Page semi-protected

Prince of Wales

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Prince of Wales
Tywysog Cymru
William Sumbarines Crop.png

since 9 September 2022
StyleHis Royal Highness
Member ofBritish royal family
AppointerMonarch of the United Kingdom (previously of England)
Term lengthLife tenure or until accession as sovereign
First holderEdward of Caernarfon (later Edward II)

Prince of Wales (Welsh: Tywysog Cymru, pronounced [təu̯ˈəsoɡ ˈkəmrɨ]; Latin: Princeps Cambriae/Walliae) is a title historically used by independent Welsh princes and since the 14th century by the heir apparent to the English and later British throne.

Historically, the title was held by native Welsh princes before the 12th century; the term replaced the use of the word king. The first holder of the title Prince of Wales (and also King of Wales) was Gruffudd ap Cynan of Gwynedd, in 1137, although his son Owain Gwynedd (also king and prince of Wales), is often cited as having established the title. Llywelyn the Great is typically regarded as the strongest leader, holding power over the vast majority of Wales for 45 years. One of the last native princes of Wales and grandson of Llywelyn the Great was Llywelyn ap Gruffydd (Llywelyn the Last), who was killed at the Battle of Orewin Bridge in 1282. Llywelyn's brother, Dafydd ap Gruffydd, was executed the following year, thus ending Welsh independence. Following these two deaths, Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon in 1284) as the first English prince of Wales in 1301. The title was claimed by the heir of Gwynedd, Owain Glyndŵr (Owain ap Gruffydd), from 1400 until 1415 (date of his assumed death) who led Welsh forces against the English. Since then, the title has only been held by the heir apparent of the English and subsequently British monarch.

On 8 September 2022 upon the death of Elizabeth II, the title-holder, Prince Charles, became king.[1] The following day, King Charles III bestowed the title upon his elder son, Prince William, Duke of Cornwall and Cambridge.[2][3]

Native princes of Wales

Prince of Wales
Tywysog Cymru
Owain Glyndwr - - 3392313.jpg
Statue of Owain Glyndŵr
First holderGruffudd ap Cynan ("Prince of the Welsh")
Final holderOwain Glyndŵr

Before prince of Wales

Prior to the king or prince of Wales title, the title king of the Britons was used to describe the king of the Celtic Britons, ancestors of the Welsh.[4] The Brut y Tywysogion, Gwentian Chronicles of Caradoc of Llancarvan version, which was written no earlier than the mid 16th century lists multiple Kings of the Britons as a "King of Wales".[5][6][7]

While many different leaders in Wales claimed the title of "King of Wales" and some ruled a majority of Wales, the modern-day territory was only fully united under the direct rule of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn from 1055 to 1063 according to historian John Davies.[8][9] Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was referred to as King of Wales or Rex Walensium by John of Worcester.[10] He was the last of a long line of paramount rulers among the insular Britons to have the title of King of the Britons bestowed upon him, and possibly the only one to truly rule over all the (independent) Britons. By this time, if not earlier, Wales was the only part of Britain remaining under Brittonic rule.[11]

The native use of the title "Prince of Wales" appeared more frequent by the eleventh century as a modernised form of the old high kingship of the Britons. The Welsh had originally been the high Kings of the Britons; but the claim to be high king of late Romano-British Britain was no longer realistic after the death of Cadwaladr in 664.[12] Cadwaldr was also heavily associated with the symbol of the Red Dragon of Wales.[13][14] The princes of the medieval period hailed largely from west Wales, mainly Gwynedd. They had significant power which allowed them to claim authority beyond the borders of their kingdoms. This allowed many princes to claim to rule all of Wales.[15]

End of native princes of Wales

Following the uniting of Wales under the rule of the Llywelyn princes, King Edward I of England led 15,000 men to capture Wales following multiple failed attempts by English monarchs to maintain a grip on the region prior to this. Resistance was led by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd who also made an attempt to recruit more Welsh soldiers in mid-Wales.[16][17] Llywelyn was killed in the Battle of Orewin Bridge by English soldiers in an ambush trick under the guise of discussions. His head was paraded through London and placed on a Tower of London spike with a mocking crown of laurel leaves.[18]

Llywelyn's brother Dafydd, took over leadership of Welsh fighters, but was caught in 1283. He was dragged through the streets of Shrewsbury by a horse, hanged, revived and disemboweled by English officials. His bowels were thrown into a fire as he watched. Finally, his head was cut off and placed on a Tower of London spike next to his brother Llywelyn, and his body cut into quarters.[19]

Following the deaths of Llywelyn and Dafydd, King Edward sought to end Welsh independence and introduced the royal ordinance of the

Owain Glyndŵr

With the assassination of Owain Lawgoch, the senior line of the House of Aberffraw became extinct.[24] As a result, the claim to the title "Prince of Wales" fell to the other royal dynasties of Wales, namely Deheubarth and Powys. The leading heir in this respect was Owain Glyndŵr who was descended from both dynasties.[25][26]

Glyndŵr was pronounced Prince of Wales in Glyndyfrdwy on 16 September 1400; and with his armies he proceeded to attack English towns in north-east Wales with guerilla tactics, disappearing into the mountains. He gathered much support across Wales. Henry IV led several attempted invasions but with limited success. Bad weather and the guerilla tactics of Glyndŵr created a mythical status for him, a man at one with the elements who had control over the weather.[27]

By 1404 no less than four royal military expeditions into Wales had been repelled and Owain solidified his control of the nation. He was officially crowned as "Prince of Wales" (Welsh: Tywysog Cymru) and held a parliament at Machynlleth where he outlined his national programme for an independent Wales. There were envoys from other countries including from France, Scotland and the Kingdom of León (in Spain). In the summer of 1405 four men from every commote in Wales were sent to Harlech.[28]

In 1407, the much larger and better equipped English forces began to overwhelm the Welsh and eventually by 1409 they had reconquered most of Wales. Glyndŵr fought on until he was cornered and under siege at Harlech Castle; but he managed to escape. Owain retreated to the Welsh wilderness with a band of loyal supporters; he refused to surrender and continued the war with guerilla tactics such as launching sporadic raids and ambushes throughout Wales and the English borderlands. The last documented sighting of him was in 1412 when he ambushed the king's men in Brecon and captured one of King Henry's leading supporters. He twice ignored offers of a pardon from the new king, Henry V of England, and despite the large rewards offered for his capture, Glyndŵr was never betrayed to the English. His death was recorded by a former follower in the year 1415.[28]


Llywelyn the Last

The three native princes of Wales used the House of Gwynedd arms. The House of Gwynedd is divided between the earlier House of Cunedda, which lasted from c. 420–825, and the later House of Aberffraw, beginning in 844. The first is named after Cunedda, the founding king of Gwynedd; and the second after Aberffraw, the old capital of Gwynedd.[29] The senior line of the House of Aberffraw, descended from Llywelyn the Great in patrilineal succession, became extinct on the death of Owain Lawgoch in 1378.[30] The flag of the princely House of Aberffraw, blazoned Quarterly or and gules, four lions passant guardant two and two counterchanged langued and armed Azure.[31]

Owain Glyndŵr

'Y Ddraig Aur' (The golden dragon) of Owain Glyndŵr is attested to have been flown during the Battle of Tuthill at Caernarfon, and throughout the Welsh independence campaign.[32][33][34]

Owain Glyndŵr adapted the House of Gwynedd arms by making the lions rampant, making clear his descent from the princes of Gwynedd and Llywelyn the Last, and his defence of Wales. It is also suggested that this design was influenced by the arms of Powys Fadog and the coat of Deheubarth. Glyndŵr's father was a hereditary prince of Powys Fadog and his mother was noblewoman of Deheubarth.[35]

The Glyndŵr arms were also used as a banner, carried into battle against the English. This banner is a symbol of Welsh defiance, resilience and protest,[35] and is associated with Welsh nationhood.[36] It was carried during Glyndŵr's battles against the English, and includes four lions on red and gold. The design may also be influenced by the arms of Glyndŵr parents, both of whom had lions in their arms.[37]

As title of the English and British heir apparent

According to conventional wisdom, since 1301 the prince of Wales has usually been the eldest living son (only if he is also the heir apparent) of the King or Queen Regnant of England (subsequently of Great Britain, 1707, and of the United Kingdom, 1801).

The title is neither automatic or heritable; it merges with the Crown when its holder eventually accedes to the throne, or reverts to the Crown if its holder predeceases the current monarch, leaving the sovereign free to grant it to the new heir apparent (such as the late prince's son or brother).[38]

William Camden's Britannia describes the beginning of the English prince of Wales as heir apparent after Llywelyn ap Gruffydd was "slain":[39]

As concerning the Princes of Wales of British bloud in ancient times, you may reade in the Historie of Wales published in print. For my part I thinke it requisite and pertinent to my intended purpose to set downe summarily those of latter daies, descended from the roiall line of England. King Edward the First, unto whom his father King Henrie the Third had granted the Principalitie of Wales, when hee had obtained the Crowne and Lhewellin Ap Gryffith, the last Prince of the British race, was slain, and therby the sinewes as it were of the principalitie were cut, in the twelft yeere of his reigne united the same unto the Kingdome of England. And the whole province sware fealty and alleageance unto Edward of Caernarvon his sonne, whom hee made Prince of Wales. But King Edward the Second conferred not upon his sonne Edward the title of Prince of Wales, but onely the name of Earle of Chester and of Flint, so farre as ever I could learne out of the Records, and by that title summoned him to Parliament, being then nine yeres old. King Edward the Third first created his eldest sonne Edward surnamed the Blacke Prince, the Mirour of Chivalrie (being then Duke of Cornwall and Earle of Chester), Prince of Wales by solemne investure, with a cap of estate and Coronet set on his head, a gold ring put upon his finger, and a silver vierge delivered into his hand, with the assent of Parliament.[40]

— William Camden, Britannia (1607)

In 2011, along with the other Commonwealth realms, the United Kingdom committed to the Perth Agreement, which proposed changes to the laws governing succession, including altering the male-preference primogeniture to absolute primogeniture.[41] The Succession to the Crown Act 2013 was introduced to the British parliament on 12 December 2012, published the next day, and received royal assent on 25 April 2013.[42] It was brought into force on 26 March 2015,[43] at the same time as the other realms implemented the Perth Agreement in their own laws.[44]

Titles and roles

After the conquest, "Prince of Wales" has been a substantive title traditionally (but not necessarily) granted by the English or British monarch to the son or grandson who is the heir apparent to the throne.

Since 1301, the title "Earl of Chester" has generally been granted to each heir apparent to the English throne, and from the late 14th century it has been given only in conjunction with that of "Prince of Wales". Both titles are bestowed to each individual by the sovereign and are not automatically acquired.[45]

The prince of Wales usually has other titles and honours, if the eldest son of the monarch; typically this means being duke of Cornwall, which, unlike being prince of Wales, inherently includes lands and constitutional and operational responsibilities. The Duchy of Cornwall was created in 1337 by Edward III of England for his son and heir, Edward of Woodstock (also known as "The Black Prince"). A charter was also created which ruled that the eldest son of the king would be the duke of Cornwall.[46]

No formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to the prince of Wales by law or custom. In that role, Charles often assisted Queen Elizabeth II in the performance of her duties. He represented her when welcoming dignitaries to London and during state visits. He also represented the Queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as funerals.[47] The prince of Wales has also been granted the authority to issue royal warrants.[48]

British (formerly English) insignia

As heir apparent to the sovereign, the prince of Wales bears the royal arms differenced by a white label of three points. To represent Wales he bears the coat of arms of the Principality of Wales, crowned with the heir apparent's crown, on an inescutcheon-en-surtout. This was first used by the future King Edward VIII in 1910, and followed by the most recent prince of Wales, the future King Charles III.[49]

The heraldic badge of the three feathers is the badge of the Duke of Cornwall, or heir apparent to the British throne.[50] The ostrich feathers heraldic motif is generally traced back to Edward, the Black Prince, eldest son and heir apparent King Edward III of England. The Black Prince bore (as an alternative to his differenced royal arms) a shield of Sable, three ostrich feathers argent, described as his "shield for peace", probably meaning the shield he used for jousting. These arms appear several times on his chest tomb in Canterbury Cathedral, alternating with his paternal royal arms (the royal arms of King Edward III differenced by a label of three points argent).[51] The Black Prince also used heraldic badges of one or more ostrich feathers in various other contexts.[52]

Opposition to the title

Welsh people opposing to the investiture of Prince Charles at Caernarfon Castle

While Prince Charles's investiture was "largely welcomed" in Wales,[53] and it was watched by 19 million in the UK and another 500 million around the world, protests described as an anti-investiture movement, also took place in the days leading up to the ceremony.[54][55] Multiple Welsh organisations and individuals were against the event, including Dafydd Iwan,[56] Edward Millward,[57] Cofia 1282 ("remember 1282"),[58] and the Welsh Language Society.[59] On the day of the investiture, a few protesters were arrested.[60]

Since then, further prominent organisations and figures in Wales have called for an end to the title including Plaid Cymru (which has since changed its stance),[61][62] Republic,[63] Michael Sheen,[64] and Dafydd Elis-Thomas.[65] Following King Charles III's accession to the throne in September 2022, a petition was launched calling for the abolition of the title "Prince of Wales", which by 17 September had received over 30,000 signatures.[66]

Opinion polls

A BBC Wales poll in 1999 found that 73% of Welsh speakers wanted the position of Prince of Wales to continue.[67]

A BBC poll in 2009, marking the 40th anniversary of the investiture, indicated that 38% of the Welsh population was in favour of a similar public ceremony for Prince William after Prince Charles became king.[68]

An ITV poll in 2018 found 57% of Welsh people in support of the title passing on when the then prince became king, with 27% opposed. Support for a similar investiture was lower, with 31% supporting, 27% opposed and 18% wanting a different kind of investiture.[69]

List of princes of Wales (English or British heirs apparent)

Person Name Heir of Birth Became heir apparent Created Prince of Wales Ceased to be Prince of Wales Death
Edward I and II.jpg
Edward of Caernarfon Edward I 25 April 1284 19 August 1284 7 February 1301[45] 7 July 1307
acceded to throne as Edward II
21 September 1327
Plantagenet, Edward, The Black Prince, Iconic Image.JPG
Edward of Woodstock Edward III 15 June 1330 12 May 1343[45] 8 June 1376
Richard of Bordeaux 6 January 1367 8 June 1376 20 November 1376[45] 22 June 1377
acceded to throne as Richard II
14 February 1400
Henry of Monmouth Henry IV 16 September 1386 30 September 1399 15 October 1399[45] 21 March 1413
acceded to throne as Henry V
31 August 1422
Edward of Westminster Henry VI 13 October 1453 15 March 1454[45] 11 April 1471
father deposed
4 May 1471
Edward of York Edward IV 4 November 1470 11 April 1471 26 June 1471[45] 9 April 1483
acceded to throne as Edward V
Rous Roll - Edward, Prince of Wales.jpg
Edward of Middleham Richard III 1473 26 June 1483 24 August 1483[45] 31 March or
9 April 1484
Arthur Prince of Wales c 1500.jpg
Arthur Tudor Henry VII 20 September 1486 29 November 1489[45] 2 April 1502
HenryVIII 1509.jpg
Henry Tudor 28 June 1491 2 April 1502 18 February 1504[45] 21 April 1509
acceded to throne as Henry VIII
28 January 1547
Edouard VI Tudor.jpg
Edward Tudor Henry VIII 12 October 1537 c. 1537[70] 28 January 1547
acceded to throne as Edward VI
6 July 1553
Henry Prince of Wales after Isaac Oliver.jpg
Henry Frederick Stuart James I 19 February 1594 24 March 1603 4 June 1610[45] 6 November 1612
Charles I (Prince of Wales).jpg
Charles Stuart 19 November 1600 6 November 1612 4 November 1616[45] 27 March 1625
acceded to throne as Charles I
30 January 1649
King Charles II by Adriaen Hanneman.jpg
Charles Stuart Charles I 29 May 1630 declared c. 1638–1641[45] 30 January 1649
title abolished;
later (1660) acceded to throne as Charles II
6 February 1685
James Francis Edward Stuart James II 10 June 1688 c. 4 July 1688[45] 11 December 1688[71]
father deposed
1 January 1766
Kneller - George II when Prince of Wales.png
George Augustus George I 10 November 1683 1 August 1714 27 September 1714[45] 11 June 1727
acceded to throne as George II
25 October 1760
Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales by Philip Mercier.jpg
Frederick Louis George II 1 February 1707 11 June 1727 8 January 1729[45] 31 March 1751
George, Prince of Wales, later George III, 1754 by Liotard.jpg
George William Frederick 4 June 1738 31 March 1751 20 April 1751[45][72] 25 October 1760
acceded to throne as George III
29 January 1820
George IV bust1.jpg
George Augustus Frederick George III 12 August 1762 19 August 1762[45] 29 January 1820
acceded to throne as George IV
26 June 1830
Prince of Wales00.jpg
Albert Edward Victoria 9 November 1841 8 December 1841[45] 22 January 1901
acceded to throne as Edward VII
6 May 1910
George V of the United Kingdom01.jpg
George Frederick Ernest Albert Edward VII 3 June 1865 22 January 1901 9 November 1901[73] 6 May 1910
acceded to throne as George V
20 January 1936
HRH The Prince of Wales No 4 (HS85-10-36416).jpg
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David George V 23 June 1894 6 May 1910 23 June 1910[45] 20 January 1936
acceded to throne as Edward VIII;
later (1937) Duke of Windsor
28 May 1972
2019 Reunião Bilateral com o Príncipe Charles - 48948389972 (cropped).jpg
Charles Philip Arthur George Elizabeth II 14 November 1948 6 February 1952 26 July 1958 8 September 2022
acceded to throne as Charles III
William Sumbarines Crop.png
William Arthur Philip Louis Charles III 21 June 1982 8 September 2022 9 September 2022[3] Incumbent living

Queen Elizabeth II's son Charles, was Prince of Wales for 64 years and 44 days between 1958 and 2022, longer than any predecessor. He was also heir apparent for longer than any other in British history.[74]

Family tree

See also


  1. ^ "Royal Family tree and line of succession". BBC News. 9 September 2022.
  2. ^ Furness, Hannah (9 September 2022). "Royal title changes: William to become Prince of Wales". The Telegraph.
  3. ^ a b "William named the new Prince of Wales by King Charles III". BBC. 9 September 2022.
  4. ^ Kari Maund (2000). The Welsh Kings: The Medieval Rulers of Wales. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-2321-5.
  5. ^ "Archaeologia Cambrensis (1846–1899) | Brut Y Tywysogion : Gwentian Chronicle | 1863 | Welsh Journals – The National Library of Wales". Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  6. ^ Caradoc, of Llancarvan; Iolo, Morganwg; Owen, Aneurin (1863). Brut y tywysogion: the Gwentian chronicle of Caradoc of Llancarvan. University of California Libraries. London : J.R. Smith [etc.]
  7. ^ "Wales". Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  8. ^ K. L. Maund (1991). Ireland, Wales, and England in the Eleventh Century. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 64–67. ISBN 978-0-85115-533-3.
  9. ^ Turvey, Roger (6 June 2014), "The Governance of Native Wales: The Princes as Rulers", The Welsh Princes, Routledge, pp. 101–124, doi:10.4324/9781315840802-5, ISBN 978-1-315-84080-2, retrieved 26 July 2022
  10. ^ K. L. Maund (1991). Ireland, Wales, and England in the Eleventh Century. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 64–67. ISBN 978-0-85115-533-3.
  11. ^ Davies, John (1993). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. p. 100. ISBN 0-14-014581-8.
  12. ^ Kessler, P. L. "Kingdoms of Cymru Celts – Wales / Cymru". Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  13. ^ Hughes, Jonathan, "Politics and the occult at the Court of Edward IV", Princes and Princely Culture: 1450–1650, Brill, 2005, pp. 112–113.
  14. ^ D.R. Woolf, "The power of the past: history, ritual and political authority in Tudor England", in Paul A. Fideler, Political Thought and the Tudor Commonwealth:Deep Structure, Discourse, and Disguise, New York, 1992, pp. 21–22.
  15. ^ "Kings and Princes of Wales". Historic UK. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  16. ^ "BBC - History - British History in depth: Wales: English Conquest of Wales c.1200 - 1415". Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  17. ^ "BBC Wales - History - Themes - Welsh language: After the Norman conquest". Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  18. ^ Davies, Dr John (2020). Accident or Assassination?The Death of Llywelyn 11th December 1282 (PDF). Abbey Cwmhir Heritage Trust.
  19. ^ Long, Tony. "Oct. 3, 1283: As Bad Deaths Go, It's Hard to Top This". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  20. ^ Francis Jones (1969). The Princes and Principality of Wales. University of Wales Press. ISBN 9780900768200.
  21. ^ a b Pilkington, Colin (2002). Devolution in Britain today. Manchester University Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-7190-6075-5.
  22. ^ G. W. S. Barrow (1956). Feudal Britain: the completion of the medieval kingdoms, 1066–1314. E. Arnold. ISBN 9787240008980.
  23. ^ Walker, David (28 June 1990). Medieval Wales. Cambridge University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-521-31153-3.
  24. ^ Carr 1995, pp. 103–106.
  25. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 165–167.
  26. ^ Davies 2000, p. 436.
  27. ^ "BBC Wales - History - Themes - Chapter 10: The revolt of Owain Glyndwr". Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  28. ^ a b Davies, R. R. (2009). Owain Glyndwr: Prince of Wales. Y Lolfa. ISBN 978-1-84771-127-4.
  29. ^ Davies, John (2007). A History of Wales. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-0-14-192633-9. Retrieved 23 December 2019. The plot was carried out (by a Scot) in 1378, and Saint Leger on the banks of the Garonne (opposite Chateau Calon Segur - not a Welsh name, alas) became the burial place of the last of the male line of the house of Aberffraw. Following the extinction of that line,...
  30. ^ Davies, John (2007). A History of Wales. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-0-14-192633-9. Retrieved 23 December 2019. The plot was carried out (by a Scot) in 1378, and Saint Leger on the banks of the Garonne (opposite Chateau Calon Segur - not a Welsh name, alas) became the burial place of the last of the male line of the house of Aberffraw. Following the extinction of that line,...
  31. ^ The arms and flag have four squares alternating in gold and red (representing the Royal House of Aberffraw and iron, or Mars the god of War). Each square has a lion of the opposite colour. The lion is looking at the observer and has 3 paws on the ground and one raised high in the air ("passant guardant"); the tongue is stuck-out ("langued") and the claws outstretched claws ("armed"). Both are blue ("Azur". This represents primacy in Wales).
  32. ^ nathenamin (8 November 2011). "History of Welsh Flags". Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  33. ^ "Enter the Dragon: Revealing the history of the Welsh flag". The National Wales. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  34. ^ WalesOnline (27 April 2013). "Is the Welsh dragon the most important object in Welsh history?". WalesOnline. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  35. ^ a b "BBC Wales – History – Themes – Welsh flag: Banner of Owain Glyndwr". Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  36. ^ WalesOnline (15 September 2004). "Flying the flag to remember Glyndwr". WalesOnline. Retrieved 12 August 2022.
  37. ^ "BBC Wales - History - Themes - Welsh flag: Banner of Owain Glyndwr". Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  38. ^ Titles and Heraldry - website of the Prince of Wales
  39. ^ Camden, William (1607). Britannia. pp. Glamorganshire.
  40. ^ Glamorganshire. Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
  41. ^ Laura Smith-Spark (28 October 2011). "Girls given equal rights to British throne under law changes". CNN. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  42. ^ Succession to the Crown Act. Parliament of the United Kingdom.
  43. ^ Succession to the Crown Act 2013 (Commencement) Order 2015 at (retrieved 30 March 2015)
  44. ^ Statement by Nick Clegg MP, UK parliament website, 26 March 2015 (retrieved on same date).
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t l Previous Princes. Prince of Wales official website. Retrieved on 15 July 2013.
  46. ^ "History of the Duchy | The Duchy of Cornwall". Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  47. ^ "The Prince of Wales - Royal Duties". Clarence House. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  48. ^ Emma.Goodey (4 April 2016). "Royal warrants". The Royal Family. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  49. ^ Prince of Wales Archived 11 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 15 July 2012.
  50. ^ Williams, Nino (25 November 2018). "The uncomfortable truth about the three feathers symbol embraced by Wales". WalesOnline. Retrieved 12 August 2022.
  51. ^ Scott Giles 1929, pp. 89–91.
  52. ^ Siddons 2009, pp. 178–9.
  53. ^ Berry-Waite, Lisa (22 May 2022). "The Investiture of the Prince of Wales". The National Archives blog.
  54. ^ Ellis, John Stephen (2008). Investiture: Royal Ceremony and National Identity in Wales, 1911-1969. University of Wales Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-7083-2000-6.
  55. ^ "50 years since the Investiture". National Library of Wales Blog. 1 July 2019. Retrieved 11 September 2022.
  56. ^ Jones, Craig Owen (Summer 2013). ""Songs of Malice and Spite"?: Wales, Prince Charles, and an Anti-Investiture Ballad of Dafydd Iwan". Music and Politics. 7 (2). doi:10.3998/mp.9460447.0007.203. ISSN 1938-7687.
  57. ^ "Prince Charles' Wales Investiture Was As Controversial As 'The Crown' Shows". Bustle. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  58. ^ "50 years since the Investiture". National Library of Wales Blog. 1 July 2019. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  59. ^ Ellis, John Stephen (2008). Investiture: Royal Ceremony and National Identity in Wales, 1911-1969. University of Wales Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-7083-2000-6.
  60. ^ Stephen), Ellis, John S. (John (2008). Investiture : royal ceremony and national identity in Wales, 1911-1969. University of Wales Press. p. 235. OCLC 647632453.
  61. ^ "Plaid Cymru objections to Prince of Wales". Western Mail. 8 August 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
  62. ^ "Declaring a new Prince of Wales with no discussion with the people of Wales wasn't right". Nation.Cymru. 10 September 2022. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
  63. ^ "'Wales doesn't need a prince': Anti-monarchy billboards spark backlash". Sky News. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
  64. ^ "Michael Sheen returned OBE to air views on royal family". the Guardian. 29 December 2020. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  65. ^ "'Devolved, democratic' Wales doesn't 'need' a Prince of Wales any more says Lord Elis-Thomas". Nation.Cymru. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  66. ^ John, Lucy (17 September 2022). "Bearded man heckles King Charles in Cardiff over the cost of the monarchy". WalesOnline.
  67. ^ "Wales backs Charles for king". BBC News Online. 25 June 1999. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  68. ^ "Poll shows support for monarchy". BBC News Online. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  69. ^ ITV. "ITV News Poll: Should Charles be the last Prince of Wales?". ITV News. ITV. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  70. ^ McIntosh, J. L. (2008). "APPENDIX C: Creating and Investing a Prince of Wales". Gutenberg-e Home (Columbia University Press). Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  71. ^ Continued claiming title until 1701
  72. ^ "The London Gazette - From Tuesday April 16, to Saturday April 26, 1751" (PDF). The London Gazette. No. 9050. 16 April 1751. p. 1. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  73. ^ "No. 27375". The London Gazette. 9 November 1901. p. 7289.
  74. ^ Bryan, Nicola (9 September 2017). "Prince Charles is longest-serving Prince of Wales". Retrieved 11 September 2017.


External links

Retrieved from ""