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Death and state funeral of Elizabeth II

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Death and state funeral of Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II lying-in-state at Westminster Hall
Top to bottom, left to right:
  1. Crowds at Buckingham Palace following the death of Elizabeth II.
  2. Floral tributes left outside the Sandringham Estate
  3. Images of the Queen flank an escalator at Tottenham Court Road station.
  4. The procession leaves Westminster Abbey after the state funeral.
  5. Notice of the Queen's death posted at Holyrood Palace.
  6. Elizabeth II lying-in-state at Westminster Hall
Date
  • 8 September 2022 (2022-09-08)
  • (death)
  • 12 September 2022 (2022-09-12)
  • (Scottish thanksgiving service)
  • 19 September 2022 (2022-09-19)
  • (state funeral and interment)
Location
Coordinates57°2′27″N 3°13′48″W / 57.04083°N 3.23000°W / 57.04083; -3.23000
ParticipantsList of dignitaries at the state funeral

On 8 September 2022, Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms, and the oldest living and longest-reigning British monarch, died at the age of 96 at Balmoral Castle in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Her death was publicly announced at 18:30 BST. She was succeeded by her eldest child, Charles III.

The Queen's death set in motion Operation London Bridge, a collection of plans including arrangements for her funeral, including Operation Unicorn, which set protocols for the Queen's death occurring in Scotland. The United Kingdom observed a national mourning period of 10 days. The Queen lay in state in Westminster Hall from 14 to 19 September, during which time an estimated 250,000 people queued to pay their respects.

A state funeral service was held at Westminster Abbey on 19 September, followed by a committal service at St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. The Queen was interred within King George VI Memorial Chapel at St George's. The occasion of her state funeral was a public holiday in the UK and several Commonwealth states. The state funeral was one of the United Kingdom's most watched special events, surpassing the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, the previous most watched royal event of the 21st century.[1]

Background

The Queen had been in good health for most of her life but began to decline after the death of her husband, Prince Philip, on 9 April 2021.[2] The most visible sign of this was that the Queen began to use a walking stick for public engagements in October 2021.[3] On 20 October the Queen stayed overnight in King Edward VII's Hospital in central London, requiring scheduled visits to Northern Ireland and the COP26 summit in Glasgow to be cancelled. She also suffered from a sprained back in November which prevented her from attending the 2021 National Service of Remembrance.[4][5][6][7]

In February 2022, during the COVID-19 pandemic in England, the Queen was one of several people at Windsor Castle to test positive for COVID-19.[8][9] Her symptoms were described as mild and cold-like, and she later commented that the disease "does leave one very tired and exhausted".[10][11] The monarch's health became a cause of concern to commentators at this time.[12][13]

The Queen was said to be feeling well enough to resume her official duties by 1 March 2022 and attended the service of thanksgiving for Prince Philip at Westminster Abbey on 29 March.[14][15] Despite this the Queen did not attend several appointments over the following months, including the annual Commonwealth Day service in March, the Royal Maundy service in April, the State Opening of Parliament in May, and the National Service of Thanksgiving for her Platinum Jubilee in June.[16][17][18][19] During the Jubilee the Queen also suffered "discomfort" after standing during Trooping the Colour and was largely confined to balcony appearances during the celebrations.[20]

Two days before her death, on 6 September 2022, the Queen accepted the resignation of Boris Johnson and appointed Liz Truss to succeed him as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom; these meetings took place at Balmoral Castle, rather than their usual location at Buckingham Palace.[21] On 7 September she was scheduled to attend an online meeting of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom to swear in new ministers in Truss's government, but this was cancelled after she was advised to rest by doctors.[22] The Queen's final public statement, issued that same day, was a message of condolences for the victims of the 2022 Saskatchewan stabbings.[23]

Death and national mourning

Death and announcement

The death of the Queen was publicly announced on 8 September 2022 at 18:30 BST; the royal family, Prime Minister, and other politicians were informed earlier in the day.[24][25] Elizabeth II was the first British monarch to die in Scotland since James V in 1542.[26][27]

Members of the royal family travelled to Balmoral Castle throughout the day. Prince Charles arrived at 10:30 and was met by Princess Anne, who was already staying with the Queen.[28][29] Charles and Anne are the only members of the royal family confirmed to have been with the Queen when she died.[28][30] Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, also travelled to Balmoral, though it is unclear when.[28] Prince William, Prince Andrew, Prince Edward, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex, left RAF Northolt on board a flight to Aberdeen Airport and arrived at Balmoral shortly after 17:00; Catherine and Meghan did not join them.[29][31][32][33] Prince Harry, who had travelled alone and departed later than the other family members, arrived at Balmoral at 20:00.[28]

Prime Minister Liz Truss was informed that the Queen was gravely ill that morning by the Cabinet Secretary, Simon Case, and received an update at 12:00.[34] The Leader of the Opposition, Sir Keir Starmer, was informed by a note passed to him by Deputy Leader Angela Rayner during a speech he was giving in the House of Commons.[a][35][36][37] At 12:30 Buckingham Palace made a public announcement expressing concern for the Queen's health; the Speaker, Sir Lindsay Hoyle, made a brief statement of good wishes in response.[b][36][38][39]

Truss was informed at 16:30 that the Queen had died, and the royal family announced her death two hours later via

BBC One continuously covered the Queen's condition from 12:40, after the first official statement, and special reports were also run on ITV, Channel 4, and Channel 5.[43][44] British television announcements of the Queen's death began at 18:31, when news presenter Huw Edwards read the royal family's statement during a live broadcast on the BBC News channel and BBC One. At 18:32 the presenters of BBC Radio 4 and BBC Radio 5 Live made similar announcements.[44]

After the announcement the Union Flags at Buckingham Palace and 10 Downing Street were lowered to half-mast.[45][46] At Balmoral Castle the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom was lowered and then raised again, as the new king was present. The Royal Banner of Scotland was lowered to half-mast at the Palace of Holyroodhouse, as was the Welsh flag at Cardiff Castle.[46][47] Huge crowds gathered outside royal residences, and rainbows were seen above Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle.[48]

Scottish events

The Queen's death in Scotland meant that Operation Unicorn was the first part of Operation London Bridge to take effect.[49] The Queen's body was transported to Edinburgh where ceremonial events took place, before her body was transported to London for the state funeral.

The Queen's coffin left Balmoral Castle at 10:46 on 11 September, draped with the Scottish version of the

On 12 September the Queen's coffin was carried up the Royal Mile to St Giles' Cathedral in a procession which included the King, Princess Anne and Timothy Laurence, Prince Andrew, Prince Edward, the Bearer Party from the Royal Regiment of Scotland, and the Royal Company of Archers.[56][57][58][59] The Queen Consort and the Countess of Wessex followed closely in their car.[60] Guns were fired every minute from Edinburgh Castle during the procession.[57] On arrival the coffin was carried into the cathedral and the Crown of Scotland placed on it.[61]

A service of thanksgiving was then held to celebrate the Queen's life and highlight her association with Scotland.[62][57][58] The service was led by the Rev Calum Macleod and the homily given by the Moderator of the Church of Scotland, the Rev Dr Iain Greenshields.[e][64] Psalm 118 was sung in Gaelic by Karen Matheson.[65] It was attended by the royal party; politicians, including Liz Truss and Nicola Sturgeon; and representatives from the Queen's Scottish charities and organisations.[57]

The Queen's coffin lay at rest at the cathedral for 24 hours, guarded by the Royal Company of Archers, which allowed around 33,000 people to file past the coffin.[62][66] In the evening the King, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew, and Prince Edward held a vigil at the cathedral, a custom known as the Vigil of the Princes; Princess Anne was the first woman to participate.[62][67]

On 13 September the Queen's coffin was taken by hearse to Edinburgh Airport and flown to RAF Northolt on a Royal Air Force C-17 Globemaster, accompanied by Princess Anne and Timothy Laurence.[68] The Royal Air Force Bearer Party carried the coffin onto the aircraft and a Guard of Honour was formed by the Royal Regiment of Scotland.[69] During the journey the Scottish version of the Royal Standard that draped the coffin was replaced by the Royal Standard that is used in the remainder of the United Kingdom.[70]

Lying-in-state

Upon the Queen's arrival in London she was transported to Westminster Hall for her lying-in-state before the state funeral.

When the Queen arrived at RAF Northolt the Queen's Colour Squadron (63 Squadron RAF Regiment) assumed the role of the Bearer Party and formed the Guard of Honour.[69] The coffin was placed in the state hearse and transported through London to Buckingham Palace, with people lining the street to watch.[69][71] The coffin was then placed in the Bow Room at Buckingham Palace in the presence of the royal family.[f][71][72]

The Queen's coffin was taken in a military procession from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Hall on a horse-drawn gun carriage of the King's Troop Royal Horse Artillery.[g] The King, male members of the royal family, and Princess Anne followed the coffin on foot.[h][73][74][75] This procession, as well the other processions held later in London and Windsor, marched at the funeral pace of 75 steps per minute and was accompanied by military bands playing marches by Ludwig van Beethoven, Felix Mendelssohn and Frédéric Chopin.[73][76] Big Ben tolled each minute of the procession and minute guns were fired from Hyde Park by the King's Troop Royal Horse Artillery.[73][77]

Members of the three armed forces formed a guard of honour to receive the coffin at Parliament Square, after which soldiers from the Queen's Company, 1st Battalion Grenadier Guards, placed the coffin on a catafalque in Westminster Hall.[73] The Archbishop of Canterbury and the Dean of Westminster then conducted a service in the presence of the royal family.[62]

The Queen lay in state in Westminster Hall from 17:00 on 14 September to 06:30 on 19 September.[62] The coffin was guarded by members of both the Sovereign's Bodyguard[i] and the Household Division.[j][k] The Imperial State Crown and a wreath of flowers and foliage from Balmoral and Windsor castles had been placed on the coffin before the procession, and to these were added the Sovereign's Orb and the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross; the Wanamaker Cross of Westminster was placed at its head, and the regimental flag of The Queen's Company of The Grenadier Guards at its foot.[79][80] An estimated 250,000 members of the public filed past the coffin, as did politicians and other public figures.[81][82] Both the BBC and ITV offered a livestream of the Queen lying-in-state.[83][84] On 16 September, a 28-year-old man was arrested under the Public Order Act after he ran from the queue inside Westminster Hall and touched the coffin.[85][86]

In the evening of 16 September the King and his siblings held a vigil around the Queen's coffin for approximately ten minutes, and on 17 September the Queen's eight grandchildren did the same.[87][88] Prince Andrew and Prince Harry were permitted to wear military uniform on these occasions, who as non-working royals had not done at previous ceremonial events.[89][90][87]

The Queue

The route of the Queue along the River Thames. The front is in Westminster Hall (left), and at its greatest extent the back is in Southwark Park (right).

Two queues were formed to view the lying-in-state, beginning 48 hours before Westminster Hall opened to the public.[91] At its maximum extent the main queue was approximately 10 miles (16 km) long and had a waiting time of over 25 hours.[92][93] This queue attracted much media attention, with many commentators noting the stereotype that British people are good at queueing.[94][95][96][97] The accessible queue, for people with a disability or long-term condition, operated a ticket system and was therefore shorter.[98]

The queue experience was generally perceived to be positive, however there was an allegation of a man comitting sexual assault by exposing himself, and some heckling of queuers.[99][100][101] The London Ambulance Service also had to assist 710 people, mainly due to head injuries from fainting.[102][103]

State funeral

Planning

Plans for the Queen's death have existed in some form since the 1960s, and the Queen was consulted about all the details included in her funeral plan.[104][105] The Earl Marshal was in charge of organising the event.[105]

The planning and complexity of the funeral was compared to the that of Winston Churchill in 1965, the last state funeral held in Britain and also a major international event.[106][107][108][109] The Foreign Office handled the invitations, communications, and security arrangements from a headquarters called "The Hangar", redeploying 300 staff to manage the task.[110] 500 foreign dignitaries and heads of state were expected to attend. Invitations were issued to every country with which Britain maintains diplomatic relations, with the exception of Russia, Belarus, and Myanmar; Syria, Venezuela and Afghanistan were also asked not to attend.[109][111] The timing of the funeral allowed guests who planned to address the general debate of the UN General Assembly the following day sufficient time to fly to New York.[109]

The day of the funeral was a bank holiday in the United Kingdom.[107][108] Many businesses, workplaces, and educational establishments closed for the day, including major supermarkets and the London Stock Exchange.[112][113][114][115] In the National Health Service several trusts chose to cancel or reschedule all non-urgent appointments.[116][117][118] Several food banks announced that they would close on the day of the funeral, though some remained open after facing public backlash.[119][120]

Hotel prices increased in the days before the funeral in London.[121] Extra train services were made available across the country to allow people to travel to and from London and pay their respects for the lying-in-state and funeral service.[122][123][124] Westminster City Council deployed its "Clean Streets" team to clean up different areas within central London.[121]

Procession to Westminster Abbey

At 10:44 on 19 September the Queen's coffin was moved from Westminster Hall to Westminster Abbey on the State Gun Carriage of the Royal Navy.[125] The carriage was drawn by Royal Navy sailors, known as Naval Ratings, maintaining a tradition which began at the state funeral of Queen Victoria.[126] The King, members of the royal family, and members of the King's household walked behind.[127][107][128] Non-working royals, including the Duke of York and the Duke of Sussex, did not wear military uniforms for the state funeral and the committal service. A wreath with foliage cut from the gardens of Buckingham Palace, Highgrove House, and Clarence House was placed on the coffin, together with a note from the King which read "In loving and devoted memory. Charles R."[l][129] Before the service the tenor bell of the Abbey rang once a minute for 96 minutes, once for each year of the Queen's life.[130] The coffin arrived at Westminster Abbey at 10:52.[131] During the arrival at the abbey, a spider landed on the coffin. Many commentators noted that spiders landing on coffins are sign of a good omen.[132]

Funeral service

Music by British composers was played before the service, and as the coffin entered the abbey the choir sang the five sentences set to music.[m][130] The service began at 11:00 and was conducted by the Dean of Westminster, David Hoyle, according to the 1662 Book of Common Prayer.[134][130][135] The lessons were read by Baroness Scotland, Secretary General of the Commonwealth, and Liz Truss, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and the sermon and commendation were given by the Archbishop of Canterbury.[130][136] Prayers were said by clergy from several Christian denominations.[137][n]

The music included the psalm setting 'Like as the hart' by Judith Weir and the anthem 'Who shall separate us?' by James MacMillan, both written for the funeral, as well as pieces performed at the Queen's coronation and wedding.[o] The Choir of Westminster Abbey and Choir of the Chapel Royal led the singing, and were conducted by James O'Donell.[133]

The end of the service included a sounding of the "Last Post" and a two-minute silence, which was concluded with the "Reveille".[131] The National Anthem, followed by the bagpipe lament "Sleep, dearie, sleep", marked the end of the ceremony.[130] The "Allegro maestoso" from Elgar's Organ Sonata in G was played after the service.[133]

Processions in London and Windsor

Two processions followed the service. The first was from Westminster Abbey to Wellington Arch, where the Queen's coffin was placed in the state hearse. From there it was transported to Windsor, where the second procesion took place through Windsor Great Park.

The procession in London began at 12:15 and included around 3,000 military personnel, stretching for over a mile. It began at the abbey and passed down Whitehall, through Horse Guards, and up The Mall to end at the Wellington Arch near Hyde Park. Around a million people lined the streets of central London to watch the event.[138]

At the front of the procession were representatives of Commonwealth forces, then representatives of the Royal Air Force, the British Army, and the Royal Navy and Royal Marines, followed by defence staff and armed forces chaplains, officers of arms, and the royal household.[139] The Queen's coffin followed, again on the State Gun Carriage pulled by Royal Navy sailors, and surrounded by an escort party.[139] The King and royal family members were next, some marching and some in cars, with a further escot and the household of the former Prince of Wales behind.[139] At the rear of the procession were representatives of civilian services.[139]

Seven military bands were dispersed through the procession, and again played funeral marches.[139][140] Big Ben tolled each minute and minute guns were fired from Hyde Park by the King's Troop Royal Horse Artillery.[131] Standards were lowered and those in the procession gave salutes as they passed the Cenotaph. At Buckingham Palace the King's Guard gave a royal salute to the Victoria Memorial and Palace staff waited outside the gates.[125][141] At Wellington Arch the coffin was transferred with a royal salute to the state hearse for the journey to Windsor.[131] The hearse left London for Windsor at 13:30, accompanied by Princess Anne and Timothy Laurence, travelling on A roads rather than motorways to allow the public to line the route.[142][143]

At 15:00 the coffin arrived in Windsor, where a final procession involving 1,000 military personnel took place down the Long Walk to St George's Chapel.[144][131] Around 97,000 people lined the route.[144][138] The Queen's fell pony, Emma, and two royal corgis, Muick and Sandy, stood at the side of the procession.[145] The King and royal family joined the procession in the Quadrangle, during which Sebastopol Bell and the Curfew Tower bell tolled and the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery, fired minute guns from the East Lawn of the castle.[131] At the end of the procession the coffin was taken to St George's Chapel via the West Steps with the guard of honour formed by the 1st Battalion Grenadier Guards.[131]

Committal service

The committal service began at 16:00 in the presence of 800 guests, largely made up of the royal household and staff from the Queen's private estates, but also including the royal family, governors general, and prime ministers from the Commonwealth realms.[107][131][144]The Choir of St George's Chapel led the music, which included "The Russian Kontakion of the Departed", also sung at the funeral of Prince Philip.[p][146] A selection of music was also played before the service.[146][147][q]

The Dean of Windsor, who conducted the service, read the bidding the readings, and the commendation.[107][146][147][131] The first reading was Revelation 21, verses 1–7, which was also included in the order of service for the funerals of Elizabeth's grandparents and father.[146] The Rector of Sandringham, the Minister of Crathie Kirk and the Chaplain of Windsor Great Park delivered the prayers, and the Archbishop of Canterbury gave the concluding blessing.[131]

Near the end of the service the Imperial State Crown, orb, and sceptre were removed from the coffin and placed on the altar.[105][131][146] The King then placed the Queen's Company Camp Colour of the Grenadier Guards on his mother's coffin, before the Lord Chamberlain symbolically broke his wand of office and also placed its halves atop the coffin.[131][147] After this the Garter Principal King of Arms recited the styles of Elizabeth II and Charles III, between which a lament — "A Salute to the Royal Fendersmith" — was played by the Sovereign's Piper. The singing of the National Anthem marked the end of the ceremony.[131][147]

Interment

The Queen was interred in a private service at 19:30 in the crypt of the King George VI Memorial Chapel within St George's Chapel. She lies alongside her parents, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, the ashes of her sister, Princess Margaret, and Prince Philip, who was buried next to her.[141][144]

Elizabeth II's coffin was made over 30 years before the funeral.[148][149][r] It is made of English oak and lined with lead to protect from moisture damage. Due to the weight, eight pallbearers were required for carrying rather than the usual six.[148][149]

Organisation and media

Attendees

The service at Westminster Abbey was attended by 2,000 people in total, including holders of the George Cross and Victoria Cross, representatives from the United Kingdom's faith communities, and foreign and Commonwealth heads of state and heads of government.[130][144][150]

Due to the limited number of seats, foreign invitees were asked to keep their delegations as small as possible and to only bring their spouses.[151] The UK government also requested those travelling by air to use commercial flights; private flights were directed away from Heathrow Airport.[151] Additionally, the government asked guests not to use private cars to travel to Westminster Abbey, and instead use government-provided "coach transport from a central assembly point".[151] This was only guidance; leaders including the US President, Joe Biden, the President of Israel, Isaac Herzog, and the Vice President of China, Wang Qishan, were taken to the event through other means.[110][152] Many dignitaries were present for a reception by the King at Buckingham Palace on the eve of the funeral, and all international guests were invited to attend a reception hosted by the Foreign Secretary, James Cleverly, after the funeral service.[110][151]

Security

Police officers from Wales on duty in Sloane Square
London prior to the funeral

Around 10,000 police officers were expected to be on duty every day in London during the mourning period, a security operation described by the Metropolitan Police as the "biggest the UK has ever seen"; officers from across the country supported the operation under mutual aid agreements.[153][154][155] Thames Valley Police announced that they would introduce new water patrols for observing busy waterways in the lead-up to the funeral, and mounted police officers, police dogs, and drones provided part of the security in Windsor.[155][156][157][158] Prior to the service a special unit, the Fixated Threat Assessment Centre, began to monitor and review individuals identified as having a potentially dangerous obsession with the British royal family.[159]

MI5 and GCHQ worked in collaboration with counter terrorism police and the Metropolitan Police to provide security for the funeral.[160] A group of 1,500 military personnel was also deployed, and Westminster was inspected by a military Wildcat helicopter.[160] 'Hundreds' of stewards from private security firms were hired to aid crowd management.[160]

Cost

The funeral costs are being paid by British taxpayers. The total cost has not been published, but it is expected to exceed the £5.4 million paid for the funeral of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.[161][162]

Coverage

United Kingdom

The funeral was broadcast by the BBC, ITV, and Sky, with the latter two simulcasting the service on all of their channels and not showing advertisements.[163][164][non-primary source needed][165] The BBC Two broadcast included British Sign Language interpretation.[166] BBC Radio broadcast events on Radio 2, 3, 4, 5 Live, the World Service, and its Local Radio network.[167][168][non-primary source needed][169] Global's radio brands also broadcast their own coverage.[170]

Big screens were set up at cathedrals and public areas to broadcast the service.[171] Shops, licensed establishments, parish and public halls remained open in Jersey to allow people to watch the Queen's funeral.[172]

The Palace requested that video footage did not "intrude on the grief" of individual members of the royal family, that the funeral only be used in news coverage, not in entertainment programmes, and that five short pieces of video featuring members of the royal family would not be broadcast again.[173]

Commonwealth

International

Virtually all national public broadcasters in Western Europe broadcast live coverage of the funeral in place of normal programming on their flagship television channels (excluding Austria, Malta and San Marino), and most major private broadcast networks in Western Europe also suspended normal programming schedules to provide live coverage of the funeral.

The following networks, channels and institutions provided live coverage of the funeral:

Viewing figures

The television broadcast was the second most watched broadcast during the 21st century in the United Kingdom (after the prime ministerial statement on COVID-19 during the lockdown) and the third most watched royal event in British history (surpassing the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, and approaching the weddings of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, and Princess Anne and Mark Philips).[248]

The funeral was viewed by some as being the end of the television era.[249] Her coronation was the first major world event to be broadcast globally drawing an estimated 277 million viewers. Many people bought a television set for the first time in order to be able to view the event.[250]

Despite animosity over the association with colonialism, the event drew a large number of viewers from Asian countries formerly part of the British Empire due to the expectation of quaintness, tradition and pomp-and-ceremony.[251]

Country Estimated peak
TV viewers (millions)
Ref.
Australia 5.17 During peak viewership, nearly three-quarters of free-to-air television viewers across Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide were watching the funeral [252]
Canada 13.2 [253]
Czech Republic 0.74 3.8 million watched at least part of the programme [254]
France 8 66% audience share [255]
Germany 11.5 [256]
Greece 2.8 Skai and Open only [210]
Italy 6 TG1 and Canale 5 only [257]
Netherlands 1.4 2.1 million watched a summary of the funeral that evening [258]
Norway 0.96 NRK only [259]
Spain 4.158 RTVE only, 7.8 million on the RTVE internet platforms [260]
United Kingdom 28.0 [1]
United States 10.0 [261]

Succession and royal tour

Accession

Upon the Queen's death, her eldest child Charles, Prince of Wales, immediately acceded to the throne of the United Kingdom as King Charles III.[42][262]

There was some speculation regarding the regnal name that would be adopted by the former Prince of Wales upon succeeding his mother. During her formal televised address outside 10 Downing Street, Prime Minister Liz Truss made the first mention of the King's regnal name during a tribute to the Queen.[263] Clarence House officially confirmed the new King would be known as Charles III shortly after the Prime Minister's address. Buckingham Palace released the King's first official statement as monarch at 19:04:

The death of my beloved Mother, Her Majesty The Queen, is a moment of the greatest sadness for me and all members of my family.

We mourn profoundly the passing of a cherished Sovereign and a much-loved Mother. I know her loss will be deeply felt throughout the country, the Realms and the Commonwealth, and by countless people around the world.

During this period of mourning and change, my family and I will be comforted and sustained by our knowledge of the respect and deep affection in which The Queen was so widely held.

— King Charles III, in an official press statement[264]

Most of Charles III's pre-accession Scottish titles, as well as the title Duke of Cornwall, were passed to his eldest son and the new heir apparent to the throne, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge. On 9 September, William was named Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, succeeding his father.[265]

The Accession Council assembled on 10 September at St James's Palace to formally proclaim the accession of Charles III.[266] Although about seven hundred people were eligible to attend the ceremony, because the event was planned on such short notice, the number in attendance was two hundred.[267] In addition to other formalities, the Council de jure confirmed "Charles III" as the King's regnal name.[268] At 11:00, 21-gun salutes at the Tower of London, Cardiff Castle, Edinburgh Castle, Castle Cornet, Gibraltar, and naval bases and ships at sea marked the accession of Charles III.[269][270][271] The King greeted crowds outside Buckingham Palace after the ceremony.[272]

No dates have been announced yet for the coronation of Charles III and Camilla, or for the investiture of Prince William as the new Prince of Wales. Because the respective succession and appointment have already occurred, the ceremonies are merely a formality.[273]

Royal tour of the UK

King Charles III and Queen Camilla travelled from Balmoral to Buckingham Palace, where they greeted the crowd of mourners outside the gates.[274] The King then held an audience with the Prime Minister before paying tribute to his mother in a publicly broadcast message.[275][276] In Charles's first address as King he stated that a national period of mourning would be observed until the day after the state funeral (19 September), and an additional seven days would be observed by the royal family, royal household, and troops on ceremonial duties.[277][278]

On 11 September, the King met the Commonwealth Secretary General at Buckingham Palace, after which he hosted the High Commissioners of Commonwealth realms.[62]

Motion of Condolence in the Scottish Parliament

On 12 September, the King travelled to Westminster Hall with the Queen Consort to receive condolences from the House of Commons and the House of Lords and to give a speech to both houses.[57][279] He and the Queen Consort then travelled to the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh, where they greeted members of the public and viewed floral tributes before the King inspected the Guard of Honour from the Royal Regiment of Scotland.[57][280] The Ceremony of the Keys followed.[57] The King then had an audience at Holyroodhouse with the First Minister of Scotland, Nicola Sturgeon, and the Presiding Officer of the Scottish Parliament, Alison Johnstone.[62][58] The King and the Queen Consort visited the Scottish Parliament to receive a motion of condolence and observed a two-minute silence with MSPs.[280][58][281]

On 13 September, the King and the Queen Consort travelled to Northern Ireland, where they met with members of the public in Royal Hillsborough before arriving at the Castle.[282][283] The King met the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Chris Heaton-Harris, and party leaders, and the Speaker of the Northern Ireland Assembly, Alex Maskey, delivered a message of condolence.[284][62][285] The King and the Queen Consort also met with major faith leaders in Northern Ireland.[284][286] A service of reflection was held in St Anne's Cathedral in Belfast on 13 September, where John McDowell, the Archbishop of Armagh and head of the Church of Ireland, paid tribute to the Queen for her efforts in bringing peace to Ireland.[284] The service was attended by the King and Queen Consort, the Prime Minister, the President of Ireland, Michael D. Higgins, and the Taoiseach, Micheál Martin.[287][284][286] A delegation from the republican Sinn Féin also attended, but the party did not take part in any events marking the accession.[288]

On 16 September, the King and Queen Consort visited Cardiff Castle, where a royal gun salute was fired and crowds gathered inside.[289] A silent protest against the monarchy was held outside by groups including trade unions, and Labour for an Independent Wales.[290][289] An audience was held for the First Minister of Wales and the Llywydd, or Presiding Officer, of the Senedd.[289][291] A service of prayer and reflection for the life of the Queen was held at Llandaff Cathedral on 16 September and attended by the King and Queen Consort. The Bishop of Llandaff and leaders of other faiths said the prayers, and the Archbishop of Wales delivered an address in both English and Welsh.[292][289] The service included the singing of Welsh hymns and anthems.[289][293] The choir accompanied by harpists Alis Huws and Catrin Finch performed the anthem "A Welsh Prayer" composed by Paul Mealor with words by Grahame Davies.[293][s]

At the Senedd the King received a motion of condolence before addressing the parliament in Welsh and English.[295][289] At Cardiff Castle, the King had audiences with the First Minister of Wales, Mark Drakeford, and the Llywydd, Elin Jones.[289][291] At the castle, they also held audiences with individuals associated with their royal patronages, before meeting with members of the public in the castle grounds.[295] Returning to London, the King met leaders of different faith communities at Buckingham Palace.[296]

On 17 September, the King met with the Defence Chiefs of Staff at Buckingham Palace and received the Prime Ministers of Australia, the Bahamas, Canada, Jamaica, and New Zealand.[297] The governors-general of the Commonwealth realms attended a reception and lunch at Buckingham Palace, hosted by the King and other members of the royal family.[297] The King met emergency services workers at the Metropolitan Police's Special Operations Room in Lambeth, who were organising aspects of the Queen's state funeral.[297][298] He also visited The Queue with Prince William to speak to its participants.[299]

On 18 September, the King met the prime ministers of Tuvalu, Antigua and Barbuda, and Papua New Guinea at Buckingham Palace.[300] A reception for world leaders was held at Buckingham Palace.[301]

Activities of other members of the royal family

On 10 September, a service at Crathie Kirk was attended by Anne and her husband Sir Timothy Laurence, Andrew, Edward and his wife Sophie, and the Queen's grandchilren Peter Phillips, Zara Tindall, Beatrice, Eugenie, and Louise Windsor, who then viewed floral tributes outside Balmoral.[302][303] The King's sons, William and Harry, along with their wives, Catherine and Meghan, viewed floral tributes outside Windsor Castle.[304]

On 15 September, members of the royal family viewed tributes and met crowds around the UK. The Prince and Princess of Wales visited Sandringham House, the Earl and Countess of Wessex visited Manchester, and Princess Anne and Sir Timothy Laurence travelled to Glasgow.[305][306]

On 16 September, the Prince and Princess of Wales visited the Army Training Centre Pirbright to meet with troops deployed from Canada, Australia, and New Zealand that would take part in the state funeral.[307] The Earl and Countess of Wessex met with members of the public and viewed tributes at Windsor Castle.[308]

On 17 September, the Earl and Countess of Wessex met with crowds outside Buckingham Palace.[298] On 18 September, the Princess of Wales held an audience with Olena Zelenska, the First Lady of Ukraine.[300][309]

On 22 September, the Prince and Princess of Wales visited the Windsor Guildhall and the Princess Royal visited HMNB Portsmouth, respectively, to thank volunteers and staff and the Royal Navy for their role in organising the state funeral.[310][311]

Reactions

Royal family

King Charles III paid tribute to his mother in a broadcast to the Commonwealth the evening following her death:

To my darling Mama, as you begin your last great journey to join my dear late Papa, I want simply to say this: thank you. Thank you for your love and devotion to our family and to the family of nations you have served so diligently all these years. May flights of Angels sing thee to thy rest.[312]

On 9 September, all flags at royal residences were ordered to be lowered to half-mast except the Royal Standard, which will continue to fly at full mast wherever the current monarch is in residence.[277] All royal residences were closed to the public until after the state funeral had occurred.[277] An online book of condolence was set up by the royal website.[277]

The King, along with Princess Anne and Prince Edward, paid tribute to their mother in the BBC One special programme A Tribute to Her Majesty The Queen.[313] On 10 September, Prince William issued a statement, paying tribute to his grandmother whom he described as an "extraordinary Queen".[314][315] On 12 September, Prince Harry issued a statement, describing his grandmother as a "guiding compass" in duty and service.[316] On 13 September, Princess Anne issued a statement, thanking the public for their messages and describing the opportunity to accompany her mother's coffin from Balmoral to London as "an honour and a privilege".[317] On 16 September, Prince Edward issued a statement, thanking the public for their support as the Queen's death left "an unimaginable void in all our lives".[318] On 17 September, Princess Beatrice and Princess Eugenie shared a statement, describing their grandmother as a "remarkable leader".[319] On 18 September, Prince Andrew issued a statement, praising his mother's compassion, care and confidence, which "I will treasure forever".[320] The Queen consort paid tribute to her mother-in-law in the BBC One special programme Eve of the State Funeral.[321]

In a written statement on 18 September, the King thanked the public for their support, and a previously unseen photograph of the Queen from May 2022 was published by the Palace.[322][323]

Other responses

On 9 September, the UK government published guidance on details surrounding the national mourning period, stating that businesses, public service, sports fixtures and public venues were not obliged to shut.[275] A 96-gun salute was fired in Hyde Park by the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery, at the Tower of London by the Honourable Artillery Company, at Edinburgh Castle by the Royal Artillery, at Cardiff Castle and Stonehenge by the 104th Regiment Royal Artillery, at Caernarfon Castle, at York Museum Gardens, and on board Royal Navy ships.[275][277][324][325] Bells tolled at Westminster Abbey, St Paul's Cathedral, and other churches across the UK.[324][326][327][328] At Windsor Castle the Sebastopol Bell, which is only rung to mark the deaths of senior royals, tolled 96 times to mark the years of the Queen's life.[329]

A service of prayer and mourning was held at St Paul's Cathedral at 18:00 on 9 September, attended by senior politicians and 2,000 members of the public.[275] The ceremony marked the first official rendition of "God Save the King" under Charles's reign.[330] The Prime Minister gave a reading, the Bishop of London gave an address, and the Archbishop of Canterbury said the blessings.[330]

The Poet Laureate, Simon Armitage published a commemorative poem "Floral Tribute" on 13 September 2022; it takes the form of a double acrostic in which the initial letters of the lines of each of its two verses spell out "Elizabeth".[331][332][333]

On 18 September, pipers at four different locations in Scotland played "The Immortal Memory" at 18:00.[334] At 20:00 a minute's silence was observed across the UK.[335]

Politicians

Various political leaders and heads of state and government, as well as members of royalty, sent messages of condolence.[336]

On 9 September, MPs gathered at the Palace of Westminster to read out their messages of condolences and tributes.[337]

On 10 September, senior MPs swore an oath of allegiance to Charles III in a special session of Parliament.[338] Buckingham Palace announced that Elizabeth II's state funeral would be held on 19 September, which the UK Government subsequently announced would be a national bank holiday.[339][340] The King and the Queen Consort held an audience with the Archbishop of Canterbury at Buckingham Palace.[341] The King then met with the Prime Minister for a second time and held audiences with members of her cabinet and leaders of the opposition parties.[341]

On 11 September, MPs continued to pay tribute to the Queen in Parliament, and tributes in the Senedd were led by the Welsh first minister Mark Drakeford.[342][343]

On 12 September, members of the Legislative Assembly of Northern Ireland paid tribute to the Queen.[344][345]

On 14 September, a minute's silence was observed in Dáil Éireann, the principal chamber of the Irish parliament.[346]

On 15 September, the House of Commons of Canada was recalled from its break on 15 September for MPs to pay tribute to the Queen and observe a moment of silence. During the special session, a motion to express the House's sympathies, as well as their "loyalty and devotion" to Charles III was passed. After an agreement with other MPs, the special session was extended to 16 September to permit more MPs a chance to pay tribute.[347][348]

Public

Hundreds of people had gathered outside the gates of Buckingham Palace in London at the time of the announcement.[349] Many others used social media to post condolences and tributes both to the Queen and to the British royal family.[350]

Floral tributes were later left outside Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle, Sandringham House, Balmoral Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, Hillsborough Castle and Highgrove House.[277][351][352][353] Several black cab drivers lined The Mall with their lights on to pay tribute to the Queen.[354] Numerous books of condolences were set up at libraries and council offices across the UK.[355] In addition to flowers, mourners left Paddington Bear replicas, Corgi soft toys, balloons and marmalade sandwiches at various sites, prompting the Royal Parks to issue a statement, asking mourners to leave only unwrapped flowers, "organic or compostable material", in the interests of sustainability and pest control.[356] In Hong Kong over 2,500 people queued for up to 3 hours outside the British Consulate General to lay flowers and pay tribute to the Queen, with the queue itself being around 500 metres long.[357][358][359]

The Empire State Building in New York City illuminated in purple and silver, the Eiffel Tower in Paris went dark at midnight, and the Sydney Opera House had an image of the Queen projected onto it.[360] Billboards at Piccadilly Circus, the BT Tower and Times Square showed tributes to the Queen, as well as advertising screens on the side of bus stops across London.[361][362] Many other landmarks across the world paid tributes to the death of Elizabeth II.

Google muted its homepage with a grey version of the normally colourful company logo.[363] The National Memorial Arboretum set up books of condolence and announced tributes would be paid to the Queen at a special reading at Millennium Chapel.[364] Blackpool Illuminations were unlit as a sign of respect, and were unlit again on the night of the funeral.[365] Blackpool Tower displayed the colours red, white and blue throughout the period of mourning.[365] St Laurence's Church, Ludlow, Shrewsbury Abbey, Leeds Minster, St Edmundsbury Cathedral, Durham Cathedral, the Parish Church of St Helier, St Macartin's Cathedral, Enniskillen, Exeter Cathedral, and St Andrew's Church, Plymouth held memorial services.[366] Members of the Sikh and Hindu communities also held prayers.[367][368] Rotherham Minster held a memorial service for the Queen on 17 September, and Sheffield Cathedral held a similar service on the eve of her funeral.[369]

Postponements

The ceremony that was due to be held to mark the transitioning of Colchester from town to city status was cancelled.[370] Tynwald postponed its meeting on cost of living crisis until 22 September.[371] The Last Night of the Proms and the Mercury Prize were among the events that were called off, while the Royal Opera House announced that they would not go on with the opening night of one of their new productions and would not be operating on the day of the state funeral.[372] Several unions responsible for organising the strikes by postal workers and rail staff announced that they would postpone their actions "out of respect for her service to the country and her family".[373] The Trades Union Congress also cancelled their annual conference as a sign of respect.[374]

Numerous sporting events were postponed or suspended from 8 September until at least 11 September, including all football fixtures across the Home Nations, and the second day of England's third test match against South Africa. Some events have continued, but with a moment of silence observed before play, and all players wearing black armbands.[375][376][377] Several rugby fixtures were postponed, with the exception of mini, junior and under-18 rugby matches, which were preceded by a period of two minutes' silence.[378] The St Leger Stakes, the Champagne Stakes and the Park Stakes, the Doncaster Cup and the Flying Childers Stakes were all postponed.[379] The St Leger Stakes started with a two-minute silence.[380] Horse racing events on the day of the funeral were also cancelled.[381]

Extensive schedule changes took place across BBC Television, ITV, Channel 4, Channel 5 and Sky in order to show news coverage and obituary documentaries. Commercial television channels including UKTV and BT Sport suspended advertising breaks for a number of hours following the announcement and many commercial radio music stations switched to a sombre playlist in the days following the Queen's death.[382] The BBC Radio 4 series The Archers included a conversation about the Queen's death, between Lynda Snell and Lilian Bellamy, as the first section of the episode broadcast on 11 September.[383] The BBC soap opera EastEnders paid tribute to the Queen with a special scene that aired at the start of the episode broadcast on 12 September.[384] The BBC aired Paddington films in honour of the Queen.[385]

Republicanism

Republicans believe support for republicanism is likely to grow in the Commonwealth after Queen Elizabeth's death,[386] particularly in Jamaica[387] and parts of the Caribbean, where anti-royal sentiment is strongest in the Commonwealth.[388][389] Former director of the Institute of Commonwealth Studies and academic Philip Murphy has suggested that the coronation of Charles may lead to a "rush to the door" for Commonwealth realms to move to republican government.[390] And academics from Australia and New Zealand, such as lecturer on royalty Cindy McCreery and historian Katie Pickles have explicitly tied public support for the monarchy with Elizabeth's popularity and a personal affection for her.[389]

Browne said that he aspires for Antigua and Barbuda to become a republic "at some point", and acknowledged that such a move is "not on the cards" for "some time to follow".[391] On 10 September 2022, following the proclamation of Charles III as king, Browne stated that he plans to hold a referendum within three years on becoming a republic.[392]

In Australia, Labor's victory in the 2022 federal election led to new Prime Minister, Anthony Albanese, appointing Matt Thistlethwaite to the newly-created office of Assistant Minister for the Republic, signalling a commitment to prepare Australia for a transition to republic during a second term of Labor government.[393] After the death of Elizabeth II, former prime minister Julia Gillard opined that Australia would inevitably choose to be a republic, but agreed with Albanese's timing on debate about the matter.[394] When asked if he supported another referendum following the Queen's death, Albanese stated it was "not the time" to discuss a republic.[395] Polling conducted after the Queen's death for The Sydney Morning Herald showed an uptick in support for the monarchy.[396] Adam Bandt, leader of the Green Party also expressed his desire for an Australian republic while expressing condolences to the British royal family.[389]

The day after Elizabeth's death, Philip Davis, Prime Minister of The Bahamas, publicly said that a referendum on a Bahamian republic was "always on the table" for his administration.[397] Among popular calls for the poll, he reiterated that willingness days later adn Minister of Social Services Obie Wilchcombe expressed his desire for the nation to reject the monarchy.[398]

A YouGov poll held on 11 September found that while a majority of Britons support the monarchy's continued existence, only 53% of 25–49 year-olds were in favour and that number dropped to 40% among 18–24 year-olds.[399]

Protests

Two people were arrested in Scotland for public order offences after protesting against the monarchy during events related to the Queen's death.[400] A Metropolitan Police deputy assistant commissioner said that "the public absolutely have a right of protest and we have been making this clear to all officers involved in the extraordinary policing operation currently in place and we will continue [to] do so".[401]

The Index on Censorship and advocacy group Liberty were both critical of the arrests made in Scotland and England (which was later reversed).[402]

A silent protest took place outside Cardiff Castle during the King's visit on 16 September. As well as placards calling for abolition of the monarchy, the protestors held flags with the emblem of Owain Glyndŵr.[403] The protest was partly against the new King's immediate announcement that his eldest son would take the Prince of Wales title. It was led by various groups of trade unionists, republicans and Welsh nationalist groups, under the banner "Real Democracy Now". Former Senedd member Bethan Sayed (Plaid Cymru) was also to take part.[404]

After certain events and services, such as sports games, medical appointments and food banks, were cancelled or postponed after the Queen's death, some people in the United Kingdom took to social media to protest against the cancellations and disruption of essential services during the official ten-day mourning period.[405]

Protests sparked from human rights campaigners upon Britain inviting Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia Mohammed bin Salman to Elizabeth II's funeral.[406]

Other commemorations

Instructions to fly national flags at half-mast were issued in a number of countries. In Commonwealth countries like Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, national flags were flown at half-mast until the date of the funeral and the date their national memorial service held; with the exception of Proclamation Day when flags were returned to full mast.[407][408][409] Flags across all Sri Lankan government buildings were flown at half-mast. White flags were put up in Galle Face Green and other prominent places throughout Sri Lanka.[410] Flags on US federal properties were flown at half-mast for ten days as a mark of respect.[411]

Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda observed the day of the Queen's funeral as a national holiday.[412]

Antigua and Barbuda hosted a service of thanksgiving and parade in honour of the late Queen of Antigua and Barbuda on 19 September, which was declared a public holiday throughout the country. The Governor-General's Deputy, Sir Clare Roberts, and the Acting Prime Minister Steadroy Benjamin presided in the absence of Sir Rodney Williams and Gaston Browne, who were both present at the Queen's state funeral in London. The service took place at the Cathedral of St John The Divine and was officiated by Dwane Cassius, Dean of the Cathedral of the Anglican Diocese of the North East Caribbean and Aruba. The service was followed by a parade of members of the Antigua and Barbuda Defence Force and the Royal Police Force of Antigua and Barbuda.[413] The parade commenced from the Long Street entrance of the cathedral and proceed westwards, turning left on to Market Street, left on to High Street, left on to Cross Street, right at Bishopgate Street on to Independence Drive for the "Eyes Right and Salute" at Government House, the "Eyes Left and Salute" at the Cenotaph, then right on to High Street, right on to Corn Alley and right on to Long Street up to the APUA Telephone Exchange where the parade was dismissed.[414]

Australia

In Australia, a "one-off public holiday" was observed as a national day of mourning on 22 September, although the Australian Industry Group and Australian Medical Association criticised its effect on businesses.[415]

A National Memorial Service took place on 22 September in Australia, the National Day of Mourning, at Parliament House in Canberra to mourn the passing of Queen Elizabeth II, the longest-reigning Australian monarch. The day was observed as a national public holiday. One minute's silence was observed at 11:00 across Australia.[416] Plans were announced for a new public square in central Sydney bearing the late Queen's name.[417]

The Bahamas

The government of The Bahamas declared the day of the Queen's funeral as a national holiday.[418]

Belize

The government of Belize declared the day of the Queen's funeral as a one-time public and bank holiday.[419][420][421]

Canada

In Canada, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced that the date of the Queen's funeral would be a holiday for federal government employees.[422][423] Among the Canadian provinces and territories, Prince Edward Island was the only one to declare the date of Elizabeth II's funeral a statutory holiday.[422][424][425] Alberta, the Northwest Territories, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec declared a day of mourning or commemoration instead of a holiday.[423][426] In the remaining provinces and territories government offices closed, some also closed schools,[t] and observance was optional for private-sector businesses.[423][424][427] The Retail Council of Canada and Canadian Federation of Independent Business were against making the funeral a statutory paid holiday.[428][429]

A national commemorative ceremony for Elizabeth II, Canada's Queen for 70 years, took place at the Christ Church Cathedral in Ottawa on 19 September, which was broadcast live on television as well as on social media. The ceremony was preceded by a parade of the Canadian Armed Forces and Royal Canadian Mounted Police through downtown Ottawa, from Cartier Square Drill Hall and past Parliament Hill to the Cathedral, with a gun salute of 96 rounds, one for each year of the Queen's life.[430] A flypast by the Royal Canadian Air Force was cancelled due to inclement weather.[431] The congregation was addressed by former Governor-General Adrienne Clarkson as well as former Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.[431]

Gun salute in honour of the Queen on the grounds of the Manitoba Legislative Building
.

Provincial commemorative ceremonies and memorial services took place in several Canadian provinces on 19 September: in Alberta,[432] British Columbia,[433] Manitoba,[434] New Brunswick,[435] Newfoundland and Labrador,[436] Nova Scotia,[437] Prince Edward Island,[438] and Saskatchewan.[439] In Ontario, a memorial service was held in Toronto on 20 September.[440][441] Two memorial services in Quebec were organized by the Anglican Church rather than the provincial government, which would be attended by Lieutenant Governor Michel Doyon.[442]

Grenada

A Memorial Service will be held at the St. George's Anglican Church on 25 September in Grenada to mark the passing of Elizabeth II, Queen of Grenada.[443]

Hong Kong

A Choral Evensong in Thanksgiving for the Life of Queen Elizabeth II was held at St. John's Cathedral on 25 September.[444][445]

Jamaica

The official memorial service for Elizabeth II, Queen of Jamaica, will be held at the St. Andrew Parish Church in Jamaica, which will be headed by the Governor-General and the Prime Minister. The Custodes and Mayors will head the services in the parishes.[446]

Niue

Niue observed the day of the Queen's funeral as a one-off public holiday.[447]

Two days of commemoration will take place in Niue to mark the passing of Queen Elizabeth II, Niue's head of state. A series of events took place on 18 and 19 September. On 19 September, a National Memorial Service was held at the Taoga Niue starting at 08:00. The memorial service also marked the end of the Queen's funeral and burial. A national moment of reflection took place at 08:15, with people across Niue taking part. People were also asked to plant a tree on 19 September in memory of the Queen.[448]

New Zealand

A one-off public holiday in New Zealand was observed on 26 September, the date the New Zealand State Memorial Service will be held in Wellington Cathedral.[449] South Canterbury Anniversary Day, which was due to be observed on 26 September in the Timaru, Waimate and Mackenzie districts, was moved to Friday 11 November.[450]

A State Memorial Service with a one-off public holiday will take place on 26 September to celebrate the life and reign of Elizabeth II, who reigned as Queen of New Zealand for seven decades.[451][452] It will take place at the Wellington Cathedral of St Paul at 14:00 and will be televised and live-streamed.[453][454] Memorial services will also be held elsewhere in New Zealand including in Auckland,[455] Christchurch,[456] New Plymouth[457] and Hastings.[458]

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea observed the day of the Queen's funeral as a national holiday.[459]

Solomon Islands

In the Solomon Islands the Prime Minister declared 12–14 September as days of mourning, and the first a public holiday.[460]

In the Solomon Islands, the three-day national mourning period began on 12 September with a wreath-laying and signing of the condolence book at Government House by national leaders including Governor-General Sir David Vunagi, Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare, Speaker of the National Parliament Patterson Oti and Chief Justice Sir Albert Palmer. Others included government ministers, members of parliament, former governors-general and prime ministers, senior government officials, members of diplomatic missions and uniformed groups.[461]

A memorial church service was held at the Saint Barnabas Anglican Cathedral on 14 September to celebrate the life and reign of Elizabeth II, Queen of Solomon Islands. The service was attended by acting Governor-General Patteson John Oti, Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare, Deputy Speaker Commins Mewa, Chief Justice Sir Albert Palmer, former governors-general, acting British High Commissioner Steve Auld and senior government officials.[462]

Sri Lanka

The government of Sri Lanka declared the day of the Queen's funeral a national holiday.[463]

A memorial service was held at the Cathedral of Christ the Living Saviour, Colombo 7, on 18 September. The service was attended by the British High Commissioner to Sri Lanka, Sarah Hulton OBE and several diplomats. The service was conducted by the Anglican Bishop of Colombo, Rt Rev. Dushantha Rodrigo.[464]

United States

On 21 September, a memorial service was held at the Washington National Cathedral, arranged in conjunction with the British Embassy in Washington, D.C..[465] Attendees included Vice President Kamala Harris, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy, as well as British ambassador Karen Pierce.[466] All living former US Presidents were invited, but none attended.[466][467] A sermon was delivered by Michael Curry, the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church.[466][468]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The note said: "The Queen is unwell and Keir needs to leave the chamber as soon as possible to be briefed."
  2. ^ The statement read: "Following further evaluation this morning, the Queen's doctors are concerned for Her Majesty's health and have recommended she remain under medical supervision. The Queen remains comfortable and at Balmoral."
  3. ^ It read: "The Queen died peacefully at Balmoral this afternoon. The King and The Queen Consort will remain at Balmoral this evening and will return to London tomorrow."
  4. ^ The flowers were dahlia, sweet pea, phlox, white heather, and pine fir
  5. ^ The opening hymn of the service was "All People that on Earth do Dwell", the metrical version of Psalm 100. Matheson sang Psalm 118. The first lesson was taken from Ecclesiastes 3. The choir then sang Psalm 116 before the second reading from Romans 8. The second hymn was "The Lord's My Shepherd", which was followed by the gospel reading from John 14. Following the homily, the choir sang William Byrd's anthem "Justorum Animae". After several prayers were said, the closing hymn, "Glory to God! Our living songs we raise", was sung, followed by the national anthem and the benediction.[63][64]
  6. ^ It was met by all the Queen's children and grandchildren and her nephew and niece, the Earl of Snowdon and Lady Sarah Chatto.
  7. ^ This gun carriage had carried her parents' coffins.
  8. ^ The full group included Prince Andrew, Prince Edward, Prince William, Prince Harry, Peter Phillips, the Earl of Snowdon, Prince Richard, and Timothy Laurence.
  9. ^ The Sovereign's Bodyguard consists of three units that are classed as personal bodyguards to the Sovereign – the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms, the King's Bodyguard of the Yeomen of the Guard, and the Royal Company of Archers, The King's Body Guard for Scotland.
  10. ^ The Household Division is an overall term used to describe regiments of the British Army that are classed as "guards". There are seven regiments in total – two classed as Household Cavalry (the Life Guards and the Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons)), and five as foot guards (Grenadier Guards, Coldstream Guards, Scots Guards, Irish Guards and Welsh Guards).
  11. ^ An exception took place on 17 September, when the UK's service chiefsAdmiral Sir Tony Radakin (Chief of the Defence Staff), Admiral Sir Ben Key (First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff), General Sir Patrick Sanders (Chief of the General Staff) and Air Chief Marshal Sir Michael Wigston (Chief of the Air Staff) – stood guard over the catafalque in place of four officers from the foot guards.[78]
  12. ^ The wreath contained rosemary, English oak and myrtle, and flowers in shades of gold, pink and deep burgundy, with touches of white.
  13. ^ Selections included Orlando Gibbons' "Fantasia of four parts", Vaughan Williams' "Romanza" from his Symphony No. 5, Peter Maxwell Davies' "Reliqui domum meum", Harold Darke's "Meditation on 'Brother James's Air'", Healey Willan's "Prelude on 'Ecce jam noctis'", Herbert Howells' "Psalm Prelude Set 1 No. 2", Charles Villiers Stanford's "In the Country, Op. 194 No. 2", Malcolm Williamson's "Fantasy on 'O Paradise'", and three works by Elgar: "Elegy, Op. 58", "Andante espressivo" from "Sonata in G Op. 28", and "Sospiri".[133]
  14. ^ The prayers were said by Iain Greenshields (Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland), Shermara Fletcher (Principal Officer for Pentecostal and Charismatic Relations, Churches Together in England), Sarah Mullally (Bishop of London and Dean of His Majesty’s Chapels Royal), Helen Cameron (Moderator of the Free Churches Group), Vincent Nichols (Archbishop of Westminster), and Stephen Cottrell (Archbishop of York).
  15. ^ Besides those mentioned, the works sung at the service were "The day thou gavest, Lord, is ended" (St Clement), "The Lord's My Shepherd" (Crimond), "My soul, there is a country" by Hubert Parry, "Taste and see how gracious the Lord is" by Ralph Vaughan Williams, and "Love Divine, All Loves Excelling" (Blaenwern).
  16. ^ The other music was Psalm 121 to an arrangement by Sir Henry Walford Davies, sung as the Queen's coffin made its way through the chapel, the motet "Bring us, O Lord God, at our last awakening",[146][147], "All My Hope on God is Founded",[146] "Christ Is Made the Sure Foundation", and Bach's "Prelude and Fugue in C minor, BWV 546", played after the service.[146]
  17. ^ Music before the service included "Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele BWV 654", "O Traurigkeit, O Herzeleid", "Master Tallis's Testament", "Psalm Prelude Set 1, No. 1", "Psalm Prelude Set 1, No. 2", "Melody (Three Pieces)", "Andante Sostenuto (Symphonie Gothique, Op. 70)", "The Tree of Peace", "'Nimrod' (Variations On An Original Theme, Op.36)", "Prelude" by Sir William Henry Harris, "Sheep May Safely Graze, BWV 208", and "Rhosymedre".
  18. ^ The original coffin makers are now closed. It passed through the hands of two funeral directors before Leverton & Sons received it when they became undertakers to the Royal Family in 1991. The original coffin firm, Henry Smith, had also manufactured the coffin in which Prince Philip lies.[148][149]
  19. ^ The text of "A Welsh Prayer" is in English.[294]
  20. ^ New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Nova Scotia

References

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External links

Announcements and arrangements
Service of thanksgiving, lying-in-state, state funeral and committal service
Government websites