Royal Standard of the United Kingdom

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Royal Standard used in Scotland[1]

The Royal Standards of the United Kingdom refers to either one of two similar flags used by King Charles III in his capacity as Sovereign of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. Two versions of the flag exist, one for general use in England, Northern Ireland, Wales, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories; and the other for use in Scotland.

Although almost universally called a standard, such flags when used in the United Kingdom are banners of arms, as they comprise the shield of the Royal Arms. From the 1960s until her death in 2022, Queen Elizabeth II had several personal flags designed for her use as sovereign of certain Commonwealth realms. These heraldic flags are similar to those of the British "Royal Standard" in being banners of the nation's arms but feature a device found in the Queen's general personal flag (a blue disc containing a wreath of gold roses encircling a crowned letter 'E').

The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom is flown when the Monarch is in residence in one of the royal palaces and on their car, ship, or aeroplane. It may be flown on any building, official or private, during a visit by the Monarch, if the owner or proprietor so requests. It famously replaces the Union Flag over the Palace of Westminster when the Monarch visits during the State Opening of Parliament. The Royal Standard was flown aboard the royal yacht when it was in service and Queen Elizabeth II was on board. The only church that may fly a Royal Standard, even without the presence of the Sovereign, is Westminster Abbey, a Royal Peculiar.[2]

When the Queen visited the United States in 1991, she was provided with a Cadillac limousine that flew both her standard and the Stars and Stripes, an acknowledgement of the "special relationship" that exists between the two nations.[3][4][5][failed verification]

The Royal Standard is flown at royal residences only when the sovereign is present. If the Union Flag flies above Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle or Sandringham House, it signals that the King is not in residence. In 1934, King George V permitted his subjects in Scotland to display the ancient Royal Standard of Scotland as part of his silver jubilee. Today, it flies above Holyrood Palace and Balmoral Castle when the Monarch is not in residence.[1]

When the Monarch attends Parliament at the Palace of Westminster, the Royal Standard flies from Victoria Tower.[6]

Unlike the Union Flag, the Royal Standard should never be flown at half-mast, even after the demise of the Crown, as there is always a sovereign on the throne.[2] It flew at half-mast for several hours from the death of Edward VII until George V discovered the error.[7]

Controversy arose regarding the lack of a flag at half-mast over Buckingham Palace following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, in 1997. The Queen was then in summer residence at Balmoral; and according to established custom, no flag was displayed over Buckingham Palace, as the monarch was not present. The Queen proposed a compromise whereby the Union Flag would be flown at half-mast on the day of Diana's funeral.[8] The Union Flag was also flown at half-mast over Buckingham Palace as a mark of respect on the first anniversary of the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, on Bank Holiday, Monday, 31 August 1997.[9] Since then, the Union Flag has flown regularly in the monarch's absence and has been lowered to half-mast to mark several occasions such as the death of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother,[10] the September 11 attacks, the 7 July 2005 London bombings[11] and the death of Elizabeth II.

England, Northern Ireland, Wales, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories

In England, Northern Ireland, Wales, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories, the flag is divided into four quadrants. The first and fourth quadrants represent the ancient Kingdom of England and contain three gold lions (or "leopards"), passant guardant on a red field; the second quadrant represents the ancient Kingdom of Scotland and contains a red lion rampant on a gold field; the third quadrant represents the ancient Kingdom of Ireland and contains a version of the gold harp from the coat of arms of Ireland on a blue field. The inclusion of the harp remains an issue for some in Ireland. In 1937 Éamon de Valera, then Taoiseach, asked Dominions Secretary Malcolm MacDonald if the harp quarter could be removed from the Royal Standard on the grounds that the Irish people had not given their consent to the Irish emblem being included. The request was denied and the harp remains.[12]

The modern Royal Standard of the United Kingdom, apart from minor changes (notably to the form of harp used to represent Ireland), dates to the reign of Queen Victoria. Earlier Royal Standards of the United Kingdom incorporated the Arms of Hanover and of the Kingdom of France, representing the title of Elector (later King) of Hanover and the theoretical claim to the throne of France, a claim dropped in 1800). The Hanoverian association terminated in 1837 with the accession of Queen Victoria who, being a female, could not accede to Hanover.

Famous Royal Standards of former British Monarchs include the Scotland Impaled Royal Standard of Queen Anne, the Hanover Quartered Royal Standards of King George I to George III, and the Hanover crowned Royal Standards of George III to William IV. The latter contained the Royal coat of arms of Hanover superimposed over what became the modern Royal Standard of the United Kingdom, although this particular standard's artistic representations of the banners of England, Ireland and Scotland in their respective quadrants was marginally different from the versions used today.

Scotland

In Scotland a separate version of the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom is used, whereby the red Lion Rampant of the Kingdom of Scotland appears in the first and fourth quadrants, displacing the three gold lions passant guardant of England, which occur only in the second quadrant. The third quadrant, displaying the gold harp of Ireland, remains unaltered from that version used throughout the remainder of the United Kingdom and overseas.

The Scottish version of the Royal Standard was used to cover the coffin of Queen Elizabeth II during the procession on the Royal Mile from the Palace of Holyroodhouse to St. Giles' Cathedral on 12 September 2022.[13]

Other members of the Royal Family also use this Scottish version when in Scotland, with the only exceptions to this protocol being the consort of a queen regnant and the heir apparent, the Duke of Rothesay, each of whom has his own individual standard.

The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom used in Scotland differs from the current, traditional Royal Standard of Scotland in that the latter portrays the Lion Rampant in its entirety. As the banner of the Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, the Royal Standard of Scotland remains a personal banner of the monarch [14] and, despite being commonly used as an unofficial second flag of Scotland, its use is restricted under an act passed in 1672 by the Parliament of Scotland.[15]

The historic Royal Standard of Scotland is used officially at Scottish royal residences, when the monarch is not in residence, and by representatives of the Crown, including the First Minister, Lord Lieutenants in their lieutenancies, the Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and Lord Lyon King of Arms. A variation of the Royal Standard of Scotland is used by the heir apparent to the King of Scots, the Duke of Rothesay, whose personal Royal Standard is the Royal Standard of Scotland defaced with an azure-coloured label of three points. (The banner of the Duke of Rothesay also features the same, displayed upon an inner shield).

Heir to the Throne

The direct heir to the Throne has several distinct standards and banners for use throughout the United Kingdom in representation of this position. William, Prince of Wales has five standards at use for his various roles and titles.

Standard Title Description
Royal Standard of the Prince of Wales.svg
Prince of Wales The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom, defaced with a three-point label. Superimposed is the arms of Llywelyn the Great —four quadrants, the first and fourth with a red lion on a gold field, and the second and third with a gold lion on a red field— crowned with the Prince's coronet.

Used in England and Northern Ireland, this standard was created in 1917.

Personal Banner of the Prince of Wales.svg
Prince of Wales The arms of Llywelyn the Great. Superimposed is a green shield bearing the Prince's coronet.

Used in Wales, this standard was created in 1962 at the suggestion of Prince Philip.

Personal Banner of the Duke of Rothesay.svg
Prince and Great Steward of Scotland,
Lord of the Isles
Quartered, the first and fourth a gold field defaced by a white and blue checkerboard band, the second and third a ship on a white background. Superimposed is the coat of arms of the heir apparent to the King of Scots.

Used in Scotland, this standard was created in 1974 at the suggestion of Prince Charles.

Royal Standard of the Duke of Rothesay.svg
Duke of Rothesay The Royal Standard of Scotland, defaced with a three-point label in blue.

Used in Scotland, this is the ancient banner of the heir apparent to the King of Scots.[16]

Flag of the Duke of Cornwall.svg
Duke of Cornwall The flag is "sable fifteen bezants Or", that is, a black field bearing fifteen gold coins.

Used in Cornwall, this is the ancient banner of the Duke of Cornwall.

Historic

Standard Title Description
Royal Standard of the Prince of Wales (1859–1917).svg
Prince of Wales The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom, defaced with a three-point label. Superimposed is the coat of arms of the Royal House of Saxony. This standard was designated for the Prince of Wales from 1859 to 1917, at which time King George V renamed the Royal Family from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor and renounced all German titles and claims in an act of British patriotism related to the ongoing First World War.

Other members of the Royal Family

Other members of the Royal Family have personal standards of their own. These are variants of the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom (including that which is used in Scotland), defaced with a white label and either three points or pendants (for children of a sovereign), or five points (grandchildren of a sovereign). Traditionally all princes and princesses of royal blood (i.e. descendants of the sovereign) are granted arms on their 18th birthday, thus giving them a banner to fly from their residences.

The following members of the Royal Family have personal standards, listed according to the line of succession:

Standard Member of the Royal Family Description
Royal Standard of Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex.svg
Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex A five-point label, the first, third and fifth points charged with a red escallop taken from the arms of his mother Lady Diana
Royal Standard of Prince Harry, Earl of Dumbarton.svg
Scottish Variant
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Duke of York.svg
Prince Andrew, Duke of York A three-point label, the second point charged with a blue anchor
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Earl of Inverness.svg
Scottish Variant
Royal Standard of Princess Beatrice of York.svg
Princess Beatrice A five-point label, the first, third and fifth points charged with a bee
Royal Standard of Princess Beatrice of York (in Scotland).svg
Scottish Variant
Royal Standard of Princess Eugenie of York.svg
Princess Eugenie A five-point label, the first, third and fifth points charged with a Scottish thistle
Royal Standard of Princess Eugenie of York (in Scotland).svg
Scottish Variant
Royal Standard of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex.svg
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex A three-point label, the second point charged with a Tudor rose
Royal Standard of Prince Edward, Earl of Forfar.svg
Scottish Variant
Royal Standard of Princess Anne, Princess Royal.svg
Princess Anne, Princess Royal A three-point label, the first and third points charged with the Cross of St. George, the second point charged with red heart
Royal Standard of Princess Anne, Princess Royal (in Scotland).svg
Scottish Variant
Royal Standard of Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester.svg
Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester A five-point label, the first, third and fifth points charged with the Cross of St. George, the second and fourth points charged with a lion passant guardant
Royal Standard of Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester (in Scotland).svg
Scottish Variant
Royal Standard of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent.svg
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent A five-point label, the first, third and fifth points charged with a blue anchor, the second and fourth points charged with the Cross of St. George
Royal Standard of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent (in Scotland).svg
Scottish Variant
Royal Standard of Prince Michael of Kent.svg
Prince Michael of Kent A five-point label, the first, third and fifth points charged with the Cross of St. George, the second and fourth points charged with a blue anchor
Royal Standard of Prince Michael of Kent (in Scotland).svg
Scottish Variant
Royal Standard of Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy.svg
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy A five-point label, the first and fifth points charged with a red heart, the second and fourth points charged with a blue anchor, the third point charged with the Cross of St. George
Royal Standard of Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy (in Scotland).svg
Scottish Variant

Consorts of the British monarch

Queens consort of the British monarch are granted arms based on the Royal Standard and their own personal arms from before their marriage, or the arms of their family. In Scotland, a queen consort will use the Scottish version of the Royal Standard. They do not have different standards for the Commonwealth realms that have their own Royal Standards.

Consorts of a queen regnant are not granted use of the British Royal Standard. They use standards based on their own family arms. However, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha used a standard of the royal arms (with a label for difference) quartered with his own family arms.

Standard Consort Details
Royal Standard of Queen Camilla.svg
Queen Camilla
Consort of Charles III
(2022–present)
The Royal Standard, impaled with the arms of her father, Bruce Shand.
Royal Standard of Queen Camilla (in Scotland).svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.svg
Prince Philip
Consort of Elizabeth II
(1952–2021)
The Standard is based on his Greek and Danish roots. The flag is divided into four quarters:

The first quarter, representing Denmark, consists of three blue lions passant and nine red hearts on a yellow field. The second quarter, representing Greece, consists of a white cross on a blue field. The third quarter, representing the duke's surname, Mountbatten, contains five black and white vertical stripes. The fourth quarter, which alludes to his title as Duke of Edinburgh, includes a black and red castle, which is also part of the city of Edinburgh's arms.

Royal Standard of Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother.svg
Queen Elizabeth
Consort of George VI
(1936–2002)
The Royal Standard, impaled with the arms of her father, Claude Bowes-Lyon, Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.
Royal Standard of Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother (in Scotland).svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Mary of Teck, Queen Consort.svg
Queen Mary
Consort of George V
(1910–1953)
The Royal Standard, impaled with the arms of her father, Francis, Duke of Teck, quartered with the Hanoverian coat of arms as used by her grandfather, Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge.
Royal Standard of Mary of Teck, Queen Consort (in Scotland).svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Alexandra of Denmark, Queen Consort.svg
Queen Alexandra
Consort of Edward VII
(1901–1925)
The Royal Standard, impaled with the royal coat of arms of Denmark.
Royal Standard of Alexandra of Denmark, Queen Consort (in Scotland).svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Prince Albert (1857–1861).svg
Prince Albert
Consort of Victoria
(1857–1861)
The Royal Standard defaced with a three-point label (with the second point charged with the Cross of St. George), quartered with the arms of Saxony.
Royal Standard of Queen Adelaide (1830–1849).svg
Queen Adelaide
Consort of William IV
(1830–1849)
The Royal Standard from 1816 to 1837, impaled with the arms of her father, Duke Georg I of Saxe-Meiningen.
Royal Standard of Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.svg
Queen Caroline
Consort of George IV
(1820–1821)
The Royal Standard from 1816 to 1837, impaled with the arms of her father, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick.
Royal Standard of Queen Charlotte (1816–1818).svg
Queen Charlotte
Consort of George III
(1761–1818)
The Royal Standard from 1816 to 1837, impaled with the arms of her father, Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Royal Standard of Queen Charlotte (1801–1816).svg
The Royal Standard from 1801 to 1816, impaled with the arms of her father, Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Royal Standard of Queen Charlotte (1761–1801).svg
The Royal Standard from 1714 to 1801, impaled with the arms of her father, Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Royal Standard of Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach.svg
Queen Caroline
Consort of George II
(1727–1737)
The Royal Standard from 1714 to 1801, impaled with the arms of her father, John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach.

Recent historical royal standards

Standard Member of the Royal Family Description
Royal Standard of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge.svg
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge A three-point label, signifying a direct heir to the Throne, the second point charged with a red escallop taken from the arms of his mother Lady Diana
Royal Standard of Prince William, Earl of Strathearn.svg
Scottish Variant
Royal Standard of Princess Elizabeth (1944-1952).svg
Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh A three-point label, the first and third points charged with the Cross of St. George, the second point charged with a Tudor rose.
Royal Standard of Princess Elizabeth (in Scotland) (1944-1952).svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon.svg
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon A three-point label, the first and third points charged with a Tudor Rose, the second point charged with a Scottish thistle.
Royal Standard of Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon (in Scotland).svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Duke of York.svg
Prince Albert, Duke of York A three-point label, the second point charged with a blue anchor
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Earl of Inverness.svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Princess Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood.svg
Princess Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood A three-point label, the first, second and third points charged with the Cross of St. George.
Royal Standard of Princess Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood (in Scotland).svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester.svg
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester A three-point label, the first and third points charged with the Cross of St. George, the second point charged with a lion passant guardant.
Royal Standard of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (in Scotland).svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Prince George, Duke of Kent.svg
Prince George, Duke of Kent A three-point label, the first, second and third points charged with a blue anchor.
Royal Standard of Prince George, Duke of Kent (in Scotland).svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone.svg
Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone A five-point label, the first, second, fourth and fifth points charged with a red heart, the third point charged with the Cross of St. George.
Royal Standard of Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone (in Scotland).svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor.svg
Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor A three-point label, the second point charged with the Crown of Saint Edward.
Royal Standard of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (1868-1917).svg
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn A three-point label, the first and third points charged with fleurs-de-lis, the second point charged with the Cross of St. George. Superimposed is the coat of arms of the Royal House of Saxony.
Royal Standard of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (in Scotland) (1868-1917).svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (1917-1942).svg
A three-point label, the first and third points charged with fleurs-de-lis, the second point charged with the Cross of St. George.
Royal Standard of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (in Scotland) (1917-1942).svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Prince Arthur of Connaught (1901-1917).svg
Prince Arthur A five-point label, the first, third and fifth points charged with the Cross of St. George, the second and fourth points charged with fleurs-de-lis. Superimposed is the coat of arms of the Royal House of Saxony.
Royal Standard of Prince Arthur of Connaught (in Scotland) (1901-1917).svg
Scottish variant
Royal Standard of Prince Arthur of Connaught (1917-1938).svg
A five-point label, the first, third and fifth points charged with the Cross of St. George, the second and fourth points charged with fleurs-de-lis.
Royal Standard of Prince Arthur of Connaught (in Scotland) (1917-1938).svg
Scottish variant

Royal standards 1198–1702

Flag Date Use Description
Royal Banner of England.svg
1198 – 1340 Royal Banner of King Richard I Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or armed and langued Azure,[17][18] meaning three gold lions with blue tongues and claws, walking and facing the observer, arranged in a column on a red background. It forms the first and fourth quarters of the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom.
Royal Standard of England (1406-1340).svg
1340 – 1406 Royal Banner of King Edward III The Coat of Arms of England quartered with the Royal Standard of France, the fleurs-de-lis representing the English claim to the French throne.
Royal Standard of England (1406-1603).svg
1406 – 1603 Royal Banner of King Henry IV The French quartering has been altered to three fleurs-de-lis.
Royal Standard of Great Britain (1603-1649).svg
1603 – 1689,
1702 – 1707
Royal Standard of the House of Stuart, used first by King James VI/I A banner of the Royal Coat of Arms of James I, first and fourth quarters representing England and the English claim to the French throne, second quarter representing Scotland, third quarter representing Ireland. This was the last royal banner of the Kingdom of England.
Royal Standard of Great Britain (1689-1702).svg
1689–1702 Royal Standard of King William III and II A banner of the Royal Coat of Arms of William III, first and fourth quarters representing England and the English claim to the French throne, second quarter representing Scotland, third quarter representing Ireland, with an inescutcheon for the House of Nassau.

Others

Funeral carriage of Diana, Princess of Wales, with the coffin draped with an ermine-bordered standard.[19]

Other members of the Royal Family may use the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom, but within an ermine border (a white border with black "tails" representing the ermine fur). This standard is mainly used for the wives of British princes, or members of the Royal Family who have not yet been granted their own arms. Diana, Princess of Wales, and more recently, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, had this standard draped over their coffins at their funerals.[20][21]

Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, also enjoyed the right to use this version of the Royal Standard although she rarely exercised it on her own. She received a grant of arms on 17 July 2005, which, based on past practice, could form the basis for her own standard.[22].Since her husband ascended to the throne she has used a different version, pictured above.

Uses of Standards

Royal Banners in St Giles' Cathedral: The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom used in Scotland and (clockwise) those of the Duke of Edinburgh, Princess Royal and Duke of Rothesay
.

The Royal Standard is reserved only for the monarch, and is the most used. Most famously it signals the presence of the monarch at a royal residence, and is also used on official vehicles, primarily the Bentley State Limousine, but also on other road vehicles at home or abroad, often a Range Rover. The Royal Standard is also flown from aircraft and water vessels, including HMY Britannia and MV Spirit of Chartwell[23] during the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant. When the monarch is aboard a British naval ship, the flag is flown from the main mast of the ship and is lowered upon his/her departure.[24] The flag is also draped over the coffin of the Monarch upon his/her death.

In some situations, personal standards are displayed within the UK, such as within St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh (site of the Chapel of the Order of the Thistle), and St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle home of Banners of Knights of the Order of the Garter,[25][26][27] at the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant Prince Andrew's standard flew from MV Havengore.[28] However, the use of personal standards of other members of the Royal Family varies in frequency. The Prince of Wales flies his standard at Clarence House in the same way the Royal Standard is used over Buckingham Palace, but other members of the family tend not to fly theirs from their respective residences (though this may be due to the fact that many share official London Residences, as is the case at Kensington Palace).

Family members also do not use their standards on road vehicles, either privately or during official engagements (when more discreet cars are used, such as Jaguar) or state occasions (when the Liveried cars of the Royal Mews are used), this seems reserved for the Queen only, although when Prince Philip traveled alone at state occasions, his standard flew from the roof of his car, as seen with the funerals of Diana, Princess of Wales (when the Queen Mother also flew her personal standard from her car) and that of the Queen Mother, also, when a visiting Head of State on a state visit uses a car from the Royal Mews, his/her own flag is displayed.[29][30] That said, when abroad, the standards of members of the family may well be flown: examples include Prince Charles,[31][32] the Duchess of Cornwall[33] and Prince William.[34][35]

Personal Standards have been used to cover the coffins of the Queen Mother, the Duke of Edinburgh, Princess Margaret[36][37] and the Duke of Windsor.

Position of Honour

According to the Flag Institute, the order of precedence of flags in the United Kingdom is: the Royal Standards, the Union Flag, the flag of the host country (England, Scotland and Wales etc.), the flags of other nations (in alphabetical order), the Commonwealth Flag, the Flag of Europe, the county flags, the flags of cities or towns, the banners of arms, and the house flags.[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Rules for hoisting flags on buildings of the Scottish Government" (PDF). gov.scot. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  2. ^ a b "Royal Standard". The Royal Household. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  3. ^ "Outbound State Visits Since 1952" (PDF). The Royal Household. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  4. ^ deWitt, Karen (17 May 1991). "Queen's Address to Congress Celebrates Mutual Respect". The New York Times. p. A10. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  5. ^ Graham, Tim (26 February 1983). "The Stars And Stripes Flag Fly Along Side The Queen's Royal Standard". Getty Images. Retrieved 16 September 2022.
  6. ^ "The Victoria Tower". Parliament.UK. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  7. ^ Windsor, Edward, Duke of (1951). A King's Story: The memoirs of the Duke of Windsor. New York: Putnam. p. 72.
  8. ^ "Blair Defends Royal Family Against Criticism". BBC News. 4 September 1997. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  9. ^ "Flags at half mast for Diana". BBC News. 23 July 1998. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  10. ^ "Crowds Grieve for Queen Mother". BBC News. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  11. ^ "London bombings toll rises to 37". BBC News. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  12. ^ "Media Factsheet: Queen Elizabeth II's State Visit to Ireland". Discover Ireland. 17 May 2011. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  13. ^ "Thousands line Edinburgh's streets to see Queen's coffin". BBC News. 12 September 2022.
  14. ^ "Days for Hoisting Flags on Buildings of the Scottish Government 2010" (PDF). Scottish Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  15. ^ "Lyon King of Arms Act 1672". The National Archives. 8 January 1995.
  16. ^ Griffith, John (4 August 2003). "Standard of the Duke of Rothesay and Lord of the Isles for Scotland". Flags of the World. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  17. ^ Fox-Davies 2008, p. 607.
  18. ^ "Coat of Arms of King George III". The First Foot Guards. Retrieved 4 February 2010.
  19. ^ "British Flags - Royal and vice-regal flags". World Flag Database. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  20. ^ "Final Royal farewell to princess". BBC News. 5 November 2004. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  21. ^ "Funeral for Princess Alice". Getty Images. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  22. ^ "The Coat of Arms of HRH The Duchess of Cornwall". College of Arms. 17 July 2005. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  23. ^ Mbiyu, David (3 June 2012). "Diamond Jubilee flotilla adds color on the Thames". Demotix.com. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  24. ^ "91: Standards, Flags and Colours". The Queen's Regulations for the Royal Navy (PDF). UK Ministry of Defence (3 ed.). April 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2020. The Royal Standard, being the personal flag of the Sovereign, is to be hoisted on board HM ships and on official buildings and enclosures only when The Sovereign is present. It is to be hauled down at the moment of departure.
  25. ^ "Prince William and St George's Chapel". College of St. George. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  26. ^ "Tour: The Quire". College of St. George. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  27. ^ "Gallery of Wanamaker Flags". Flag Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  28. ^ "Diamond Jubilee: Thames River Pageant". Zimbio.com. 2 June 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  29. ^ "Pomp and ceremony for Amir of Kuwait". The Daily Telegraph. London. 29 November 2012. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2013 – via YouTube.
  30. ^ kenjonbro. "Bentley State Limousine". Flickr. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  31. ^ "A Brush With Royal-tea! Prince of Wales: A Tea Review I". Alice and the teacup. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  32. ^ Campion, Vikki; Matheson, Melissa (9 November 2012). "Foul weather follows Prince Charles and Camilla". The Daily Telegraph. Sydney. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  33. ^ "The Prince Of Wales And Duchess Of Cornwall Visit Australia - Day 5". Getty Images. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  34. ^ "William and Kate jet off on Canada trip". BBC News. 1 July 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  35. ^ "Magic moments from William and Kate's headline-making tropical tour". Hello!. 19 September 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  36. ^ "Princess's coffin moved to Windsor". BBC News. 14 February 2002. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  37. ^ "Princess Margaret Funeral". Getty Images. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  38. ^ "UK Flag Protocol: Appendix B Precedence of Flags". Flag Institute. Retrieved 30 November 2021.

Further reading

  • Davies, Norman (1999). The Isles: A History. Palgrave Macmillan.

External links