Investiture of the Prince of Wales
The prince of Wales is sometimes presented and invested with the insignia of his rank and dignity in the manner of a coronation. The title is usually given to the heir apparent of the English or British throne. An investiture is ceremonial, as the title is formally conferred via letters patent issued by the monarch.
The ceremony was last held in 1969 for Queen Elizabeth II's eldest son and heir apparent, who became king on 8 September 2022 as Charles III. The current prince of Wales, Charles's elder son William, has not yet celebrated his investiture.
Native Prince of Wales
It is recorded that Llywelyn ap Gruffudd had deposited his coronet along with his other regalia with the monks at Cymer Abbey for safekeeping at the start of his final campaign in 1282. He was killed later that year. The coronet was seized and presented to King Edward I of England as a token of the complete annihilation of the independent Welsh state.
English, later British rule
The tradition of investing the
Frederick, Prince of Wales, later had the Coronet of Frederick, Prince of Wales, made at a cost of £140 5s. in 1728. It is unknown whether Frederick ever wore the coronet himself, but it was used by both his son, George III, and his grandson, George IV, when each was Prince of Wales.
Due to its age Frederick's coronet was replaced by the Coronet of George, Prince of Wales, made for the future King George V. At George's own coronation in 1911, the coronet was worn by his son, Edward, the next Prince of Wales.
When the former King Edward VIII went into exile as the Duke of Windsor in 1936 (following his abdication), he took with him the Coronet of George, Prince of Wales, a highly controversial – and illegal – act. This coronet had been specially created for King George V, then Prince of Wales, and he wore it at his father's coronation in 1902. The traditional coronet being unavailable, and with the older Coronet of Frederick, Prince of Wales being viewed as unusable due to age, a new Prince of Wales coronet was made to be used for the investiture of Prince Charles as Prince of Wales.
Investiture of Charles
Prince Charles was made Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester by letters patent on 26 July 1958, but the official investiture was not held until 1 July 1969. The ceremony was at Caernarfon Castle. Taught at University College of Wales, Aberystwyth by the lecturer and Welsh-nationalist politician Edward Millward, Prince Charles spent ten weeks leading up to his investiture learning about Welsh culture, history and language, and during the ceremony he gave his replies in both English and Welsh. He gave his address in Welsh.
I, Charles, Prince of Wales, do become your liege man of life and limb and of earthly worship, and faith and truth I will bear unto thee, to live and die against all manner of folks.
On the evening of 28 June 2009—to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the investiture—BBC Parliament broadcast a repeat of the original BBC TV colour outside broadcast from 1 July 1969, fronted by Cliff Michelmore and Richard Baker. This was preceded by an interview with Prince Charles recorded a few days before his investiture. The BBC repeated the broadcast on 1 July 2019, to mark the 50th anniversary.
Investiture of William
Opposition to investitures
The protests leading up to the investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales were described as the "anti-investiture movement". Multiple organisations and individuals in Wales were against the investiture including Dafydd Iwan, Edward Millward, Cofia 1282 ("remember 1282") and the Welsh Language Society. The investiture itself was controversial and led to widespread protests. On the day of the investiture, a few nonviolent protesters were arrested. 
Since the investiture of Charles, further notable organisations and figures in Wales have called for an end to the title including Plaid Cymru (which has since changed its stance), Republic, Michael Sheen, Dafydd Elis-Thomas, Leanne Wood, Carrie Harper and Bethan Sayed.
A BBC Wales poll in 1999 finding that 73 per cent of Welsh speakers want the position of Prince of Wales to continue.
A BBC poll in 2009, marking the 40th anniversary of the investiture, showed that 58 per cent of the Welsh population was in favour of a similar public ceremony for Prince William after Prince Charles becomes king.
A poll in July 2018 again found the 57% of Welsh people in support of the title passing on when the current prince becomes king with 27% opposed, support for a similar investiture was less certain however, with 31% supporting, 27% opposed and 18% wanting a different kind of investiture.
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William will be the 23rd heir apparent of the British throne to claim the title, but only the third to be invested in Wales itself.
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