Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer
Diana and Charles on their wedding day
Date29 July 1981; 42 years ago (29 July 1981)[1]
VenueSt Paul's Cathedral
LocationLondon, England

The wedding of Prince Charles (later King Charles III) and Lady Diana Spencer took place on Wednesday, 29 July 1981,[1] at St Paul's Cathedral in London, United Kingdom. The groom was the heir apparent to the British throne, and the bride was a member of the Spencer family.

The ceremony was a traditional Church of England wedding service. Alan Webster, Dean of St Paul's, presided at the service, and Robert Runcie, Archbishop of Canterbury, conducted the marriage. Notable figures in attendance included many members of other royal families, republican heads of state, and members of the bride's and groom's families. After the ceremony, the couple made the traditional appearance on the balcony of Buckingham Palace. The United Kingdom had a national holiday on that day to mark the wedding.[2] The ceremony featured many ceremonial aspects, including use of the state carriages and roles for the Foot Guards and Household Cavalry.

Their marriage was widely billed as a "fairytale wedding" and the "wedding of the century". It was watched by an estimated global television audience of 750 million people.[2][3] Events were held around the Commonwealth to mark the wedding. Many street parties were held throughout the United Kingdom to celebrate the occasion. The couple separated in 1992 and divorced in 1996 after fifteen years of marriage.


Prince Charles had known Lady Diana Spencer for several years. They first met in 1977 while Charles was dating her elder sister Lady Sarah.[4] He took serious interest in her as a potential bride in 1980 when they were guests at a country weekend, where she watched him play polo. He invited her for a sailing weekend to Cowes aboard the royal yacht Britannia as their relationship began to develop. This was followed by an invitation to Balmoral Castle, the Royal family's Scottish home, to meet his family.[5][6] Diana was well received at Balmoral by Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Philip, and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. The couple then had several dates in London. Diana and Charles had been seeing each other for about six months when he proposed on 3 February 1981 in the nursery at Windsor Castle. Diana had planned a holiday for the next week, and Charles hoped she would use the time to consider her answer.[7] Diana accepted, but their engagement was kept secret for the next few weeks.[8] Diana later claimed that the couple had met only 13 times in total before the announcement of their engagement.[9]

The wedding of Charles and Diana commemorated on a 1981 British crown coin

Their engagement became official on 24 February 1981,[10] and the couple gave an exclusive interview.[11] During the public announcement of the engagement, Diana wore a "cobalt blue skirt suit" by the British label Cojana.[12][13] Diana selected a large engagement ring that consisted of 14 solitaire diamonds surrounding a 12-carat oval blue Ceylon sapphire set in 18-carat white gold,[3] which was similar to her mother's engagement ring. The ring was made by the Crown jewellers Garrard. In 2010, it became the engagement ring of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.[14] The Queen Mother gave Diana a sapphire and diamond brooch as an engagement present.[15] A series of photographs taken by the Earl of Snowdon were published in Vogue in February 1981 to mark the engagement.[16][17] Clayton Howard did Diana's make-up and John Frieda did her hair for the official portrait.[18] The couple later sat down for another interview with BBC's Angela Rippon and ITV's Andrew Gardner.[19]

Two nights before the wedding, a gala ball was held at Buckingham Palace, and the Queen subsequently hosted a dinner for a crowd of 90 individuals.[20] A reception with dancing for 1,500 people was also held. Among the invitees were the royal household's members and staff.[21] The night before the wedding 150 people, including heads of states and governments, were invited for a dinner with the Queen.[21]

In a series of tapes recorded for her 1992 biography, Diana said that she recalled discovering a bracelet which Charles had bought for his longtime lover Camilla Parker Bowles shortly before their wedding. Due to her suspicions she wanted to call off the wedding but was put off the idea by her sisters.[22] In March 1981, she was photographed holding back tears at the airport where Charles was departing for a trip to Australia. Diana later revealed that she had been left disturbed after hearing a telephone conversation between Charles and Camilla in his study.[23]


Combined coat of arms of Charles and Diana, the Prince and Princess of Wales

The wedding took place on 29 July 1981. 3,500 guests made up the congregation at St Paul's Cathedral.[7] Charles and Diana selected St Paul's over Westminster Abbey, the traditional site of royal weddings, because St Paul's offered more seating[9] and permitted a longer procession through London.

The ceremony was a traditional Church of England wedding service, presided over by the Most Reverend Robert Runcie, Archbishop of Canterbury,[2] and the Very Reverend Alan Webster, Dean of St Paul's Cathedral. Two million spectators lined the route of Diana's procession from Clarence House, with 4,000 police and 2,200 military officers to manage the crowds.[7] The security increased and sharpshooters were stationed due to the potential threat of an attack by the Irish Republican guerrillas.[9][20][24] The security screenings in the airports also increased.[25] The cost of the wedding was later estimated to be $48 million in total (between $70M and $110M when adjusted for inflation), with $600,000 being spent on security.[9][26][27] Regiments from the Commonwealth realms participated in the procession, including the Royal Regiment of Canada.[28]

At 10:22 BST the Queen and the royal family were taken to the cathedral in eight carriages, the Prince of Wales in the 1902 State Landau, which was later used following the ceremony to take the couple back to Buckingham Palace.[21] Lady Diana arrived at the cathedral in the Glass Coach with her father, John Spencer; she was escorted by six mounted Metropolitan Police officers.[7] She arrived almost on time for the 11:20 BST ceremony.[2] The carriage was too small to hold the two of them comfortably due to her voluminous dress and train.[9] As the orchestra played Trumpet voluntary, an anthem by Jeremiah Clarke, the bride made the three-and-a-half minute walk up the aisle.[2][29]

Diana accidentally changed the order of Charles's names during her vows, saying "Philip Charles Arthur George" instead of the correct "Charles Philip Arthur George".[2] She did not promise to "obey" him as part of the traditional vows. That word was eliminated at the couple's request, which caused a sensation at the time.[30] Charles also made an error. He said he would offer her "thy goods" instead of "my worldly goods".[31] In keeping with tradition, the couple's wedding rings were crafted from Welsh gold from the Clogau St David's mine in Bontddu.[29] The tradition of using Welsh gold within the wedding rings of the Royal Family dates back to 1923.[21] Upon marriage Diana automatically acquired the title of Princess of Wales.[32]

Other church representatives present who gave prayers after the service were a former Archbishop of Canterbury, Donald Coggan, Basil Cardinal Hume, the Right Reverend Andrew Doig and the Reverend Harry Williams CR.[33][29]


Three choirs, three orchestras and a fanfare ensemble played the music for the service. These were the Bach Choir, the Choir of St Paul's Cathedral, the Choir of the Chapel Royal, the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House, the Philharmonia Orchestra and the English Chamber Orchestra and a fanfare ensemble from the Royal Military School.[34] The choirs were conducted by Barry Rose, the choirmaster at St Paul's. The cathedral's organist, Christopher Dearnley; and its sub-organist, John Scott; played the organ. The Orchestra of the Royal Opera House, the Philharmonia Orchestra and the English Chamber Orchestra were conducted by Sir David Willcocks, who was the director of the Royal College of Music and of the Bach Choir;[35] Richard Popplewell, the organist at Chapel Royal; and Sir Colin Davis, who was the musical director of Covent Garden.[34][33] Music and songs used during the wedding included the "Prince of Denmark's March", "I Vow to Thee, My Country", "Pomp and Circumstance No.4" and the British National Anthem ("God Save the Queen").[33] New Zealand soprano, Kiri Te Kanawa sang "Let The Bright Seraphim" from G. F. Handel's Samson.[21]


Diana's wedding dress was valued at £9,000[36] (equivalent to £43,573 in 2023).[37] The dress was made of ivory silk taffeta, decorated with lace, hand embroidery, sequins, and 10,000 pearls. It was designed by Elizabeth and David Emanuel and had a 25-foot (7.6 m) train of ivory taffeta and antique lace.[9] The dress was designed according to Diana's wishes who wanted it to have the longest train in the royal wedding history.[9] The bride wore her family's heirloom tiara over an ivory silk tulle veil, and had her hair styled short crop down by hair dresser Kevin Shanley.[38][39] She wore a pair of low-heeled Clive Shilton shoes "with C and D initials hand-painted on her arches" and decorated with 542 sequins and 132 pearls.[9] For the customary bridal themes of "Something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue", Diana's wedding dress had an antique lace "made with a fabric spun at a British silk farm" (the "old"), the Spencer family tiara and her mother's earrings (the "borrowed"), and a blue bow sewn into the waistband (the "blue").[40] The official parfumeur of the royal wedding was Houbigant Parfum, the oldest French fragrance company. Diana chose the floral scent Quelques Fleurs, which featured "notes of tuberose, jasmine and rose".[41] She was reported to have accidentally spilled perfume over a part of her dress which she later covered with her hand during the ceremony.[9] The bride also had a pair of slippers made out of hand-made ivory silk with pearl and sequin embroidery.[42] Barbara Daly did the bride's make-up for the ceremony.[41]

Per the Queen's orders, two similar bouquets were prepared for the bride by David Longman which contained "gardenias, stephanotis, odontolglossum orchid, lily of the valley, Earl Mountbatten roses, freesia, veronica, ivy, myrtle and trasdescantia".[43]

As a Commander in the Royal Navy, Charles wore his ceremonial day dress uniform.[44] He wore the star and riband of the Order of the Garter, the star of the Order of the Thistle, the neck badge of the Order of the Bath, the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal and Silver Jubilee Medal, and "the royal cipher of the Prince of Wales in gold on epaulettes on both shoulders."[21] He carried a "full dress sword tassled in gold."[21]


The royal couple had seven bridal attendants. Eleven-year-old Lord Nicholas Windsor, son of the Duke and Duchess of Kent, and eight-year-old Edward van Cutsem, godsons of the Prince of Wales, were page boys. Diana's bridesmaids were seventeen-year-old Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones, daughter of the Earl of Snowdon and Princess Margaret;[44] thirteen-year-old India Hicks, daughter of David and Lady Pamela Hicks, and granddaughter of Lord Louis Mountbatten; six-year-old Catherine Cameron, daughter of Donald and Lady Cecil Cameron and granddaughter of the Marquess of Lothian; eleven-year-old Sarah-Jane Gaselee, daughter of Nick Gaselee and his wife; and five-year-old Clementine Hambro, daughter of Rupert Hambro and the Hon Mrs Hambro and granddaughter of Lord and Lady Soames and great-granddaughter of Winston Churchill.[20][45] Princes Andrew and Edward were the Prince of Wales's supporters (the equivalent of "best man" for a royal wedding).[20]


Prime Minister of New Zealand Robert Muldoon and his wife Thea Muldoon attending the royal wedding

All of the governors-general of the Commonwealth realms, as well as the reigning European monarchs, attended, with the exception of King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofía of Spain. (The Spanish king was "advised" not to attend by his government because the newlyweds' honeymoon included a stopover in the disputed territory of Gibraltar.)[46] Most of Europe's elected heads of state were among the guests, with the exceptions of the President of Greece, Constantine Karamanlis (who declined because Greece's exiled monarch, Constantine II, a kinsman and friend of the bridegroom, had been invited as "King of the Hellenes"), and the President of Ireland, Patrick Hillery (who was advised by Taoiseach Charles Haughey not to attend because of the dispute over the status of Northern Ireland).[fn 1] First Lady Nancy Reagan represented the United States at the wedding.[47] While Gambian President Dawda Jawara attended the wedding, the Gambia Socialist Revolutionary Party attempted a coup d'état in his home country.[48] Among other invitees were the couple's friends and the bride invited the staff of the nursery school in which she had worked to the wedding.[21] Spike Milligan and Harry Secombe were among the entertainers who were invited to the ceremony by the Prince of Wales.[21]


The couple and 120 guests went to Buckingham Palace for a wedding breakfast following the ceremony.[7] Diana and Charles made a traditional appearance on a balcony of Buckingham Palace at 13:10 BST, and delighted the crowd when they kissed,[2][7] initiating the tradition of kissing the bride on the balcony.[47] Over the night, fireworks were displayed above Hyde Park and 100 beacons were lit up across the country to celebrate the royal wedding.[21]

The couple had 27 wedding cakes.[9] The Naval Armed Forces supplied the official wedding cake. David Avery, head baker at the Royal Naval cooking school in Chatham Kent, made the cake over 14 weeks. They made two identical cakes in case one was damaged. The Prince of Wales's coat of arms and the Spencer family's crest were used in the decoration of the five-foot-tall layered fruitcake which weighed 225 pounds.[9][49] The couple's other wedding cake was created by Belgian pastry chef SG Sender, who was known as the "cakemaker to the kings".[50] Another wedding cake was created by Chef Nicholas Lodge; Chef Nicholas had previously made the Queen Mother's 80th Birthday Cake and also commissioned to create a Christening Cake for Prince Harry.[51] A slice of the couple's wedding cake was later auctioned off by Julien's Auctions in 2018 and was estimated to sell between $800–$1,200.[52] Another slice sold for £1,850 ($2,565) in a 2021 auction.[53]

An estimated 750 million people watched the ceremony worldwide,[2] and this figure allegedly rose to a billion when the radio audience is added in, although there are no means of verifying these figures.[7] 28.4 million watched the event on BBC and ITV in the UK.[54] Angela Rippon, Peter Woods, Tom Fleming, Wynford Vaughan-Thomas, Rolf Harris, and Terry Wogan provided the coverage for the BBC on television and radio.[54] BBC Two's coverage was designed to draw in hearing impaired viewers by providing subtitles, which marked "the first big outing for the Palantype system".[54] The event was broadcast in 50 countries with near 100 television companies covering it.[21] In the UK, the National Grid reported a huge surge in demand for power after the service.[55] The wedding ceremony was positively received by the public,[56] and according to The New York Times symbolised "the continuity of the [British] monarchy".[29] A number of ceremonies and parties were held at different places by the public to celebrate the occasion across the United Kingdom.[57][58][59] 600,000 people lined the streets of London to watch the ceremony,[54] and it was estimated that around 10 million people took part in the street parties.[60] The wedding was widely broadcast on television and radio in many countries, and news channels covered the ceremony in different languages.[61] Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom John Betjeman released a poem in honour of the couple.[57] British opponents of the monarchy were largely "muted" during the wedding, with some travelling to France or Ireland or releasing black balloons over London to express their disapproval. However, these represented only a small minority of the British public, and The New York Times noted that "even cynics felt a surge of sentimentality" towards the royal family.[29]


"Fairy tale" wedding was critisized by feminist artists (Scottish National Gallery-Women in revolt expo-Royal wedding)

The couple received gifts from foreign officials, including an engraved Steuben glass bowl and Boehm porcelain centerpiece from the United States; a set of antique furniture and "a watercolor of loons" by Canadian Robert Bateman for Prince Charles, together with "a large brooch of gold, diamonds and platinum" for Diana from Canada; handcrafted silver platters from Australia; an "all-wool broadloom carpet" from New Zealand; "a matching diamond and sapphire watch, bracelet, pendant, ring, and earrings" from the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia; a "small oil painting by the American artist Henry Kohler of Prince Charles playing polo" as the personal gift of John J. Louis Jr., the American ambassador to the UK; and a clock in Art Deco style by Cartier's chief designer, Daniel Ciacquinot.[9][62] The Edinburgh District Council was among the organisations that made a charitable donation in honour of the couple's wedding and donated $92,500 to the Thistle Fund, "a charity for the disabled".[62] The Greater Manchester Council offered engineering apprenticeships for a small number of unemployed young people, and Cambridge University sent "a spare copy of The Complete English Traveller" by Robert Sanders.[62] The Worshipful Company of Glovers of London presented the couple with gloves made out of leather, silks and cotton. A number of these gifts were displayed at St James's Palace from 5 August to 4 October 1981.[62]


A "just married" sign was attached to the landau by Princes Andrew and Edward.[29] The couple was driven over Westminster Bridge to catch the train from Waterloo station to Romsey in Hampshire to begin their honeymoon.[2] The couple left from Waterloo station in the British Royal Train + 975025 Caroline. They travelled to Broadlands, where Prince Charles's parents had spent their wedding night in 1947.[44] They stayed there for three days,[44] then flew to Gibraltar, where they boarded the Royal Yacht Britannia for an eleven-day cruise of the Mediterranean, visiting Tunisia, Sardinia, Greece and Egypt.[29] Then they flew to Scotland, where the rest of the royal family had gathered at Balmoral Castle, and spent time in a hunting lodge on the estate. During that time, the press was given an arranged opportunity to take pictures.[63] Despite their happy appearance, Diana's suspicion over Charles having an enduring affection for his former lover Camilla grew as Camilla's photographs fell out of his diary and Diana discovered that he was wearing cufflinks that were given to him by Camilla.[22][64] By the time the couple returned from their honeymoon, their wedding gifts were displayed at St James's Palace.[21]

See also


  1. ^ The period when the advice was given coincided with a change of government. Traditionally Irish presidents and British royalty did not meet publicly because of the Northern Ireland issue.


  1. ^ a b "The Royal Wedding of HRH The Prince of Wales and the Lady Diana Spencer". BBC One. 29 July 1981. Archived from the original on 3 August 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "1981: Charles and Diana marry". On This Day. BBC News. 29 July 1982. Archived from the original on 10 January 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
  3. ^ a b "International Special Report: Princess Diana, 1961–1997". The Washington Post. 30 January 1999. Archived from the original on 19 August 2000. Retrieved 13 October 2008.(registration required)
  4. ^ "Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer's wedding". BBC History. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Royal weekend fuels rumours". The Age. 17 November 1980. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2013 – via Google News.
  6. ^ Dimbleby 1994, p. 279.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Jone Johnson Lewis. "Princess Diana's Wedding". ThoughtCo. DotDash. Archived from the original on 22 June 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  8. ^ Morton 1997, p. 118.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Miller, Julie (17 April 2018). "Inside Princess Diana's Royal Wedding Fairy Tale". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on 5 June 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  10. ^ "Prince Charles' engagement announcements". The Royal Wedding of The Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer. BBC One. 12 January 2011. Archived from the original on 15 October 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  11. ^ Alexander, Ella (28 November 2017). "6 crucial differences between Charles & Diana and Harry & Meghan's engagement interviews". Harper's Bazaar. Archived from the original on 10 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  12. ^ Holt, Bethan (24 February 2017). "No gloves and high split skirts: How Princess Diana rewrote the rules of royal dressing". The Telegraph. Telegraph media Group. Archived from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  13. ^ Bowles, Hamish (25 April 2011). "Photos: History of Royal Weddings". Vogue. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  14. ^ "Princess Diana's engagement ring". Ringenvy. September 2009. Archived from the original on 4 January 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  15. ^ "Queen Mother on 'abhorrent' Diana, Princess of Wales". The Telegraph. London. 17 September 2009. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  16. ^ "NPG P218; Diana, Princess of Wales". National Portrait Gallery. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  17. ^ Berrington, Katie; Roy, Poppy (11 October 2018). "Royal Portraits In Vogue". British Vogue. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  18. ^ "Clayton Howard". The Times. 29 November 2017. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2017.(registration required)
  19. ^ Rippon, Angela (8 November 2020). "Looking back now, my interview with Charles and Diana makes me so sad". The Telegraph. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  20. ^ a b c d Apple Jr, RW (28 July 1981). "Charles and Lady Diana Rehearse the Wedding". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Downie Jr, Leonard (26 July 1981). "The Royal Wedding". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 19 May 2020. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  22. ^ a b Dockterman, Eliana; Haynes, Suyin (15 November 2020). "The True Story Behind The Crown's Prince Charles, Princess Diana and Camilla Parker Bowles Love Triangle". Time. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  23. ^ Elser, Daniela (26 July 2019). "The moment Diana discovered Prince Charles's love affair with Camilla". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  24. ^ "Increased security for Charles and Diana's wedding". BBC Midday News. BBC One. 20 January 2011. Archived from the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  25. ^ Phillips, Mark (27 July 1981). "Policing the 1981 royal wedding". Digital Archives. CBC. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  26. ^ Lubin, Gus (28 April 2011). "The 12 Most Expensive Weddings In History". Business Insider. Insider. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  27. ^ "Most expensive weddings of all time". CBS News. 27 May 2013. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  28. ^ "Command: Regimental Sergeant Major". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 8 April 2011.[dead link]
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Apple Jr, RW (29 July 1981). "Amid Splendor, Charles Weds Diana". On this Day. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  30. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York City: Basic Books. p. 98. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.
  31. ^ Proudfoot, Jenny (26 April 2017). "Here's the big mistake that happened on Princess Diana and Prince Charles' wedding day". Marie Claire. TI Media. Archived from the original on 8 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  32. ^ Mulligan, Hugh (25 August 2017). "AP Was There: Prince Charles and Princess Diana's wedding". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  33. ^ a b c Royal Wedding[dead link] The Times, 29 July 1981, page 15
  34. ^ a b Rothstein, Edward (22 July 1981). "Anthem is Composed for Royal Bridal". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  35. ^ "Sir David Willcocks (1919–2015) Musical Director of The Bach Choir for 38 Years". The Bach Choir. 17 September 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  36. ^ Denney, Colleen (April 2005). Representing Diana, Princess of Wales: cultural memory and fairy tales revisited. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8386-4023-4. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
  37. ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 7 May 2024.
  38. ^ Shunatona, Brooke (19 May 2018). "4 Ways Meghan Markle's Wedding Hair and Makeup is Totally Different From Princess Diana and Kate's". Cosmopolitan. Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  39. ^ Stolman, Steven (11 June 2018). "Princess Diana's Personal Hairdresser Shares his Memories of the Late Royal". Town & Country. Hearst Digital Media. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  40. ^ Vargas, Chanel (7 March 2018). "Every Detail About Princess Diana's Iconic Wedding Dress". Town & Country. Hearst Digital Media. Archived from the original on 24 May 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  41. ^ a b Hill, Erin (29 July 2018). "All About Princess Diana's Wedding Day Perfume — and How She Accidentally Spilled It on Her Dress!". People. Meredith Corporation. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  42. ^ "Royal Wedding Dresses throughout history". UK Royal Family. 11 May 2018. Archived from the original on 10 October 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  43. ^ Proudfoot, Jenny (2 May 2018). "This is why the Queen made Princess Diana have two wedding bouquets". Marie Claire. TI Media. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  44. ^ a b c d Downie Jr., Leonard (29 July 1981). "Britain Celebrates, Charles Takes a Bride". Washington Post. p. A01. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2013.(registration required)
  45. ^ Perry, Simon (3 May 2018). "The Surprising Link Between Harry and Meghan's Royal Wedding and Charles and Diana's". People. Meredith Corporation. Archived from the original on 8 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  46. ^ Apple Jr, RW (25 July 1981). "Prince's Guest List embraces Kings and Charwomen". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  47. ^ a b Moss, Hilary (29 April 2011). "A Look Back At Princess Diana & Prince Charles' Wedding". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  48. ^ Kisangani, Emizet F.; Pickering, Jeffrey (30 November 2021). African Interventions: State Militaries, Foreign Powers, and Rebel Forces (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108550802.002. ISBN 978-1-108-55080-2. S2CID 240255564.
  49. ^ Goldman, Leah (29 April 2011). "Flashback: Diana's Wedding Was Four Times As Expensive, And Her Train Was 17-Feet Longer". Business Insider. Insider. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  50. ^ "Belgian "cakemaker to the kings" dies". Expatica. 20 July 2009. Archived from the original on 27 July 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2009.
  51. ^ "About Nicholas Lodge". International Sugar Art Collection. Nicholas Lodge. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  52. ^ Samuelson, Kate (4 May 2018). "Endlessly Appetizing 37-Year-Old Royal Wedding Cake Up For Auction". Time. Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  53. ^ Guy, Jack (12 August 2021). "Slice of Charles and Diana's 1981 wedding cake sells for 'unexpected' price". CNN. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  54. ^ a b c d "The Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer". BBC. 29 July 1981. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  55. ^ Hornby, Win; Gammie, Robert; Wall, Stuart (2001). Business Economics. Financial Times Prentice Hall. ISBN 9780273646037. Archived from the original on 30 September 2021. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  56. ^ Soames, Emma (3 December 2017). "From The Archive: Remembering The Prince Of Wales And Lady Diana Spencer's Wedding". British Vogue. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  57. ^ a b Bates, Stephen (24 April 2011). "'The stuff of fairytales': royal wedding celebrations 30 years ago". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  58. ^ "Scotland celebrates as Prince Charles marries Diana". BBC Midday News. BBC One. 22 January 2011. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  59. ^ "Wales celebrates the marriage of Charles and Diana". BBC Midday news. BBC One. 24 January 2011. Archived from the original on 1 August 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  60. ^ Fraser, Katie (6 April 2011). "Royal wedding: Why so few street parties?". BBC. Retrieved 31 May 2022. Although the figures are hard to come by, the Daily Telegraph recently said there were 10 million street party-goers in 1981 for Charles and Diana's wedding.
  61. ^ "Translators prepare for Prince Charles' wedding coverage". BBC News. 10 January 2011. Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  62. ^ a b c d Goodman, Susan (27 July 1981). "Royal Wedding Gifts: Extraordinary and Ordinary Diana". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  63. ^ "Charles and Diana's Short Honeymoon". Los Angeles Times. 1 July 1992. Archived from the original on 12 November 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  64. ^ Rose, Hilary (9 November 2020). "The Crown: why Charles and Camilla may not be amused". The Times. Retrieved 19 November 2020.