Royal College of Art. 21 January 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2022.; Furness, Hannah (21 January 2022). "Face mask for cows among finalists for Prince Charles' climate crisis prize". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
- Campione, Katie (16 September 2021). "Prince Charles Launches 'Food for the Future' Program Aiming to Eliminate Waste". People. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
- "Prince Charles speaks of importance of UK hedgerows". BBC. 5 December 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
- "Members of the Royal Family attend G7 Summit events | Prince of Wales". www.princeofwales.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021.
- Walker, Peter (31 October 2021). "Cop26 'literally the last chance saloon' to save planet – Prince Charles". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
- Elbaum, Rachel (1 November 2021). "Prince Charles calls for 'warlike footing' in climate fight as world leaders gather". NBC. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
- Prince Charles and His Battle for Our Planet, retrieved 8 December 2021; Garlick, Hattie (11 October 2021). "How to do the Prince Charles diet – and eat the perfect amount of meat and dairy". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
- White, Stephen; Tetzlaff-Deas, Benedict; Munday, David (12 September 2022). "King Charles doesn't eat lunch and works until midnight". CornwallLive. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
- "The Prince of Wales launches climate action scholarships for small island nation students". Prince of Wales. 14 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- Hay, Katharine (7 September 2022). "Charles pledges partnership with experts to eradicate allergies after girl's death". The Independent. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
- "King Charles will not attend climate summit on Truss advice". BBC News. 1 October 2022. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- Feder, Barnaby J. (9 January 1985). "More Britons Trying Holistic Medicine". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- Bower, Tom (2018). "6". Rebel prince : the power, passion and defiance of Prince Charles. London. ISBN 9780008291754.
The first hint of his coming campaign had been his 1982 address to the annual conference of the British Medical Association. To celebrate his election as the BMA’s new president, he used the invitation to criticise the profession’s rejection of alternative or complementary therapies.; The Prince of Wales (December 2012). "Integrated health and post modern medicine". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 105 (12): 496–498. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2012.12k095. PMC 3536513. PMID 23263785.
In that same speech to the BMA in 1982, I quoted Paracelsus...; Hamilton-Smith, Anthony (9 April 1990). "Medicine: Complementary And Conventionaltreatments". Retrieved 13 September 2022.
In his address to the British Medical Association in 1983, the Prince of Wales voiced his fear that our current preoccupation with the sophistication of modern medicine would divert our attention from: "those ancient, unconscious forces, lying beneath the surface, which will help to shape the psychological attitudes of modern man."; Rainey, Sarah (12 November 2013). "Prince Charles and homeopathy: crank or revolutionary?". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 14 February 2021. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
Charles’s public devotion to alternative medicine first became clear in an address to the British Medical Association in December 1982 on the 150th anniversary of its foundation
- Rawlins, Richard (March 2013). "Response to HRH". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 106 (3): 79–80. doi:10.1177/0141076813478789. PMC 3595413. PMID 23481428.
the antipathy which greeted his speech to the BMA in 1982; Ernst, Edzard (2022). Charles, the alternative prince an unauthorised biography. ISBN 978-1788360708.
The reaction of the BMA to Charles' affront in 1982 was all too predictable; the doctors felt challenged, perhaps even insulted by someone who had used the festive occasion for displaying his own ignorance of their work.; Weissmann, Gerald (September 2006). "Homeopathy: Holmes, Hogwarts, and the Prince of Wales". The FASEB Journal. 20 (11): 1755–1758. doi:10.1096/fj.06-0901ufm. PMID 16940145. S2CID 9305843.
he caused a stir by warning the British Medical Association
- Carr-Brown, Jonathon (14 August 2005). "Charles's 'alternative GP' campaign stirs anger". The Times. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2009.(subscription required)
- Revill, Jo (27 June 2004). "Now Charles backs coffee cure for cancer". The Observer. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2007.
- "A speech by HRH The Prince of Wales on complementary therapies and cancer care, The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, London | Prince of Wales". www.princeofwales.gov.uk. 24 June 2004. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
- "Prince criticised over therapies". 8 July 2004. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
Prince Charles told a conference in June that he knew a woman who had beaten cancer after going on the Gerson diet. This diet involves eating large amounts of vegetables and fruit and having coffee enemas on a daily basis.
- Baum, Michael (10 July 2004). "An open letter to the Prince of Wales: with respect, your highness, you've got it wrong". BMJ. 329 (7457): 118. doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7457.118. PMC 449836. Retrieved 8 September 2022.; "Cancer surgeon rebukes Prince over alternative therapy support". www.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
A leading breast cancer surgeon has issued a strong rebuke to the Prince of Wales over his support for alternative therapy for cancer patients.
- Cowell, Alan (24 May 2006). "Lying in wait for Prince Charles". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 November 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- Weissmann, Gerald (September 2006). "Homeopathy: Holmes, Hogwarts, and the Prince of Wales". The FASEB Journal. 20 (11): 1755–1758. doi:10.1096/fj.06-0901ufm. PMID 16940145. S2CID 9305843.
- Henderson, Mark (17 April 2008). "Prince of Wales's guide to alternative medicine 'inaccurate'". The Times. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2008.(subscription required)
- Singh, Simon; Ernst, Edzard (2008). Trick or Treatment: Alternative Medicine on Trial. Corgi.
- Walker, Tim (31 October 2009). "Prince Charles lobbies Andy Burnham on complementary medicine for NHS". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Colquhoun, David (12 March 2007). "HRH "meddling in politics"". DC's Improbable Science. Archived from the original on 15 November 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
- Hawkes, Nigel; Henderson, Mark (1 September 2006). "Doctors attack natural remedy claims". The Times. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.(subscription required)
- Booth, Robert (26 April 2010). "Prince Charles's aide at homeopathy charity arrested on suspicion of fraud". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 May 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- FIH (30 April 2010). "Statement from the Prince's Foundation for Integrated Health". Archived from the original on 2 February 2013.
- Sample, Ian (2 August 2010). "College of Medicine born from ashes of Prince Charles's holistic health charity". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 August 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Colquhoun, David (29 October 2010). "Don't be deceived. The new "College of Medicine" is a fraud and delusion". Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.; Hawkes, Nigel (29 October 2010). "Prince's foundation metamorphoses into new College of Medicine". British Medical Journal. 341 (1): 6126. doi:10.1136/bmj.c6126. ISSN 0959-8138. S2CID 72649598. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
- "HRH The Prince of Wales is announced as College of Medicine Patron". College of Medicine. 17 December 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
- "Prince Charles: I use homeopathy in animals to cut antibiotic use". The Guardian. 12 May 2016. Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
- "Prince Charles becomes patron of homeopathy group". the Guardian. 25 June 2019. Retrieved 8 September 2022.; Whipple, Tom (26 June 2019). "Scientists attack Charles for becoming Faculty of Homeopathy patron". Retrieved 8 September 2022.; Brown, Rivkah (29 June 2019). "Opinion: Prince Charles' mission to save homeopathy is a boon for anti-science". The Independent. Retrieved 8 September 2022.; Sanai, Leyla (27 June 2019). "Prince Charles' irresponsible support for homeopathy | The Spectator". www.spectator.co.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
- "Prince Charles stops playing polo". BBC News. 17 November 2005. Archived from the original on 30 November 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- "Prince Charles taken to hospital after fall from horse". The San Diego Union-Tribune. 4 August 2001. Retrieved 6 August 2022.
- "Prince Charles Breaks Arm in Fall from Horse". Associated Press News. 28 June 1990. Retrieved 6 August 2022.; "Prince Charles to have arm surgery". UPI. 23 August 1990. Retrieved 6 August 2022.
- "Prince Charles takes sons hunting". BBC News. 30 October 1999. Archived from the original on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2007.; Watson, Jeremy (22 September 2002). "Prince: I'll leave Britain over fox hunt ban". Scotland on Sunday. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- "Charles breaks shoulder on fox hunt". CNN. 6 January 2001. Retrieved 6 August 2022.; "Prince recovers after fall". BBC. 7 January 2001. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
- A Celebration of Salmon Rivers: The World's Finest Atlantic Salmon Rivers. Edited by John B. Ashton & Adrian Latimer. Stackpole Books, 2007. p. 7.
- "Prince of Wales supports Burnley football club". The Daily Telegraph. 15 February 2012. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- "Performing Arts". Prince of Wales official website. Archived from the original on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- Hallemann, Caroline (5 November 2019). "Vintage Photos of Prince Charles at Cambridge Prove Meghan Markle Isn't the Only Actor in the Royal Family". Town & Country. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
- "A star-studded comedy gala to celebrate The Prince of Wales's 60th birthday is announced". The Prince of Wales. 30 September 2008. Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- Douglas-Fairhurst, Robert (29 December 2007). "What The Magic Circle Pulled Out of the Hat". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- "The Prince of Wales visits the BFI Southbank". Prince of Wales official website. 6 December 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
- Holland, Oscar (12 January 2022). "Prince Charles exhibits dozens of his watercolors, saying painting 'refreshes the soul'". CNN. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
- "Prince Charles wins art award". BBC News. 12 December 2001. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- "The Royal Academy Development Trust". Royal Academy. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- "Prince Charles honoured for arts work". WalesOnline. 23 November 2011. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Elizabeth Perlman, "To Be Or Not To Be: Prince Charles Takes to the Stage", Newsweek, 25 April 2016 Archived 30 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 27 April 2016
- Coughlan, Sean (10 January 2022). "Prince Charles commissions Holocaust survivor portraits". BBC. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
- "HRH the Prince of Wales : A Vision of Britain". BFI. Archived from the original on 10 September 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2012.; "Harmony Movie Website". The Harmony Movie. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012.; The Prince and the Composer, BBC Four, 1 May 2012; "Modern TV: The Princes Welsh Village". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
- "The Queen, the Church and other faiths". Official website of the British monarchy. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
- Holden 1979, pp. 141–142.
- "Prince and Camilla attend church". BBC News. 13 February 2005. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Smith, Helena (12 May 2004). "Has Prince Charles found his true spiritual home on a Greek rock?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "Princ Čarls u manastiru Kovilj". Ekspres.net (in Serbian). Retrieved 9 September 2022.
- "About OCIS". Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies. Archived from the original on 28 October 2007.; MarkfieldInstitute (29 January 2009), Introduction to MIHE, archived from the original on 8 March 2021, retrieved 29 April 2017
- Garner, Clare (17 December 1996). "Prince's guru dies aged 90". The Independent. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- "African author Laurens van der Post dies in London". Irish Times. 17 December 1996. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- "Review: In Harmony with a Philosopher King". philosophyinwessex.org. 4 January 2012. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.; "It's time for harmony between science and spirituality". positivenews.org.uk. 29 March 2013. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.; "Books of the Year – Harmony and Farundell". 6 December 2010. Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "2011 Nautilus Awards Gold Winners". Nautilus Book Awards. Archived from the original on 19 December 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
- "Britain's first Syriac Orthodox Cathedral consecrated". Anglican Communion News Service. 25 November 2016.
- "Cardinal Newman declared a saint by the Pope". BBC News. 13 October 2019. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
- "Prince Charles wishes Palestinians 'freedom, justice and equality'". The Guardian. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.; "Charles arrives in Bethlehem during historic Palestinian visit". ITV News. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- Sullivan, Kevin; Boorstein, Michelle (13 September 2022). "King Charles III may bring new approach to 'Defender of the Faith'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 September 2022. Retrieved 13 September 2022.
- Sherwood, Harriet (9 September 2022). "King Charles to be Defender of the Faith but also a defender of faiths". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 September 2022.
- "Charles vows to keep "Defender of the Faith" title as King". secularism.org.uk. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- Bartlett, Mike. "King Charles III". www.almeida.co.uk. Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Davies, Caroline (7 November 2018). "Prince Charles: 'Me, meddle as a king? I'm not that stupid'". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
- "The Man who will be King". The Milwaukee Journal. Google news. 1 October 1979. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "Patrick Jephson: Prince Charles Was Unable to Reconcile with Princess Diana's Extraordinary Popularity". The Independent. 31 August 2016. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- "Diana letter 'warned of car plot'". CNN. 20 October 2003. Retrieved 14 April 2019.; Eleftheriou-Smith, Loulla-Mae (30 August 2017). "Princess Diana letter claims Prince Charles was 'planning an accident' in her car just 10 months before fatal crash". The Independent. Retrieved 14 April 2019.; Rayner, Gordon (20 December 2007). "Princess Diana letter: 'Charles plans to kill me'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
- Badshah, Nadeem (19 June 2021). "Police interviewed Prince Charles over 'plot to kill Diana'". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
- Higham, Nick (14 September 2012). "Analysis: The Royal Family's history of legal action". BBC. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
- Duffy, Jonathan (23 November 2004). "The rise of the meritocracy". BBC News. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- Quinn, Ben (29 August 2021). "Prince of Wales charity launches inquiry into 'cash for access' claims". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
- Holden, Michael (12 November 2021). "UK Prince Charles's right-hand man quits charity role after honours report". Reuters. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
- "Prince Charles's aide steps down following claims he offered to help secure an honour for rich Saudi donor". Sky News. Retrieved 5 September 2021.
- "A thank-you letter and gift from Prince Charles for the Saudi billionaire in 'cash for honours' CBE scandal". The Times. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
- "Prince Charles aides fixed CBE for Saudi tycoon who gave £1.5m". The Times. Retrieved 5 September 2021.
- Foster, Max; Said-Moorhouse, Lauren (6 September 2021). "Former aide to Prince Charles steps down over cash-for-honors scandal". CNN. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
- Ricketts, Andy (3 December 2021). "Former Prince's Foundation chief 'co-ordinated with fixers' over honours for donor, probe finds". Third Sector. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
- Butler, Patrick (18 November 2021). "Inquiry into foundation linked to Prince of Wales launched". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
- "The UK's kleptocracy problem: How servicing post-Soviet elites weakens the rule of law" (PDF). Russia and Eurasia Programme. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 January 2022. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
- "The Russian banker, the royal fixers and a £500,000 riddle". The Times. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
- "Scottish watchdog looks into Russian donation to Prince Charles charity". The Guardian. 13 September 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
- Grierson, Jamie (19 September 2021). "Prince Charles 'cash-for-honours' scandal grows with fresh allegations". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
- "Prince's Foundation chairman Douglas Connell quits over claims charity accepted six-figure sum from Russian donor". Sky News. 15 September 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
- "Breaking: Met Police investigate cash-for-honours allegations against Prince Charles' charity". City A.M. 16 February 2022. Archived from the original on 16 February 2022. Retrieved 16 February 2022.; O'Connor, Mary (16 February 2022). "Police to investigate Prince Charles' charity". BBC. Archived from the original on 16 February 2022. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
- Pogrund, Gabriel; Keidan, Charles; Faulkner, Katherine (25 June 2022). "Prince Charles accepted €1m cash in suitcase from sheikh". The Times. Retrieved 25 June 2022.
- Connett, David (25 June 2022). "Prince Charles is said to have been given €3m in Qatari cash". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 June 2022.
- "Prince Charles: Charity watchdog reviewing information over reports royal accepted carrier bag full of cash as a charity donation from Qatar ex-PM". Sky News. 27 June 2022. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
- Coughlan, Sean (20 July 2022). "Prince Charles: No inquiry into £2.5m cash donation to his charity". BBC. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
- Pogrund, Gabriel; Keidan, Charles (30 July 2022). "Prince Charles accepted £1m from family of Osama bin Laden". The Times. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
- "Prince Charles dined with Bin Laden's brother". The Guardian. 13 October 2001. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
- Furness, Hannah (1 August 2022). "Prince Charles's charity won't be investigated for accepting bin Laden family £1m donation". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
- Dellatto, Marisa. "Prince Charles Reportedly Will Not Accept Bags Of Cash Again Amid Charity Scandal". Forbes. Retrieved 11 September 2022.
- Williams, Rhys (7 September 1994). "'Hunky' Prince is exposed to public gaze". The Independent. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
- "German Tabloid Publishes Photo of Nude Prince Charles". Los Angeles Times. 8 September 1994. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
- London's first daily newspaper, the Daily Courant, was published in 1702.
- Woods, Audrey (11 March 2002). "Prince Charles Addresses Editors". AP News Archive. Archived from the original on 18 September 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- "Transcript: Princes' comments". BBC News. 31 March 2005. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Charles 'adopted dissident role'". BBC News. 21 February 2006. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- Dimbleby, Jonathan (16 November 2008). "Prince Charles: Ready for active service". The Times. UK. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2009.(subscription required)
- Burrell, Ian (2 December 2015). "The 15-page contract that reveals how Charles tries to control the media". The Independent. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
- "Prince stars in live soap". BBC News. 8 December 2000. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Bro'Town Goes Global". Yahoo. Archived from the original on 1 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.; Smith, Dave (10 May 2012). "Prince Charles, The Weather Man: Watch His On-Air Debut For BBC Scotland [VIDEO]". IB Times. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- Lowri Williams, "Ant and Dec to Interview Prince Charles, William and Harry", on Entertainmentwise, 24 March 2006. Retrieved 17 June 2012. Archived 9 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Prince Charles reflects on 40 years of The Prince's Trust". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Prince Charles: The Royal Restoration". What's on TV. 29 May 2012. Archived from the original on 23 November 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- "Prince Charles reads weather on BBC Scotland: 'Thank God it isn't a bank holiday!'". The Guardian. 10 May 2012. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- Burrell, Ian (2 December 2015). "Prince Charles: The 15-page contract that reveals how the Prince of Wales tries to control the media". The Independent. Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
- "Clarence House". www.royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 13 June 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "Prince Charles moves into Clarence House". BBC News. 2 August 2003. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
- "Living off the State: A Critical Guide to UK Royal Finance" Jon Temple, 2nd Edition, 2012
- "Committee publishes report on the Duchy of Cornwall accounts". parliament.uk. 5 November 2013. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- "The Prince of Wales – Welsh property for The Duchy of Cornwall". Prince of Wales. 22 November 2006. Archived from the original on 9 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Objection to prince's house plan". BBC News. 7 June 2007. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall inhabit Llwynywermod for first time". Clarence House. 23 June 2008. Archived from the original on 9 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Royal Residences". princeofwales.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- "Birkhall". The Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- "Royal retreat for grieving prince". BBC News. 10 April 2002. Archived from the original on 14 May 2004. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
- Riley-Smith, Ben (22 October 2016). "Queen facing million-pound black hole in estate finances after Brexit". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 15 June 2020. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
- "Sovereign Grant Act 2011: guidance". www.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- Booth, Robert (14 December 2012). "Prince Charles's £700m estate accused of tax avoidance". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- "Prince Charles's estate made big profit on stake in friend's offshore firm". The Guardian. 7 November 2017. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017.
- "King Charles: New royal cypher revealed". BBC News. 26 September 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
- "King Charles: New royal cypher revealed". BBC News. 26 September 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
- "The London Gazette, Issue 38452, Page 5889". 9 November 1948.
- "HRH The Duke of Edinburgh". College of Arms. 9 April 2021. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
- "Prince Philip's Duke of Edinburgh title will pass to another royal when Charles is king". 9Honey. 12 April 2021. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
- "Who is Duke of Edinburgh now?". National World. 12 September 2022.
- Greeting a member of The Royal Family, Royal Household, 15 January 2016, retrieved 18 April 2016
- "The Prince of Wales visits the Royal Gurkha Rifles and Knole House". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "The Queen Appoints the Prince of Wales to Honorary Five-Star rank". The Prince of Wales website. 16 June 2012. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.; "Prince Charles awarded highest rank in all three armed forces". The Daily Telegraph. 16 June 2012. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.; "No. 60350". The London Gazette. 7 December 2012. p. 23557.
- "Royal Cypher". College of Arms. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
- "Standards". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 7 June 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- "The Prince of Wales". Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges. Office of the Governor General of Canada: Canadian Heraldic Authority. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- Paget, Gerald (1977). The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (2 vols). Edinburgh: Charles Skilton. ISBN 978-0-284-40016-1.
- Brandreth, Gyles (2007). Charles and Camilla: Portrait of a Love Affair. Random House. ISBN 978-0-09-949087-6.
- Dimbleby, Jonathan (1994). The Prince of Wales: A Biography. William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-12996-X.
- Holden, Anthony (1979). Prince Charles. Atheneum. ISBN 978-0-593-02470-6.
- Junor, Penny (2005). The Firm: The Troubled Life of the House of Windsor. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-35274-5. OCLC 59360110.
- Lacey, Robert (2008). Monarch: The Life and Reign of Elizabeth II. Free Press. ISBN 978-1-4391-0839-0.
- Smith, Sally Bedell (2000). Diana in Search of Herself: Portrait of a Troubled Princess. Signet. ISBN 978-0-451-20108-9.
- Benson, Ross (1994). Charles: The Untold Story. St Martins Press. ISBN 978-0-312-10950-9.
- Bower, Tom (2018). The Rebel Prince, The Power, Passion and Defiance of Prince Charles. William Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-829173-0.
- Brown, Michèle (1980). Prince Charles. Crown. ISBN 978-0-517-54019-0.
- Campbell, J. (1981). Charles: Prince of Our Times. Smithmark. ISBN 978-0-7064-0968-0.
- Cathcart, Helen (1977). Prince Charles: The biography (illustrated ed.). Taplinger Pub. Co; Ltd. ISBN 978-0-8008-6555-9.
- Fisher, Graham; Fisher, Heather (1977). Charles: The Man and the Prince. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7091-6095-3.
- Gilleo, Alma (1978). Prince Charles: Growing Up in Buckingham Palace. Childs World. ISBN 978-0-89565-029-0.
- Graham, Caroline (2005). Camilla and Charles: The Love Story. John Blake. ISBN 978-1-84454-195-9.
- Heald, Tim; Mohrs, Mayo (1979). The Man Who Will Be King H.R.H. (Prince of Wales Charles). New York: Arbor House.
- Hedley, Olwen (1969). Charles, 21st Prince of Wales. Pitkin Pictorials. ISBN 978-0-85372-027-0.
- Hodgson, Howard (2007). Charles: The Man Who Will Be King (illustrated ed.). John Blake Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84454-306-9.
- Holden, Anthony (1988). King Charles III: A Biography. Grove. ISBN 978-1-55584-309-0.
- Holden, Anthony (1998). Charles at Fifty. Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50175-3.
- Holden, Anthony (1999). Charles: A Biography. Corgi Books. ISBN 978-0-552-99744-7.
- Jencks, Charles (1988). Prince, Architects & New Wave Monarchy. Rizzoli. ISBN 978-0-8478-1010-9.
- Jobson, Robert (2018). Charles at Seventy – Thoughts, Hopes & Dreams: Thoughts, Hopes and Dreams. John Blake. ISBN 978-1-78606-887-3.
- Junor, Penny (1998). Charles: Victim or Villain?. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-255900-3.
- Lane, Peter (1988). Prince Charles: a study in development. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-3320-2.
- Liversidge, Douglas (1975). Prince Charles: monarch in the making. A. Barker. ISBN 978-0-213-16568-0.
- Martin, Christopher (1990). Prince Charles and the Architectural Debate (Architectural Design Profile). St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-04048-2.
- Mayer, Catherine (2015). Born to Be King: Prince Charles on Planet Windsor. Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 978-1-62779-438-1.
- Mayer, Catherine (2015). Charles: The Heart of a King. Random House. ISBN 978-0-7535-5593-4.
- Nugent, Jean (1982). Prince Charles, England's Future King. Dillon. ISBN 978-0-87518-226-1.
- Regan, Simon (1977). Charles, the Clown Prince. Everest Books. ISBN 978-0-905018-50-8.
- Smith, Sally Bedell (2017). Prince Charles: The Passions and Paradoxes of an Improbable Life. Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-8129-7980-0.
- Veon, Joan M. (1997). Prince Charles: The Sustainable Prince. Hearthstone. ISBN 978-1-57558-021-0.
- Wakeford, Geoffrey (1962). Charles, Prince of Wales. Associated Newspapers.