Prince of Wales

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Prince of Wales
Tywysog Cymru
Personal standard
Incumbent
William
since 9 September 2022
StyleHis Royal Highness
Member ofBritish royal family
AppointerMonarch of the United Kingdom (previously of England)
Term lengthLife tenure or until accession as sovereign
Formation
  • 1165 (Welsh title)
  • 1301 (English/British title)
First holder

Prince of Wales (Welsh: Tywysog Cymru, pronounced [təu̯ˈəsoɡ ˈkəmrɨ]; Latin: Princeps Cambriae/Walliae) is a title traditionally given to the male heir apparent to the English, and later British, throne. The title originated with the Welsh rulers of Gwynedd who, from the late 12th century, used it (albeit inconsistently) to assert their supremacy over the other Welsh rulers. However, to mark the finalisation of his conquest of Wales, in 1301, Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon with the title, thereby beginning the tradition of giving the title to the heir apparent when he was the monarch's son or grandson. The title was later claimed by the leader of a Welsh rebellion, Owain Glyndŵr, from 1400 until 1415.

King Charles III, formerly Prince of Wales, created his son William Prince of Wales on 9 September 2022 on his accession to the throne, with formal letters patent issued on 13 February 2023. The title has become a point of controversy in Wales.

Welsh princes of Wales

Origins to 1283

The first known use of the title 'prince of Wales'[note 1] was in the 1160s by Owain Gwynedd, ruler of Gwynedd, in a letter to Louis VII of France.[2] In the 12th century, Wales was a patchwork of Anglo-Norman lordships and native Welsh principalities – notably Deheubarth, Powys and Gwynedd – competing among themselves for hegemony.[3] Owain's aim in using the title in his letter to Louis was probably to claim pre-eminence over the other native Welsh rulers.[4] The context of the title (princeps Walliarum) was in reference to the titles of early Roman Emperors, in contrast to how it was later used under the English and British crowns for crown princes.[2] Following Owain's death in 1170 no other ruler, with the exception of Rhys ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth, is known to have adopted the title until 1245.[5] Rhys used several titles, sometimes concurrently, and in two charters from the 1180s he is referred to as 'prince of Wales' or 'prince of the Welsh'.[6][7]

The title was revived in 1245 when Dafydd ap Llywelyn, ruler of Gwynedd, began using it in the final months of his reign. In the intervening years, Owen Gwynedd's successors in Gwynedd, including Dafydd, had, instead, adopted the titles 'prince of North Wales' or 'prince of Aberffraw and lord of Snowdon'.[8]

However, it is in the reign of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Dafydd's nephew and successor in Gwynedd, that the title is consistently used over an extended period. From 1262[note 2] to his death in 1282, Llywelyn used no other style except 'prince of Wales and lord of Snowdon'.[10] This was accompanied by Llywelyn making the principality of Wales (encompassing Gwynedd, Deheubarth, Powys and parts of the Marches) a political reality.[11][12] He had achieved this by significantly expanding his directly ruled territories into mid- and south Wales and inducing all the other remaining native Welsh rulers to do him homage and acknowledge him as overlord by 1263.[13] Additionally, Llywelyn developed governance structures which made his authority effective across the entire principality of Wales, including in the territories of the Welsh rulers that owed him allegiance.[14] The significance of these developments was marked by Henry III of England recognising Llywelyn's title and authority in the Treaty of Montgomery of 1267.[13] As J. Beverley Smith has noted, his title "at once, acknowledged and proclaimed a status unique in Welsh political history".[15]

Llywelyn's principality was destroyed as a result of the conquest of Wales by Edward I between 1277 and 1283, during which Llewylyn was killed in 1282.[16] After his death, his brother, Dafydd, adopted Llywelyn's title and continued resistance for a few months.[17] However, Dafydd was defeated and executed in 1283 and the principality was permanently annexed by Edward I.[16]

Post-conquest claimants

In the fourteenth century, two pretenders to the title of 'prince of Wales' attempted to make good their claims: Owain Lawgoch, a descendant of the princes of Gwynedd, and Owain Glyndŵr, whose ancestors included the former rulers of Powys and Deheubarth.[note 3] Owain Lawgoch's abortive attempt at invading Wales in 1372 was followed by Glyndŵr's much more serious revolt beginning in 1400.[19]

Glyndŵr's rebellion commenced with his supporters proclaiming him prince of Wales.[20] However, it is unclear how important this was in his initial objectives, given that his immediate motivation appears to have been a personal grievance with a neighbouring English lord.[21][22] By 1401, he had effectively dropped his claim to the title. But, with the rebellion's military successes of 1402–1403 and the growth in his support in Wales, he became more ambitious. In 1404, he had himself crowned as prince of Wales and he launched plans to create the state institutions of a new principality. This phase of the revolt was short-lived, however. By 1406, the rebellion began to fail militarily, and, from 1409, Glyndŵr had to exchange the trappings of a ruling prince for those of a hunted outlaw. He died in obscurity, probably around 1415.[23]

Heirs apparent to the English or British thrones

Titles and roles

Depiction of the "Honours of the Principality of Wales" created for the 1911 for the investiture of Edward (later Edward VIII).

The title is neither automatic nor heritable; it merges with the Crown when its holder eventually accedes to the throne, or reverts to the Crown if its holder predeceases the current monarch, leaving the sovereign free to grant it to the new heir apparent (such as the late prince's son or brother).[24]

The Prince of Wales usually has other titles and honours, if the eldest son of the monarch:

  • Since 1301, the title 'Earl of Chester' has generally been granted to each heir apparent to the English throne, and from the late 14th century it has been given only in conjunction with that of 'Prince of Wales'. Both titles are bestowed to each individual by the sovereign and are not automatically acquired.[25]
  • Typically the prince is also Duke of Cornwall. Unlike the title Prince of Wales, this inherently includes lands and constitutional and operational responsibilities. The duchy of Cornwall was created in 1337 by Edward III for his son and heir, Edward of Woodstock (also known as 'The Black Prince'). A charter was also created which ruled that the eldest son of the king would be the Duke of Cornwall.[26]

No formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to the prince of Wales by law or custom. In that role, Charles often assisted Elizabeth II in the performance of her duties. He represented her when welcoming dignitaries to London and during state visits. He also represented the Queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as funerals.[27] The Prince of Wales has also been granted the authority to issue royal warrants.[28]

In 2011, along with the other Commonwealth realms, the United Kingdom committed to the Perth Agreement, which proposed changes to the laws governing succession, including altering the male-preference primogeniture to absolute primogeniture.[29] The Succession to the Crown Act 2013 was introduced to the British parliament on 12 December 2012, published the next day, and received royal assent on 25 April 2013.[30] It was brought into force on 26 March 2015,[31] at the same time as the other realms implemented the Perth Agreement in their own laws.[32]

Insignia

Arms of English heir apparent, Edward the Black Prince

The Prince of Wales's feathers are the badge of the Prince of Wales by virtue of being the heir apparent.[33] The ostrich feathers are generally traced back to Edward of Woodstock ('The Black Prince'). He bore (as an alternative to his differenced royal arms) a shield of Sable, three ostrich feathers argent, described as his "shield for peace", probably meaning the shield he used for jousting. These arms appear several times on his chest tomb in Canterbury Cathedral, alternating with his paternal royal arms (the royal arms of King Edward III differenced by a label of three points argent).[34] The Black Prince also used heraldic badges of one or more ostrich feathers in various other contexts.[35]

Selected events and anomalies

First English Prince of Wales

Edward I of England creating his son as "Prince of Wales" at the Lincoln parliament, England (14th century depiction)

In order to finalise his conquest of Wales, Edward I began the custom of granting the title of Prince of Wales to the heir apparent to the English throne.[36] Consequently, in 1301, Edward invested his Welsh-born eldest son, Edward of Caernarfon, as the first Plantagenet Prince of Wales.[37]

Writing in Britannia, William Camden describes the killing of Llywelyn and Edward's use of the title "Prince of Wales" for his son:[38]

As concerning the Princes of Wales of British bloud in ancient times, you may reade in the Historie of Wales published in print. For my part I thinke it requisite and pertinent to my intended purpose to set downe summarily those of latter daies, descended from the roiall line of England. King Edward the First, unto whom his father King Henrie the Third had granted the Principalitie of Wales, when hee had obtained the Crowne and Lhewellin Ap Gryffith, the last Prince of the British race, was slain, and therby the sinewes as it were of the principalitie were cut, in the twelft yeere of his reigne united the same unto the Kingdome of England. And the whole province sware fealty and alleageance unto Edward of Caernarvon his sonne, whom hee made Prince of Wales. But King Edward the Second conferred not upon his sonne Edward the title of Prince of Wales, but onely the name of Earle of Chester and of Flint, so farre as ever I could learne out of the Records, and by that title summoned him to Parliament, being then nine yeres old. King Edward the Third first created his eldest sonne Edward surnamed the Blacke Prince, the Mirour of Chivalrie (being then Duke of Cornwall and Earle of Chester), Prince of Wales by solemne investure, with a cap of estate and Coronet set on his head, a gold ring put upon his finger, and a silver vierge delivered into his hand, with the assent of Parliament.[39]

— William Camden, Britannia (1607)

Brothers

In 1502, Henry Tudor (the future Henry VIII) took the title after the death of his older brother Arthur, who predeceased his father, King Henry VII.[25]

The same occurred in 1616, when Henry Frederick Stuart predeceased his father James I; Henry's brother Charles Stuart, later Charles I, took the title.[25]

1911 investiture of Prince Edward

Edward (then the heir apparent; later King Edward VIII) was invested as Prince of Wales at Caernarfon Castle in July 1911. This was the first such public investiture for centuries. He had been created Prince of Wales in June 1910.

On arrival, Edward addressed the crowd briefly, and somewhat poetically, in Welsh: "Môr o gân yw Cymru i gyd." The king presented Edward with the insignia of his office. After the ceremony the royal party rejoined the royal yacht. It was said that the ceremonial was partly "invented tradition".

1969 investiture of Prince Charles

Two investiture protesters hold placards with "CARLO", and one protester holds a poster with the word "BRAD" ("Betrayal"), Caernarfon Castle 1969
People at the investiture

Although the investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales in 1969 took place during a period of social change and a growing Welsh nationalist movement, it was largely welcomed by people in Wales.[40] The investiture was also attended, by invitation, by 3,500 people who lived and worked in Wales.[41] In the UK, the press focused on the pomp and regalia, with newspaper headlines such as "Welsh go wild for Their Royal Prince" and "Proud Wales takes Prince to her heart."[42] It was also supported by the Secretary of State for Wales at the time, George Thomas, although he remained a controversial figure in Wales.[43] Thomas later said to Prime Minister Harold Wilson that Charles's speech had "boosted Welsh nationalism."[42]

The 1960s movement surrounding the investiture has historically been described as the "anti-investiture movement"[44]: 207 [45][46] and "anti-investiture sentiment".[47] The investiture occurred during a period of revival of the Welsh national consciousness, with an outspoken section considering him as an English Prince being imposed upon Wales.[48] The investiture also led to significant protests in Wales. The group "Cofia 1282" ("Remember 1282") also held protests against the investiture.[49]

William as Prince of Wales

On 9 September 2022 (the day after his accession to the throne), during his first address as king, Charles III said of his son William, "Today I am proud to create him Prince of Wales, Tywysog Cymru. The country whose title I've been so greatly privileged to bear during so much of my life of duty."[50] Buckingham Palace stated that "The Prince and Princess [of Wales] look forward to celebrating Wales's proud history and traditions as well as a future that is full of promise".[51] The First Minister of Wales, Mark Drakeford, noted that "William will be absolutely aware of the sensitivities that surround the title..."[50]

Though the title started to be used immediately afterward, it was only documented formally by letters patent on 13 February 2023.[52][53]

Contemporary debate

Title

Charles III proclaimed William as Prince of Wales on 9 September 2022, the day after the death of Elizabeth II, surprising Mark Drakeford, First Minister of Wales, who said he had not been given notice of the announcement. The creation of a new Prince of Wales was the catalyst for a renewed debate on the title, and already, on 8 September, a petition had been started calling for the title to be ended. The petition had garnered 25,000 signatures in its first few days.[54]

Former Welsh Assembly presiding officer, Lord Elis-Thomas, had also questioned the need for the title to continue, and recalled previous discussion with the then Prince Charles, who expressed his desire never again to have an investiture in Caernarfon Castle. According to Elis-Thomas, Charles laughed and said, "Do you think I want to put William through what I went through?".[55]

The decision to grant William the title of Prince of Wales was criticised by the Welsh nationalist party Plaid Cymru: Senedd member Cefin Campbell called the decision "divisive" and party leader Adam Price called for a public debate on the issue.[56]

The question raised by critics was one of respect for Wales as a country in its own right, and the continued symbol of the historical invasion and oppression of Wales. William pledged that he would serve Wales with humility and great respect for its people, and spoke of the honour he felt to do so. He signalled a desire to reform the role.[57]

The contemporary debate does not focus wholly on abolition, but explores how, if the title is to continue, it may be adapted to reflect the realities of the changing constitutional relationship with Wales. This includes the question of whether the Welsh Government should play a greater role in the appointments process, or whether there should be a Senedd ceremonial process to reflect the nation's governance over its own affairs.[54]

Opinion polls

A BBC Wales poll in 1999 showed that 73% of Welsh speakers believed the title should continue after Charles.[58] A BBC poll in 2009, 40 years following the investiture, revealed 58% of Welsh people support the title "Prince of Wales"; 26% opposed the title. However, only 16% responded that Wales had benefited from having a prince.[59][60]

In July 2018, an ITV poll found that 57% of Welsh people supported the title passing to William, with 22% for abolition or vacating the title. Support for another investiture was lower, with 31% supporting a ceremony similar to the 1969 one, 18% supporting a ceremony different to 1969, and 27% opposing an investiture.[61]

In 2019, a BBC Wales poll showed that 50% supported the continuation of the title and 22% opposed. On the investiture, 41% supported a similar ceremony to 1969, 20% a different-style investiture ceremony, and 30% opposed any future investiture.[62][63] A 2021 poll by Beaufort Research for Western Mail showed 61% of respondents in Wales supported another investiture, including 60% of Welsh-speakers polled.[64]

In June 2022, an ITV/YouGov poll showed that 46% of adults in Wales wanted the Prince of Wales title to continue, and 31% said it should be abolished.[65] In September 2022, a YouGov poll showed 66% support for Prince William to be given the title compared to 22% opposed, with 19% supporting a 1969-style investiture, 30% a different style of investiture and 34% opposing any investiture of Prince William as Prince of Wales.[66]

List of princes of Wales (English or British heirs apparent)

Person Name Heir of Birth Became heir apparent Created Prince of Wales Ceased to be Prince of Wales Death
Edward of Caernarfon Edward I 25 April 1284 19 August 1284 7 February 1301[25] 7 July 1307
acceded to throne as Edward II
21 September 1327
Edward of Woodstock Edward III 15 June 1330 12 May 1343[25] 8 June 1376
deceased
Richard of Bordeaux 6 January 1367 8 June 1376 20 November 1376[25] 22 June 1377
acceded to throne as Richard II
14 February 1400
Henry of Monmouth Henry IV 16 September 1386 30 September 1399 15 October 1399[25] 21 March 1413
acceded to throne as Henry V
31 August 1422
Edward of Westminster Henry VI 13 October 1453 15 March 1454[25] 11 April 1471
father deposed
4 May 1471
deceased
Edward of York Edward IV 4 November 1470 11 April 1471 26 June 1471[25] 9 April 1483
acceded to throne as Edward V
1483
Edward of Middleham Richard III 1473 26 June 1483 24 August 1483[25] 31 March or
9 April 1484
deceased
Arthur Tudor Henry VII 20 September 1486 29 November 1489[25] 2 April 1502
deceased
Henry Tudor 28 June 1491 2 April 1502 18 February 1504[25] 21 April 1509
acceded to throne as Henry VIII
28 January 1547
Edward Tudor Henry VIII 12 October 1537 c. 18 October 1537[67][68] 28 January 1547
acceded to throne as Edward VI
6 July 1553
Henry Frederick Stuart James I 19 February 1594 24 March 1603 4 June 1610[25] 6 November 1612
deceased
Charles Stuart 19 November 1600 6 November 1612 4 November 1616[25] 27 March 1625
acceded to throne as Charles I
30 January 1649
Charles Stuart Charles I 29 May 1630 c. 1638 – 1641[25] 30 January 1649
title abolished;
acceded to throne 1660 as Charles II
6 February 1685
James Francis Edward Stuart James II 10 June 1688 c. 4 July 1688[25] 11 December 1688[69]
father deposed
1 January 1766
George Augustus George I 10 November 1683 1 August 1714 27 September 1714[25][70] 11 June 1727
acceded to throne as George II
25 October 1760
Frederick Louis George II 1 February 1707 11 June 1727 7 January 1728[25][71] 31 March 1751
deceased
George William Frederick 4 June 1738 31 March 1751 20 April 1751[25][72] 25 October 1760
acceded to throne as George III
29 January 1820
George Augustus Frederick George III 12 August 1762 17 August 1762[25][73] 29 January 1820
acceded to throne as George IV
26 June 1830
Albert Edward Victoria 9 November 1841 8 December 1841[25][74] 22 January 1901
acceded to throne as Edward VII
6 May 1910
George Frederick Ernest Albert Edward VII 3 June 1865 22 January 1901 9 November 1901[25][75] 6 May 1910
acceded to throne as George V
20 January 1936
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David George V 23 June 1894 6 May 1910 23 June 1910[25][76]
Investiture: 13 July 1911
20 January 1936
acceded to throne as Edward VIII;
abdicated 1936
28 May 1972
Charles Philip Arthur George Elizabeth II 14 November 1948 6 February 1952 26 July 1958[25][77]
Investiture: 1 July 1969
8 September 2022
acceded to throne as Charles III
living
William Arthur Philip Louis Charles III 21 June 1982 8 September 2022 9 September 2022[52][78] Incumbent living

The current sovereign Charles III was the longest serving Prince of Wales for 64 years and 44 days between 1958 and 2022, and the oldest person to hold the position. He was also heir apparent for longer than any other in British history.[79] Upon the death of his mother on 8 September 2022, Charles became king and the title merged with the Crown.[80] The following day, King Charles III bestowed the title upon his elder son, Prince William, Duke of Cornwall and Cambridge.[81][52] Prince William is the oldest person to be created Prince of Wales.

Family tree

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The term used was, in Latin, princeps Walliarum ('prince of the Waleses'). However, the form of address in letters Owain received from Thomas Becket and Pope Alexander III suggests that by 1169 he was also using the titles princeps Wallie ('prince of Wales') and Wallensium princeps ('prince of the Welsh').[1]
  2. ^ From his accession in 1246 until 1262, Llywelyn appears to have avoided using any title.[9] Instead, he adopted a style in formal documents that only referenced his descent from Gruffudd ap Llywelyn ap Iorwerth. However, he briefly changed this approach in 1258 when, in an agreement between the Scottish and Welsh lords, he used the title 'prince of Wales' for the first time.[8]
  3. ^ In 1294, Madog ap Llywelyn had led a rebellion against English rule in north Wales, during which there is evidence that he used the title "prince of Wales" in one document.[18]

References

  1. ^ Price, Huw (2010). The Acts of Welsh Rulers, 1120-1283. University of Wales Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-7083-2387-8.
  2. ^ a b Huw, Pryce (1998). "Owain Gwynedd And Louis VII: The Franco-Welsh Diplomacy of the First Prince of Wales". Welsh History Review. 19 (1): 2.
  3. ^ Insley, Charles (2015). "Imitation and Independence in Native Welsh Administrative Culture, c.1180-1280". In Crook, David; Wilkinson, Louise J. (eds.). The Growth of Royal Government Under Henry III. Boydell Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-1-78327-067-5.
  4. ^ Huw, Pryce (1998). "Owain Gwynedd And Louis VII: The Franco-Welsh Diplomacy of the First Prince of Wales". Welsh History Review. 19 (1): 23.
  5. ^ Price, Huw (2010). The Acts of Welsh Rulers, 1120-1283. University of Wales Press. pp. 75–79. ISBN 978-0-7083-2387-8.
  6. ^ Insley, Charles (2000). "From Rex Wallie to Princeps Wallie: Charters and State Formation in Thirteenth Century Wales". In Maddicott, John; Palliser, David (eds.). The Medieval State: Essays Presented to James Campbell. Bloomsbury. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-8264-4349-6.
  7. ^ Price, Huw (2010). The Acts of Welsh Rulers, 1120-1283. University of Wales Press. pp. 96–98. ISBN 978-0-7083-2387-8.
  8. ^ a b Price, Huw (2010). The Acts of Welsh Rulers, 1120-1283. University of Wales Press. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0-7083-2387-8.
  9. ^ Smith, J. Beverley (2014). Llywelyn Ap Gruffudd: Prince of Wales. University of Wales Press. p. 284. ISBN 978-1-7831-6006-8.
  10. ^ Smith, J. Beverley (2014). Llywelyn Ap Gruffudd: Prince of Wales. University of Wales Press. pp. 188–189, 284–285. ISBN 978-1-7831-6006-8.
  11. ^ Insley, Charles (2000). "From Rex Wallie to Princeps Wallie: Charters and State Formation in Thirteenth Century Wales". In Maddicott, John; Palliser, David (eds.). The Medieval State: Essays Presented to James Campbell. Bloomsbury. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-8264-4349-6.
  12. ^ Jones, J. Graham (2014). The History of Wales. University of Wales Press. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-1-78316-169-0.
  13. ^ a b Pierce, Thomas Jones (1959). "Llywelyn ap Gruffydd". Dictionary of Welsh Biography. National Library of Wales.
  14. ^ Smith, J. Beverley (2014). Llywelyn Ap Gruffudd: Prince of Wales. University of Wales Press. p. 292. ISBN 978-1-7831-6006-8.
  15. ^ Smith, J. Beverley (2014). Llywelyn Ap Gruffudd: Prince of Wales. University of Wales Press. p. 285. ISBN 978-1-7831-6006-8.
  16. ^ a b Stephenson, David (2019). Medieval Wales c.1050-1332: Centuries of Ambiguity. University of Wales Press. pp. 26–28. ISBN 978-1-78683-387-7.
  17. ^ Smith, J. Beverley (2014). Llywelyn Ap Gruffudd: Prince of Wales. University of Wales Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-1-7831-6006-8.
  18. ^ Carr, Antony D. (2017). The Gentry of North Wales in the Later Middle Ages. University of Wales Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-1-78683-136-1.
  19. ^ Davies, R. R. (2000). The Age of Conquest: Wales 1063-1415. Oxford University Press. pp. 436–438. ISBN 978-0-19-820878-5.
  20. ^ Davies, R. R. (1997). The Revolt of Owain Glyn Dŵr. Oxford University Press. p. 102.
  21. ^ Davies, R. R. (1997). The Revolt of Owain Glyn Dŵr. Oxford University Press. pp. 153–155. ISBN 978-0-19-165646-0.
  22. ^ Williams, Glanmor (1993). Renewal and Reformation: Wales c. 1415-1642. Oxford University Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-19-285277-9.
  23. ^ Williams, Glanmor (1993). Renewal and Reformation: Wales c. 1415-1642. Oxford University Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-19-285277-9.
  24. ^ Titles and Heraldry Archived 19 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine - website of the Prince of Wales
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x l Previous Princes Archived 14 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Prince of Wales official website. Retrieved on 15 July 2013.
  26. ^ "History of the Duchy | The Duchy of Cornwall". duchyofcornwall.org. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  27. ^ "The Prince of Wales - Royal Duties". Clarence House. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  28. ^ Emma.Goodey (4 April 2016). "Royal warrants". The Royal Family. Archived from the original on 13 January 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  29. ^ Laura Smith-Spark (28 October 2011). "Girls given equal rights to British throne under law changes". CNN. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  30. ^ Succession to the Crown Act. Archived 12 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine Parliament of the United Kingdom.
  31. ^ Succession to the Crown Act 2013 (Commencement) Order 2015 Archived 29 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine at legislation.org.uk (retrieved 30 March 2015)
  32. ^ Statement by Nick Clegg MP, UK parliament website Archived 5 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine, 26 March 2015 (retrieved on same date).
  33. ^ Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles (1909). A Complete Guide to Heraldry. London: T.C. & E.C. Jack. LCCN 09023803 – via Internet Archive. the Prince of Wales is the only one who rejoices in the possession of officially assigned badges. The badge of the eldest son of the Sovereign, as such, and not as Prince of Wales, is the plume of three ostrich feathers, enfiled with the circlet from his coronet. Recently an additional badge (on a mount vert, a dragon passant gules, charged on the shoulder with a label of three points argent) has been assigned to His Royal Highness. This action was taken with the desire to in some way gratify the forcibly expressed wishes of Wales, and it is probable that, the precedent having been set, it will be assigned to all those who may bear the title of Prince of Wales in future.
  34. ^ Scott Giles 1929, pp. 89–91.
  35. ^ Siddons 2009, pp. 178–9.
  36. ^ Corbishley, Mike (1998). The Young Oxford History of Britain & Ireland. Oxford University Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-19-910466-6.
  37. ^ Dawson, Ian; Watson, Paul (1991). Medieval Realms 1066-1500. Oxford University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-19-917190-3.
  38. ^ Camden, William (1607). Britannia. pp. Glamorganshire. Archived from the original on 5 September 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  39. ^ Glamorganshire Archived 31 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Philological.bham.ac.uk. Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
  40. ^ Archives, The National (24 May 2022). "The National Archives - The Investiture of the Prince of Wales". The National Archives blog. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  41. ^ Davies, Christopher (2 October 2022). "Remembering the 1969 Prince of Wales investiture at Caernarfon Castle". North Wales Live. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  42. ^ a b "When a young Charles was crowned Prince of Wales — and spoke in Welsh". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  43. ^ Shipton, Martin (22 September 2017). "George Thomas was a 'sanctiminous hypocrite' - Shipton". WalesOnline. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
  44. ^ Ellis, John Stephen (2008). Investiture: Royal Ceremony and National Identity in Wales, 1911-1969. University of Wales Press. ISBN 978-0-7083-2000-6.
  45. ^ King, Richard (22 February 2022). Brittle with Relics: A History of Wales, 1962–97 ('Oral history at its revelatory best' DAVID KYNASTON). Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-29566-1.
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  49. ^ "50 years since the Investiture". National Library of Wales Blog. 1 July 2019. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  50. ^ a b "Drakeford: 'There's no rush' for an investiture for new Prince of Wales". ITV News. 12 September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  51. ^ "Prince of Wales: William speaks of honour after getting title". BBC News. 11 September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  52. ^ a b c "William named the new Prince of Wales by King Charles III". BBC. 9 September 2022. Archived from the original on 9 September 2022. Retrieved 9 September 2022.
  53. ^ "No. 63979". The London Gazette. 27 February 2023. p. 3638.
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Sources

Bibliography

External links