List of British monarchs

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Royal Arms
Royal coat of arms (common version on the left; Scottish version on the right)[a]

There have been 13 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707. England and Scotland had been in personal union since 24 March 1603. On 1 January 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merged, which resulted in the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the secession of southern Ireland in the 1920s.

List

Queen Anne had ruled the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, and the Kingdom of Ireland since 8 March 1702. She became monarch of the Kingdom of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland on 1 May 1707. Her total reign lasted 12 years and 147 days.

During the reign of Queen Anne, Parliament settled the rules of succession in the Act of Settlement 1701, defining Sophia of Hanover (granddaughter of James VI and I) and her non-Catholic descendants as the future royal heirs. The Crown passed from Queen Anne to Sophia's son King George I as Sophia had already died. Queen Anne and King George I were second cousins as both were great-grandchildren of James I and VI. For a family tree that shows George I's relationship to Anne, see George I of Great Britain § Family tree.

All British monarchs succeeding Queen Anne have inherited the Crown through primogeniture.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim Ref.
House of Stuart
Anne
1 May 1707[b]

1 August 1714[b]
(7 years, 93 days)
(Queen of England and Scotland from
8 March 1702)[c]
(12 years, 147 days)
Dahl, Michael - Queen Anne - NPG 6187.jpg
Royal Arms of Great Britain (1707-1714).svg
6 February 1665[b]
St James's Palace
Daughter of James II
and Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683[b]
5 children
1 August 1714[b]
Kensington Palace
Aged 49
Daughter of James II
Bill of Rights 1689
[2]
House of Hanover
George I
George Louis
1 August 1714[b]

11 June 1727[b]
(12 years, 315 days)
King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (3).jpg
Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
28 May 1660[b]
Leineschloss
Son of Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg
and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
21 November 1682[b]
2 children
11 June 1727[b]
Osnabrück
Aged 67
Great-grandson of James VI and I
Act of Settlement 1701
[3]
George II
George Augustus
11 June 1727[d]

25 October 1760
(33 years, 126 days)
George II by Thomas Hudson.jpg
Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
30 October 1683[b]
Herrenhausen Palace
Son of George I
and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Herrenhausen Gardens
22 August 1705[b]
8 children
25 October 1760
Kensington Palace
Aged 76
Son of George I [4]
George III
George William Frederick
25 October 1760

29 January 1820
(59 years, 97 days)
Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg
Until 1801:
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
24 May 1738[b]
Norfolk House
Son of Prince Frederick
and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
Aged 81
Grandson of George II [5]
George IV
George Augustus Frederick
29 January 1820

26 June 1830
(10 years, 149 days)
George IV 1821 color.jpg
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
12 August 1762
St James's Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
St James's Palace
8 April 1795
1 daughter
26 June 1830
Windsor Castle
Aged 67
Son of George III [6]


William IV
William Henry
26 June 1830

20 June 1837
(6 years, 360 days)
William IV in 1833 by Shee cropped.jpg
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace
13 July 1818
2 daughters
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
Aged 71
Son of George III [7]
Victoria
Alexandrina Victoria
20 June 1837

22 January 1901
(63 years, 217 days)
Queen Victoria 1843.jpg
Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg
24 May 1819
Kensington Palace
Daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
St James's Palace
10 February 1840
9 children
22 January 1901
Osborne House
Aged 81
Granddaughter of George III [8]
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Edward VII
Albert Edward
22 January 1901

6 May 1910
(9 years, 105 days)
King Edward VII by Sir (Samuel) Luke Fildes.jpg
Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg
9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace
Son of Victoria
and Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Alexandra of Denmark
St George's Chapel
10 March 1863
6 children
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
Aged 68
Son of Victoria [9]
House of Windsor[e]
George V
George Frederick Ernest Albert
6 May 1910

20 January 1936
(25 years, 260 days)
King George V 1911.jpg
Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg
3 June 1865
Marlborough House
Son of Edward VII
and Alexandra of Denmark
Mary of Teck
St James's Palace
6 July 1893
6 children
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
Aged 70
Son of Edward VII [11]
Edward VIII
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David
20 January 1936

Abdicated 11 December 1936
(327 days)
His Majesty King Edward VIII in Garter Robes (cropped).jpg
Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg
23 June 1894
White Lodge
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Wallis Simpson
Château de Candé
3 June 1937
28 May 1972
Neuilly-sur-Seine
Aged 77
Son of George V [12]
George VI
Albert Frederick Arthur George
11 December 1936

6 February 1952
(15 years, 58 days)
King George VI.jpg
Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg
14 December 1895
Sandringham House
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
2 daughters
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
Aged 56
Son of George V [13]
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
6 February 1952

8 September 2022[14]
(70 years, 215 days)
Queen Elizabeth II in Coronation Robes.jpg
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
21 April 1926
Mayfair
Daughter of George VI
and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Philip Mountbatten
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children
8 September 2022
Balmoral Castle
Aged 96
Daughter of George VI [15]
Charles III
Charles Philip Arthur George
since 8 September 2022[14]
(21 days)
Procession to Lying-in-State of Elizabeth II at Westminster Hall - 54 - Charles III (cropped).jpg
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
14 November 1948
Buckingham Palace
Son of Elizabeth II
and Philip Mountbatten
(1)
(div. 1996)

St Paul's Cathedral
29 July 1981
2 sons
(2) Camilla Parker Bowles
Windsor Guildhall
9 April 2005
Living
Age 73
Son of Elizabeth II [16]

Timeline

Comparative reigns of the British monarchs
Charles IIIElizabeth IIGeorge VIEdward VIIIGeorge VEdward VIIQueen VictoriaWilliam IVGeorge IVGeorge IIIGeorge II of Great BritainGeorge I of Great BritainAnne, Queen of Great Britain

See also

Notes

Coronations

  1. ^ There are two versions of the current Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. The common version is on the left, while the Scottish version is on the right. In the shield of the common version, England is represented in the first and fourth quarters, Scotland is represented in the second quarter, and Northern Ireland is represented in the third quarter. In the shield of the Scottish version, the Royal Arms of England and the Royal Arms of Scotland are exchanged.[1]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Old Style date
  3. ^ see List of English monarchs
  4. ^ Date of start of reign given in Old Style calendar; date of death in New Style. (Duration of reign takes this into account.)
  5. ^ King George V changed the name of the British royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to Windsor on 17 July 1917.[10] This change was made in response to anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I.

References

  1. ^ "Coats of arms". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  2. ^ "Anne (r. 1702–1714)". royal.gov.uk. 30 December 2015. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  3. ^ "George I (r. 1714–1727)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  4. ^ "George II (r. 1727–1760)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  5. ^ "George III (r. 1760–1820)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  6. ^ "King George IV (r. 1820–1830)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  7. ^ "William IV (r. 1830–1837)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  8. ^ "Victoria ( r. 1837–1901)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  9. ^ "Edward VII (r. 1901–1910)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  10. ^ "No. 30186". The London Gazette. 17 July 1917. p. 7119.
  11. ^ "George V (r. 1910–1936)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  12. ^ "Edward VIII (Jan–Dec 1936)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  13. ^ "George VI (r. 1936–1952)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  14. ^ a b "Queen Elizabeth II has died, Buckingham Palace announces". BBC News. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  15. ^ "Her Majesty The Queen". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  16. ^ Bridge, London (8 September 2022). "The King". The Royal Family. Retrieved 9 September 2022.

External links