|Russian invasion of Ukraine|
|Part of the Russo-Ukrainian War (outline)|
Map of Ukraine as of 29 September 2023 (details):
Continuously controlled by Ukraine
|Commanders and leaders|
|Order of battle||Order of battle|
Pre-invasion at border:|
In February 2023:
300,000+ active personnel in Ukraine
July 2022 total:
up to 700,000
|Casualties and losses|
|Reports vary widely, see § Casualties for details.|
On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine in an escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War that began in 2014. The invasion is the biggest attack on a European country since the Second World War. It is estimated to have caused tens of thousands of Ukrainian civilian casualties and hundreds of thousands of military casualties. By April 2023, about 8 million Ukrainians had been internally displaced. More than 8.2 million had fled the country by May 2023, creating Europe's largest refugee crisis since World War II. Extensive environmental damage caused by the war contributed to food crises worldwide.
Before the invasion, Russian troops massed near Ukraine's borders as Russian officials denied any plans to attack. Russian president Vladimir Putin announced a "special military operation" to support the Russian-backed breakaway republics of Donetsk and Luhansk, whose paramilitary forces had been fighting Ukraine in the Donbas conflict since 2014. Putin espoused irredentist views challenging Ukraine's right to exist, and falsely claimed that Ukraine was governed by neo-Nazis persecuting the Russian minority. He said his goal was to "demilitarize" and "denazify" Ukraine. Russian air strikes and a ground invasion launched at a northern front from Belarus towards Kyiv, a northeastern front towards Kharkiv, a southern front from Crimea, and a southeastern front from the Donbas. Ukraine enacted martial law and ordered a general mobilization.
Russian troops retreated from the northern front by April 2022 after encountering logistical challenges and stiff Ukrainian resistance. On the southern and southeastern fronts, Russia captured Kherson in March and Mariupol in May after a destructive siege. Russia launched a renewed offensive in the Donbas and continued to bomb military and civilian targets far from the front line, including the energy grid through the winter. In late 2022, Ukraine launched counteroffensives in the south and east. Soon after, Russia announced the illegal annexation of four partly-occupied regions. In November, Ukraine retook parts of Kherson Oblast, including the city of Kherson itself. In June 2023, Ukraine launched another counteroffensive in the southeast.
The invasion met international condemnation. The United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution condemning the invasion and demanding a full Russian withdrawal in March 2022. The International Court of Justice ordered Russia to suspend military operations and the Council of Europe expelled Russia. Many countries imposed sanctions on Russia and its ally Belarus, and provided humanitarian and military aid to Ukraine. Protests occurred around the world, with anti-war protesters in Russia subject to mass arrests and increased media censorship. Over 1,000 companies left Russia and Belarus in response to the invasion. The International Criminal Court (ICC) opened an investigation into possible crimes against humanity, war crimes, abduction of children, and genocide, issuing an arrest warrant for Putin in March 2023.
After the Soviet Union (USSR) dissolved, several former Eastern Bloc states joined NATO due to regional conflicts and the security threat posed by Russia. In return for security guarantees, Ukraine signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1994, agreeing to dismantle the nuclear weapons the USSR had left in Ukraine.
But when Ukraine and Georgia sought to join NATO in 2008, Putin warned that their membership would be a threat to Russia. Some NATO members worried about antagonizing Russia. At the 2008 Bucharest summit, NATO refused to offer Ukraine and Georgia membership, but Jaap de Hoop Scheffer also issued a statement that they would join one day. Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov said Russia would do everything it could to prevent their admittance. Putin claimed that NATO members promised in 1990 not to let Eastern European countries join, but this is disputed.
Ukrainian revolution, Russian intervention in Crimea and Donbas
Kremlin adviser Sergei Glazyev announced in September 2013 that if Ukraine signed an EU agreement as planned, Russia would be unable to guarantee Ukraine's independence. In November, Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych closer ties with the Russian-led Eurasian Economic Unionover joining the EU. This coerced withdrawal triggered a wave of protests known as Euromaidan, culminating in the Revolution of Dignity in February 2014. Pro-Russian unrest followed in eastern and southern Ukraine. Russian soldiers with no insignia took strategic positions in the Ukrainian territory of Crimea, and seized the Crimean Parliament. Russia annexed Crimea in March 2014, after a a questioned referendum. The war in Donbas in April 2014 began when armed Russian-backed separatists seized Ukrainian government buildings and proclaimed the independent Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic. Russian troops were deeply involved in the conflict. The ceasefires of the Minsk agreements, signed in September 2014 and February 2015 in a bid to stop the fighting, repeatedly failed. A dispute emerged over the role of Russia: Normandy Format members France, Germany, and Ukraine saw Minsk as an agreement between Russia and Ukraine, but Russia insisted Ukraine should negotiate directly with the two separatist republics.
Putin refused Volodymyr Zelenskyy's offer in 2021 to hold high-level talks. The Russian government endorsed an essay by former president Dmitry Medvedev that said it was pointless to deal with Ukraine, a "vassal" of the United States.
The Crimea annexation and Donbas War sparked a new wave of Russian nationalism and Russian fascism, with calls to annex more Ukrainian land for Novorossiya (New Russia). Analyst Vladimir Socor called Putin's 2014 speech after the annexation a "manifesto of Greater-Russia Irredentism." In July 2021, Putin published an essay titled "On the Historical Unity of Russians and Ukrainians", stating that Russians and Ukrainians are "one people." In the build-up to the invasion, Putin claimed that Ukraine was created by Russian Bolsheviks and "never had a tradition of genuine statehood." American historian Timothy Snyder described Putin's ideas as imperialism. British journalist Edward Lucas described it as historical revisionism. Other observers found that Russian leadership held a distorted view of modern Ukraine, as well as its own history, and these distortions have been cemented and propagated through the state.
In March and April 2021, Russia began a major military build-up near the Russia–Ukraine border. A second build-up followed in both Russia and Belarus from October 2021 to February 2022. Members of the Russian government repeatedly denied having plans to invade or attack Ukraine. Sources say the decision to invade Ukraine was made by Putin and a small group of war hawks or siloviki in Putin's inner circle, including national security adviser Nikolai Patrushev and defense minister Sergei Shoigu.
During the second build-up, Russia demanded that NATO sign a treaty that would forbid Ukraine or any former Soviet state from ever joining NATO, and end all NATO activity in Eastern Europe. Russia threatened an unspecified military response if NATO followed an "aggressive line." These demands were widely seen as non-viable; Eastern European states had willingly joined NATO for security reasons, and their governments sought protection from Russian irredentism. A treaty to prevent Ukraine joining would go against NATO's "open door" policy, despite NATO's unenthusiastic response to Ukrainian requests to join. NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg replied that "Russia has no say" on whether Ukraine joins, and that "Russia has no right to establish a sphere of influence to try to control their neighbors." NATO's official policy is that it does not seek confrontation, and NATO and Russia had co-operated until Russia annexed Crimea. NATO offered to improve communication with Russia to discuss missile placements and military exercises, as long as Russia withdrew troops from Ukraine's borders, but Russia did not do so.
French President Emmanuel Macron and German Chancellor Olaf Scholz both made efforts in February 2022 to prevent war. Macron met Putin but failed to convince him not to go ahead with the invasion. Scholz warned Putin that heavy sanctions would be imposed should he invade Ukraine. Scholz, in trying to negotiate a settlement, also told Zelenskyy to declare neutrality and renounce aspirations to join NATO; however, Zelenskyy said Putin could not be trusted to uphold such a settlement.
Putin's invasion announcement
On 21 February, Putin made an address announcing that Russia recognized the Russian-controlled territories of Ukraine as independent states: the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic. The following day, Russia announced it was sending troops into the territories as "peacekeepers", while the Federation Council of Russia authorised the use of military force abroad.
On 24 February, before 5 a.m. Kyiv time, Putin made another address, announcing a "special military operation", "effectively declar[ing] war on Ukraine." Putin said the operation was to "protect the people" of the Donbas, the Russian-controlled breakaway republics of Donetsk and Luhansk. He falsely claimed they had been "been facing humiliation and genocide perpetrated by the Kyiv regime." Putin also falsely claimed that Ukraine's government officials were neo-Nazis under Western control, that Ukraine was developing nuclear weapons, and that NATO was building up military infrastructure in Ukraine to threaten Russia. He said Russia sought the "demilitarisation and denazification" of Ukraine. Putin said he had no plans to occupy Ukraine and supported the right of the Ukrainian people to self-determination. Russian missiles struck targets throughout Ukraine, and Russian troops invaded from the north, east, and south. An alleged report from Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB) was leaked that said that the intelligence agency had not been aware of Putin's plan to invade Ukraine.
The invasion began at dawn on 24 February, and was described as the biggest attack on a European country since the Second World War. Russia launched a simultaneous ground and air campaign, commencing air and missile strikes across Ukraine, with some rockets reaching as far west as Lviv. Fighting began in Luhansk Oblast near Milove village on the border with Russia at 3:40 a.m. Kyiv time. The main infantry and tank attacks were launched in four spearhead incursions, creating a northern front launched towards Kyiv from Belarus, a southern front from Crimea, a southeastern front from the Russian-controlled Donbas, and an eastern front launched from Russia towards Kharkiv and Sumy. Russian vehicles were subsequently marked with a white Z military symbol (a non-Cyrillic letter), believed to be a measure to prevent friendly fire.
Immediately after the invasion began, Zelenskyy declared martial law in Ukraine. The same evening, he ordered a general mobilisation of all Ukrainian males between 18 and 60 years old, prohibiting them from leaving the country. Wagner Group mercenaries and Kadyrovites contracted by the Kremlin reportedly made several attempts to assassinate Zelenskyy, including an operation involving several hundred mercenaries meant to infiltrate Kyiv with the aim of killing the Ukrainian president. The Ukrainian government said anti-war officials in Russia's FSB, shared the plans with them.
The Russian invasion was unexpectedly met by fierce Ukrainian resistance. In Kyiv, Russia failed to take the city and was repulsed in the battles of Irpin, Hostomel, and Bucha. The Russians tried to encircle the capital, but its defenders under Oleksandr Syrskyi held their ground, very effectively using Western Javelin anti-tank missiles and Stinger anti-aircraft missiles to thin Russian supply lines and stall the offensive.
On the southern front, Russian forces capture the major city of Kherson on 2 March. A column of Russian tanks and armoured vehicles was ambushed on 9 March in Brovary and sustained heavy losses that forced them to retreat. The Russian army adopted siege tactics on the western front around the key cities of Chernihiv, Sumy and Kharkiv, but failed to capture them due to stiff resistance and logistical setbacks. In Mykolaiv Oblast, Russian forces advanced as far as Voznesensk, but were repelled south of Mykolaiv. On 25 March, the Russian Defence Ministry stated that the first stage of the "military operation" in Ukraine was "generally complete", that the Ukrainian military forces had suffered serious losses, and the Russian military would now concentrate on the "liberation of Donbas." The "first stage" of the invasion was conducted on four fronts, including one towards western Kyiv from Belarus by the Russian Eastern Military District, comprising the 29th, 35th, and 36th Combined Arms Armies. A second axis, deployed towards eastern Kyiv from Russia by the Central Military District (northeastern front), comprised the 41st Combined Arms Army and the 2nd Guards Combined Arms Army.
A third axis was deployed towards Kharkiv by the Western Military District (eastern front), with the 1st Guards Tank Army and 20th Combined Arms Army. A fourth, southern front originating in occupied Crimea and Russia's Rostov oblast with an eastern axis towards Odesa and a western area of operations toward Mariupol was opened by the Southern Military District, including the 58th, 49th, and 8th Combined Arms Army, the latter also commanding the 1st and 2nd Army Corps of the Russian separatist forces in Donbas. By 7 April, Russian troops deployed to the northern front by the Russian Eastern Military District pulled back from the Kyiv offensive, apparently to resupply and redeploy to the Donbas region to reinforce the renewed invasion of southeastern Ukraine. The northeastern front, including the Central Military District, was similarly withdrawn for resupply and redeployment to southeastern Ukraine. On 18 April, retired Lieutenant General Douglas Lute, the former US ambassador to NATO, reported in a PBS NewsHour interview that Russia had repositioned its troops to initiate a new assault on eastern Ukraine which would be limited to Russia's original deployment of 150,000 to 190,000 troops for the invasion, though the troops were being well supplied from adequate weapon stockpiles in Russia. For Lute, this contrasted sharply with the vast size of the Ukrainian conscription of all-male Ukrainian citizens between 16 and 60 years of age, but without adequate weapons in Ukraine's highly limited stockpiles of weapons.[failed verification – see discussion] On 26 April, delegates of the US and 40 allied nations met at Ramstein Air Base in Germany to discuss forming a coalition to provide economic support and military supplies and refitting to Ukraine. Following Putin's Victory Day speech in early May, US Director of National Intelligence Avril Haines said no short term resolution to the invasion should be expected.
Ukraine's reliance on Western-supplied equipment constrained operational effectiveness, as supplying countries feared that Ukraine would use Western-made matériel to strike targets in Russia. Military experts disagreed on the future of the conflict; some suggested that Ukraine should trade territory for peace, while others believed that Ukraine could maintain its resistance thanks to the Russian losses.
By 30 May, disparities between Russian and Ukrainian artillery were apparent, with Ukrainian artillery being vastly outgunned, in terms of both range and number. In response to US President Joe Biden's indication that enhanced artillery would be provided to Ukraine, Putin said that Russia would expand its invasion front to include new cities in Ukraine. In apparent retribution, Putin ordered a missile strike against Kyiv on 6 June after not directly attacking the city for several weeks. On 10 June 2022, Vadym Skibitsky, deputy head of Ukraine's military intelligence, stated during the Severodonetsk campaign that the frontlines were where the future of the invasion would be decided: "This is an artillery war now, and we are losing in terms of artillery. Everything now depends on what [the west] gives us. Ukraine has one artillery piece to 10 to 15 Russian artillery pieces. Our western partners have given us about 10% of what they have." On 29 June, Reuters reported that Director of National Intelligence Avril Haines, updating U.S. intelligence assessment of the Russian invasion, said that U.S. intelligence agencies agree that the invasion will continue "for an extended period of time ... In short, the picture remains pretty grim and Russia's attitude toward the West is hardening." On 5 July, BBC reported that extensive destruction by the Russian invasion would cause immense financial damage to Ukraine's reconstruction economy stating: "Ukraine needs $750bn for a recovery plan and Russian oligarchs should contribute to the cost, Ukrainian Prime Minister Denys Shmyhal has told a reconstruction conference in Switzerland."
Initial invasion of Ukraine (24 February – 7 April)
The invasion began on 24 February, launched out of Belarus to target Kyiv, and from the northeast against the city of Kharkiv. The southeastern front was conducted as two separate spearheads, from Crimea and the southeast against Luhansk and Donetsk.
Kyiv and northern front
Russian efforts to capture Kyiv included a probative spearhead on 24 February, from Belarus south along the west bank of the Dnipro River. The apparent intent was to encircle the city from the west, supported by two separate axes of attack from Russia along the east bank of the Dnipro: the western at Chernihiv, and from the east at Sumy. These were likely intended to encircle Kyiv from the north-east and east.
"The fight is here; I need ammunition, not a ride."
Volodymyr Zelenskyy, allegedly 25 February 2022, Associated Press
Russia tried to seize Kyiv quickly, with Spetsnaz infiltrating into the city supported by airborne operations and a rapid mechanised advance from the north, but failed. The United States contacted Zelenskyy and offered to help him flee the country, lest the Russian Army attempt to kidnap or kill him on seizing Kyiv; Zelenskyy responded that "The fight is here; I need ammunition, not a ride." The Washington Post, which described the quote as "one of the most-cited lines of the Russian invasion", was not entirely sure of the comment's accuracy. Reporter Glenn Kessler said it came from "a single source, but on the surface it appears to be a good one." Russian forces advancing on Kyiv from Belarus gained control of the ghost town of Chernobyl. Russian Airborne Forces attempted to seize two key airfields near Kyiv, launching an airborne assault on Antonov Airport, and a similar landing at Vasylkiv, near Vasylkiv Air Base, on 26 February.
By early March, Russian advances along the west side of the Dnipro were limited by Ukrainian defences. As of 5 March, a large Russian convoy, reportedly 64 kilometres (40 mi) long, had made little progress toward Kyiv. The London-based think tank Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) assessed Russian advances from the north and east as "stalled." Advances from Chernihiv largely halted as a siege began there. Russian forces continued to advance on Kyiv from the northwest, capturing Bucha, Hostomel, and Vorzel by 5 March, though Irpin remained contested as of 9 March. By 11 March, the lengthy convoy had largely dispersed and taken cover. On 16 March, Ukrainian forces began a counter-offensive to repel Russian forces. Unable to achieve a quick victory in Kyiv, Russian forces switched their strategy to indiscriminate bombing and siege warfare.
On 25 March, a Ukrainian counter-offensive retook several towns to the east and west of Kyiv, including Makariv. Russian troops in the Bucha area retreated north at the end of March. Ukrainian forces entered the city on 1 April. Ukraine said it had recaptured the entire region around Kyiv, including Irpin, Bucha, and Hostomel, and uncovered evidence of war crimes in Bucha. On 6 April, NATO secretary-general Jens Stoltenberg said that the Russian "retraction, resupply, and redeployment" of their troops from the Kyiv area should be interpreted as an expansion of Putin's plans for Ukraine, by redeploying and concentrating his forces on eastern Ukraine. Kyiv was generally left free from attack apart from isolated missile strikes. One did occur while UN Secretary-General António Guterres was visiting Kyiv on 28 April to discuss the survivors of the siege of Mariupol with Zelenskyy. One person was killed and several were injured in the attack.
Russian forces advanced into Chernihiv Oblast on 24 February and besieged its administrative capital. The next day Russian forces attacked and captured Konotop.[better source needed] A separate advance into Sumy Oblast the same day attacked the city of Sumy, just 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the Russo-Ukrainian border. The advance bogged down in urban fighting, and Ukrainian forces successfully held the city, claiming more than 100 Russian armoured vehicles were destroyed and dozens of soldiers were captured. Russian forces also attacked Okhtyrka, deploying thermobaric weapons.
On 4 March, Frederick Kagan wrote that the Sumy axis was then "the most successful and dangerous Russian avenue of advance on Kyiv", and commented that the geography favoured mechanised advances as the terrain "is flat and sparsely populated, offering few good defensive positions." Travelling along highways, Russian forces reached Brovary, an eastern suburb of Kyiv, on 4 March. The Pentagon confirmed on 6 April that the Russian army had left Chernihiv Oblast, but Sumy Oblast remained contested. On 7 April, the governor of Sumy Oblast said that Russian troops were gone, but left behind rigged explosives and other hazards.
On 24 February, Russian forces took control of the North Crimean Canal. Troops used explosives to destroy the dam across the river, allowing Crimea to obtain water from the Dnieper which had been cut off since 2014. On 26 February, the siege of Mariupol began as the attack moved east linking to separatist-held Donbas. En route, Russian forces entered Berdiansk and captured it. On 1 March, Russian forces attacked Melitopol and nearby cities. On 25 February, Russian units from the DPR were fighting near Pavlopil as they moved on Mariupol. By evening, the Russian Navy began an amphibious assault on the coast of the Sea of Azov 70 kilometres (43 mi) west of Mariupol. A US defence official said that Russian forces were deploying thousands of marines from this beachhead.
The Russian 22nd Army Corps approached the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant on 26 February and besieged Enerhodar. A fire began, but the Ukrainian military said that essential equipment was undamaged. A third Russian attack group from Crimea moved northwest and captured the bridge over the Dnieper. On 2 March, Russian troops took Kherson; this was the first major city to fall to Russian forces. Russian troops moved on Mykolaiv and attacked it two days later. They were repelled by Ukrainian forces. On 2 March, Ukrainian forces initiated a counter-offensive on Horlivka, controlled by the DPR.
After renewed missile attacks on 14 March in Mariupol, the Ukrainian government said more than 2,500 had died. By 18 March, Mariupol was completely encircled and fighting reached the city centre, hampering efforts to evacuate civilians. On 20 March, an art school sheltering around 400 people, was destroyed by Russian bombs. The Russians demanded surrender, and the Ukrainians refused. On 27 March, Ukrainian deputy prime minister Olha Stefanishyna said that "(m)ore than 85 percent of the whole town is destroyed."
Putin told Emmanuel Macron in a phone call on 29 March that the bombardment of Mariupol would only end when the Ukrainians surrendered. On 1 April, Russian troops refused safe passage into Mariupol to 50 buses sent by the United Nations to evacuate civilians, as peace talks continued in Istanbul. On 3 April, following the retreat of Russian forces from Kyiv, Russia expanded its attack on southern Ukraine further west, with bombardment and strikes against Odesa, Mykolaiv, and the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant.
In the east, Russian troops attempted to capture Kharkiv, less than 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the Russian border, and met strong Ukrainian resistance. On 25 February, the Millerovo air base was attacked by Ukrainian military forces with OTR-21 Tochka missiles, which according to Ukrainian officials, destroyed several Russian Air Force planes and started a fire. On 1 March, Denis Pushilin, head of the DPR, announced that DPR forces had almost completely surrounded the city of Volnovakha. On 2 March, Russian forces were repelled from Sievierodonetsk during an attack against the city. Izium was reportedly captured by Russian forces on 17 March, although fighting continued.
On 25 March, the Russian defence ministry said it would seek to occupy major cities in eastern Ukraine. On 31 March, the Ukrainian military confirmed Izium was under Russian control, and PBS News reported renewed shelling and missile attacks in Kharkiv, as bad or worse than before, as peace talks with Russia were to resume in Istanbul.
Amid the heightened Russian shelling of Kharkiv on 31 March, Russia reported a helicopter strike against an oil supply depot approximately 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of the border in Belgorod, and accused Ukraine of the attack. Ukraine denied responsibility. By 7 April, the renewed massing of Russian invasion troops and tank divisions around the towns of Izium, Sloviansk, and Kramatorsk prompted Ukrainian government officials to advise the remaining residents near the eastern border of Ukraine to evacuate to western Ukraine within 2–3 days, given the absence of arms and munitions previously promised to Ukraine by then.
Southeastern front (8 April – 5 September)
By 17 April, Russian progress on the southeastern front appeared to be impeded by opposing Ukrainian forces in the large, heavily fortified Azovstal steel mill and surrounding area in Mariupol.
On 19 April, The New York Times confirmed that Russia had launched a renewed invasion front referred to as an "eastern assault" across a 480-kilometre (300 mi) front extending from Kharkiv to Donetsk and Luhansk, with simultaneous missile attacks again directed at Kyiv in the north and Lviv in western Ukraine. As of 30 April, a NATO official described Russian advances as "uneven" and "minor." An anonymous US Defence Official called the Russian offensive "very tepid", "minimal at best", and "anaemic." In June 2022 the chief spokesman for the Russian Ministry of Defence Igor Konashenkov revealed that Russian troops were divided between the Army Groups "Center" commanded by Colonel General Aleksander Lapin and "South" commanded by Army General Sergey Surovikin. On 20 July, Lavrov announced that Russia would respond to the increased military aid being received by Ukraine from abroad as justifying the expansion of its special military operation to include objectives in both the Zaporizhzhia and Kherson regions.
Russian Ground Forces started recruiting volunteer battalions from the regions in June 2022 to create a new 3rd Army Corps within the Western Military District, with a planned strength estimated at 15,500–60,000 personnel. Its units were deployed to the front around the time of Ukraine's 9 September Kharkiv oblast counteroffensive, in time to join the Russian retreat, leaving behind tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, and personnel carriers: the 3rd Army Corps "melted away" according to Forbes, having little or no impact on the battlefield along with other irregular forces.
Fall of Mariupol
On 13 April, Russian forces intensified their attack on the Azovstal Iron and Steel Works in Mariupol, and the remaining Ukrainian personnel defending it. By 17 April, Russian forces had surrounded the factory. Ukrainian prime minister Denys Shmyhal said that the Ukrainian soldiers had vowed to ignore the renewed ultimatum to surrender and to fight to the last soul. On 20 April, Putin said that the siege of Mariupol could be considered tactically complete, since the 500 Ukrainian troops entrenched in bunkers within the Azovstal iron works and estimated 1,000 Ukrainian civilians were completely sealed off from any type of relief.
After consecutive meetings with Putin and Zelenskyy, UN Secretary-General Guterres on 28 April said he would attempt to organise an emergency evacuation of survivors from Azovstal in accordance with assurances he had received from Putin on his visit to the Kremlin. On 30 April, Russian troops allowed civilians to leave under UN protection. By 3 May, after allowing approximately 100 Ukrainian civilians to depart from the Azovstal steel factory, Russian troops renewed their bombardment of the steel factory. On 6 May, The Daily Telegraph reported that Russia had used thermobaric bombs against the remaining Ukrainian soldiers, who had lost contact with the Kyiv government; in his last communications, Zelenskyy had authorised the commander of the besieged steel factory to surrender as necessary under the pressure of increased Russian attacks. On 7 May, the Associated Press reported that all civilians were evacuated from the Azovstal steel works at the end of the three-day ceasefire.
After the last civilians evacuated from the Azovstal bunkers, nearly two thousand Ukrainian soldiers remained barricaded there, 700 of them injured. They were able to communicate a plea for a military corridor to evacuate, as they expected summary execution if they surrendered to Russian forces. Reports of dissent within the Ukrainian troops at Azovstal were reported by Ukrainska Pravda on 8 May indicating that the commander of the Ukrainian Marines assigned to defend the Azovstal bunkers made an unauthorised acquisition of tanks, munitions, and personnel, broke out from the position there and fled. The remaining soldiers spoke of a weakened defensive position in Azovstal as a result, which allowed progress to advancing Russian lines of attack. Ilia Somolienko, deputy commander of the remaining Ukrainian troops barricaded at Azovstal, said: "We are basically here dead men. Most of us know this and it's why we fight so fearlessly."
On 16 May, the Ukrainian General staff announced that the Mariupol garrison had "fulfilled its combat mission" and that final evacuations from the Azovstal steel factory had begun. The military said that 264 service members were evacuated to Olenivka under Russian control, while 53 of them who were "seriously injured" had been taken to a hospital in Novoazovsk also controlled by Russian forces. Following the evacuation of Ukrainian personnel from Azovstal, Russian and DPR forces fully controlled all areas of Mariupol. The end of the battle also brought an end to the Siege of Mariupol. Russia press secretary Dmitry Peskov said Russian President Vladimir Putin had guaranteed that the fighters who surrendered would be treated "in accordance with international standards" while Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy said in an address that "the work of bringing the boys home continues, and this work needs delicacy—and time." Some prominent Russian lawmakers called on the government to deny prisoner exchanges for members of the Azov Regiment.
Fall of Sievierodonetsk and Lysychansk
A Russian missile attack on Kramatorsk railway station in the city of Kramatorsk took place on 8 April, reportedly killing at least 52 people and injuring as many as 87 to 300. On 11 April, Zelenskyy said that Ukraine expected a major new Russian offensive in the east. American officials said that Russia had withdrawn or been repulsed elsewhere in Ukraine, and therefore was preparing a retraction, resupply, and redeployment of infantry and tank divisions to the southeastern Ukraine front. Military satellites photographed extensive Russian convoys of infantry and mechanised units deploying south from Kharkiv to Izium on 11 April, apparently part of the planned Russian redeployment of its northeastern troops to the southeastern front of the invasion.
On 18 April, with Mariupol almost entirely overtaken by Russian forces, the Ukrainian government announced that the second phase of the reinforced invasion of the Donetsk, Luhansk and Kharkiv regions had intensified with expanded invasion forces occupying of the Donbas.
On 22 May, the BBC reported that after the fall of Mariupol, Russia had intensified offensives in Luhansk and Donetsk while concentrating missile attacks and intense artillery fire on Sievierodonetsk, the largest city under Ukrainian control in Luhansk province.
On 23 May, Russian forces were reported entering the city of Lyman, fully capturing the city by 26 May. Ukrainian forces were reported leaving Sviatohirsk. By 24 May, Russian forces captured the city of Svitlodarsk. On 30 May, Reuters reported that Russian troops had breached the outskirts of Sievierodonetsk. By 2 June, The Washington Post reported that Sievierodonetsk was on the brink of capitulation to Russian occupation with over 80 per cent of the city in the hands of Russian troops. On 3 June, Ukrainian forces reportedly began a counter-attack in Sievierodonetsk. By 4 June, Ukrainian government sources claimed 20% or more of the city had been recaptured.
On 12 June, it was reported that possibly as many as 800 Ukrainian civilians (as per Ukrainian estimates) and 300–400 soldiers (as per Russian sources) were besieged at the Azot chemical factory in Severodonetsk. With the Ukrainian defences of Severodonetsk faltering, Russian invasion troops began intensifying their attack upon the neighbouring city of Lysychansk as their next target city in the invasion. On 20 June it was reported that Russian troops continued to tighten their grip on Severodonetsk by capturing surrounding villages and hamlets surrounding the city, most recently the village of Metelkine.
On 24 June, CNN reported that, amid continuing scorched-earth tactics being applied by advancing Russian troops, Ukraine's armed forces were ordered to evacuate the Severodonetsk; several hundred civilians taking refuge in the Azot chemical plant were left behind in the withdrawal, with some comparing their plight to that of the civilians at the Azovstal steel works in Mariupol in May. On 3 July, CBS announced that the Russian defense ministry claimed that the city of Lysychansk had been captured and occupied by Russian forces. On 4 July, The Guardian reported that after the fall of the Luhansk oblast, that Russian invasion troops would continue their invasion into the adjacent Donetsk Oblast to attack the cities of Sloviansk and Bakhmut.
On 14 April, Ukrainian troops reportedly blew up a bridge between Kharkiv and Izium used by Russian forces to redeploy troops to Izium, impeding the Russian convoy.
On 5 May, David Axe writing for Forbes stated that the Ukrainian army had concentrated its 4th and 17th Tank Brigades and the 95th Air Assault Brigade around Izium for possible rearguard action against the deployed Russian troops in the area; Axe added that the other major concentration of Ukraine's forces around Kharkiv included the 92nd and 93rd Mechanised Brigades which could similarly be deployed for rearguard action against Russian troops around Kharkiv or link up with Ukrainian troops contemporaneously being deployed around Izium.
On 13 May, BBC reported that Russian troops in Kharkiv were being retracted and redeployed to other fronts in Ukraine following the advances of Ukrainian troops into surrounding cities and Kharkiv itself, which included the destruction of strategic pontoon bridges built by Russian troops to cross over the Seversky Donets river and previously used for rapid tank deployment in the region.
Missile attacks and bombardment of the key cities of Mykolaiv and Odesa continued as the second phase of the invasion began. On 22 April 2022, Russia's Brigadier General Rustam Minnekayev in a defence ministry meeting said that Russia planned to extend its Mykolaiv–Odesa front after the siege of Mariupol further west to include the breakaway region of Transnistria on the Ukrainian border with Moldova. The Ministry of Defence of Ukraine described this intention as imperialism, saying that it contradicted previous Russian claims that it did not have territorial ambitions in Ukraine and that the statement was an admission that "the goal of the 'second phase' of the war is not victory over the mythical Nazis, but simply the occupation of eastern and southern Ukraine." Georgi Gotev, writing for Reuters on 22 April, noted that occupying Ukraine from Odesa to Transnistria would transform it into a landlocked nation without any practical access to the Black Sea. On 24 April, Russia resumed its missile strikes on Odesa, destroying military facilities, causing two dozen civilian casualties.
On 27 April, Ukrainian sources indicated that explosions had destroyed two Russian broadcast towers in Transnistria, primarily used to rebroadcast Russian television programming. At the end of April, Russia renewed missile attacks on runways in Odesa, destroying some of them. During the week of 10 May, Ukrainian troops began to take military action to dislodge Russian forces installing themselves on Snake Island in the Black Sea approximately 200 kilometres (120 mi) from Odesa. On 30 June 2022, Russia announced that it had withdrawn troops from the island after objectives were completed.
On 23 July, CNBC reported a Russian missile strike on Ukrainian port Odesa stating that the action was swiftly condemned by world leaders, a dramatic revelation amid a recently U.N. and Turkish-brokered deal that secured a sea corridor for grains and other foodstuff exports. On 31 July, CNN reported significant intensification of the rocket attacks and bombing of Mykolaiv by Russians also killing Ukrainian grain tycoon Oleksiy Vadaturskyi in the city during the bombing.
Russian forces continued to fire missiles and drop bombs on the key cities of Dnipro and Zaporizhzhia. On 10 April, Russian missiles destroyed the Dnipro International Airport. On 2 May, the UN reportedly evacuated about 100 survivors from the siege at Mariupol with the cooperation of Russian troops, to the village of Bezimenne near Donetsk, from whence they were to move to Zaporizhzhia. On 28 June, Reuters reported that a Russian missile attack was launched upon the city of Kremenchuk north-west of Zaporizhzhia detonating in a public mall and causing at least 18 deaths while drawing condemnation from France's Emmanuel Macron, among other world leaders, called it a "war crime."[failed verification]
On 7 July, it was reported that the Russians installed heavy artillery and mobile missile launchers between the separate reactor walls of the nuclear installation, using it as a shield against possible Ukrainian counterattack. A counterattack against the installed Russian artillery sites would not be possible without the risk of radiation fallout if missiles missed. On 19 August, Russia agreed to allow IAEA inspectors access to the Zaporizhzhia plant from Ukrainian-held territory, after a phone call between Macron and Putin. As of July 2023 however access to the plant remained limited and required extensive negotiation.
Russia reported that 12 attacks with over 50 artillery shells explosions had been recorded at the plant and the staff town of Enerhodar, by 18 August. Also on 19 August, Tobias Ellwood, chair of the UK's Defence Select Committee, said that any deliberate damage to the Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant that could cause radiation leaks would be a breach of Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, according to which an attack on a member state of NATO is an attack on all of them. The next day, United States congressman Adam Kinzinger said that any radiation leak would kill people in NATO countries, which would be an automatic activation of Article 5.
Shelling hit coal ash dumps at the neighbouring coal-fired power station on 23 August, and ash was on fire by 25 August. The 750 kV transmission line to the Dniprovska substation, which was the only one of the four 750 kV transmission lines that had not yet been damaged and cut by military action, passes over the ash dumps. At 12:12 p.m. on 25 August the line cut off due to the fire below, disconnecting the plant and its two operating reactors from the national grid for the first time since it started operating in 1985. In response, reactor 5's back-up generators and coolant pumps started up, and reactor 6 reduced generation.
Incoming power was still available via the 330 kV line to the substation at the coal-fired station, so the diesel generators were not essential for cooling reactor cores and spent fuel pools. The 750 kV line and reactor 6 resumed operation at 12:29 p.m., but the line was cut by fire again two hours later. The line, but not the reactors, resumed operation again later that day. On 26 August, one reactor restarted in the afternoon and another in the evening, resuming electricity supplies to the grid. On 29 August 2022, an IAEA team led by Rafael Grossi went to investigate the plant. Lydie Evrard and Massimo Aparo were also in the leadership team. No leaks had been reported at the plant before their arrival, but shelling had occurred days before.
Russian annexations and occupation losses (6 September – 11 November 2022)
On 6 September 2022, Ukrainian forces launched a surprise counteroffensive in the Kharkiv region, beginning near Balakliia. led by General Syrskyi. An emboldened Kyiv launched a counteroffensive 12 September around Kharkiv successful enough to make Russia admit losing key positions and for The New York Times to say that it dented the image of a "Mighty Putin", and it sought more arms from the West to sustain the counteroffensive. On 21 September 2022, Vladimir Putin announced a partial mobilisation and minister of defence Sergei Shoigu said 300,000*reservists would be called. He also said that his country would use "all means" to "defend itself." Mykhailo Podolyak, an adviser to the president of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy, said that the decision was predictable, and was an attempt to justify "Russia's failures." British Foreign Office Minister Gillian Keegan called the situation an "escalation", while former Mongolian president Tsakhia Elbegdorj accused Russia of using Russian Mongols as "cannon fodder."
Russian annexation of Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk and Zaporizhzhia oblasts
In late September 2022, Russian-installed officials in Ukraine organised referendums on the annexation of those occupied territories of Ukraine. These included the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic in Russian occupied Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine, as well as the Russian-appointed military administrations of Kherson Oblast and Zaporizhzhia Oblast. Denounced by Ukraine's government and its allies as sham elections, the elections' official results showed overwhelming majorities in favor of annexation.
On 30 September 2022, Vladimir Putin announced the annexation of Ukraine's Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson and Zaporizhzhia regions in an address to both houses of the Russian parliament. Ukraine, the United States, the European Union and the United Nations all denounced the annexation as illegal.
An IAEA delegation visited the nuclear power plant at Zaporizhzhia on 3 September, and on 6 September reported damage and threats to security caused by external shelling and the presence of occupying troops in the plant. On 11 September, at 3:14 a.m., the sixth and final reactor was disconnected from the grid, "completely stopping" the plant. Energoatom said that preparations were "underway for its cooling and transfer to a cold state."
In the early hours of 9 October 2022, Russian Armed Forces carried out an airstrike on a residential building in Zaporizhzhia, killing 13 civilians and injuring 89 others.
On 29 August, Zelenskyy advisedly vowed the start of a full-scale counteroffensive in the southeast. He first announced a counteroffensive to retake Russian-occupied territory in the south concentrating on the Kherson-Mykolaiv region, a claim that was corroborated by the Ukrainian parliament as well as Operational Command South.
On 4 September, Zelenskyy announced the liberation of two unnamed villages in Kherson Oblast and one in Donetsk Oblast. Ukrainian authorities released a photo showing the raising of the Ukrainian flag in Vysokopillia by Ukrainian forces. Ukrainian attacks also continued along the southern frontline, though reports about territorial changes were largely unverifiable. On 12 September, Zelenskyy said that Ukrainian forces had retaken a total of 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi) from Russia, in both the south and the east. The BBC stated that it could not verify these claims.
In October, Ukrainian forces pushed further south towards the city of Kherson, taking control of 1,170 square kilometres (450 sq mi) of territory, with fighting extending to Dudchany. On 9 November, defence minister Shoigu ordered Russian forces to leave part of Kherson Oblast, including the city of Kherson, and move to the eastern bank of the Dnieper. On 11 November, Ukrainian troops entered Kherson, as Russia completed its withdrawal. This meant that Russian forces no longer had a foothold on the west (right) bank of the Dnieper.
Meanwhile, Ukrainian forces launched another surprise counteroffensive on 6 September in the Kharkiv region, beginning near Balakliia. This counteroffensive was led by General Syrskyi. By 7 September, Ukrainian forces had advanced some 20 kilometres (12 mi) into Russian occupied territory and claimed to have recaptured approximately 400 square kilometres (150 sq mi). Russian commentators said this was likely due to the relocation of Russian forces to Kherson in response to the Ukrainian offensive there. On 8 September, Ukrainian forces captured Balakliia and advanced to within 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) of Kupiansk. Military analysts said Ukrainian forces appeared to be moving towards Kupiansk, a major railway hub, with the aim of cutting off the Russian forces at Izium from the north.
On 9 September, the Russian occupation administration of Kharkiv Oblast announced it would "evacuate" the civilian populations of Izium, Kupiansk and Velykyi Burluk. The Institute for the Study of War (ISW) said it believed Kupiansk would likely fall in the next 72 hours, while Russian reserve units were sent to the area by both road and helicopter. On the morning of 10 September, photos emerged claiming to depict Ukrainian troops raising the Ukrainian flag in the centre of Kupiansk, and the ISW said Ukrainian forces had captured approximately 2,500 square kilometres (970 sq mi) by effectively exploiting their breakthrough. Later in the day, Reuters reported that Russian positions in northeast Ukraine had "collapsed" in the face of the Ukrainian assault, with Russian forces forced to withdraw from their base at Izium after being cut off by the capture of Kupiansk.
By 15 September, an assessment by UK's Ministry of Defence confirmed that Russia had either lost or withdrawn from almost all of their positions west of the Oskil river. The retreating units had also abandoned various high-value military assets. The offensive continued pushing east and by 2 October, Ukrainian Armed Forces had liberated another key city in the Second Battle of Lyman.
Winter stalemate, attrition campaign and military surge (12 November 2022 – 7 June 2023)
After the end of the twin Ukrainian counteroffensives, the fighting shifted to a semi-deadlock during the winter, with heavy casualties but reduced motion of the frontline. Russia launched a self-proclaimed winter offensive in eastern Ukraine, but the campaign ended in "disappointment" for Moscow, with the offensive stalling and gains being limited. Analysts variously blamed the failure on Russia's lack of "trained men", and supply problems with artillery ammunition, among other problems. Near the end of May, Mark Galeotti assessed that "after Russia’s abortive and ill-conceived winter offensive, which squandered its opportunity to consolidate its forces, Ukraine is in a relatively strong position."
On 7 February, The New York Times reported that Russians had newly mobilised nearly 200,000 soldiers to participate in the offensive in the Donbas, against Ukraine troops already wearied by previous fighting. The Russian private military company Wagner Group took on greater prominence in the war, leading "grinding advances" in Bakhmut with tens of thousands of recruits from prison battalions taking part in "near suicidal" assaults on Ukrainian positions.
In late January 2023, fighting intensified in the southern Zaporizhzhia region, with both sides suffering heavy casualties. In nearby southern parts of Donetsk Oblast, an intense, three-week Russian assault near the coal-mining town of Vuhledar was called the largest tank battle of the war to date, and ended in disaster for Russian forces, who lost "at least 130 tanks and armored personnel carriers" according to Ukrainian commanders. The British Ministry of Defense stated that "a whole Russian brigade was effectively annihilated."
Battle of Bakhmut
Following defeat in Kherson and Kharkiv, Russian and Wagner forces have focused on taking the city of Bakhmut and breaking the half year long stalemate that has prevailed there since the start of the war. Russian forces have sought to encircle the city, attacking from the north via Soledar. After taking heavy casualties, Russian and Wagner forces took control of Soledar on 16 January 2023. By early February 2023, Bakhmut was facing attacks from north, south and east, with the sole Ukrainian supply lines coming from Chasiv Yar to the west.
On 3 March 2023, Ukrainian soldiers destroyed two key bridges, creating the possibility for a controlled fighting withdrawal from eastern sectors of Bakhmut. On 4 March, Bakhmut's deputy mayor told news services that there was street fighting in the city. On 7 March, despite the city's near-encirclement, The New York Times reported that Ukrainian commanders were requesting permission from Kyiv to continue fighting against the Russians in Bakhmut.
On 26 March, Wagner Group forces claimed to have fully captured the tactically significant Azom factory in Bakhmut. Appearing before the House Committee on Armed Services on 29 March, General Mark Milley, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, reported that, "for about the last 20, 21 days, the Russia have not made any progress whatsoever in and around Bakhmut." Milley described the severe casualties being inflicted upon the Russian forces there as a "slaughter-fest."
By the beginning of May, the ISW assessed that Ukraine controlled only 1.89 square kilometres of the city, less than five percent. On 18 May 2023, The New York Times reported that Ukrainian forces had launched a local counteroffensive, taking back swathes of territory to the north and south of Bakhmut over the course of a few days.
2023 counteroffensive (8 June 2023 – present)
In June 2023, Ukrainian forces gradually launched a series of counteroffensives on multiple fronts, including Donetsk Oblast, Zaporizhzhia Oblast, and others. On 8 June 2023, it was reported that counteroffensive efforts were focused near settlements such as Orikhiv, Tokmak, and Bakhmut. However, the counteroffensive operations have faced stiff resistance from Russia, with the American think tank Institute for the Study of War labeling the Russian defensive effort as having "an uncharacteristic degree of coherency." By 12 June, Ukraine reported its fastest advance in seven months, claiming to have liberated several villages and advanced a total of 6.5 km. Russian military bloggers also reported that Ukraine had taken Blahodatne, Makarivka and Neskuchne, and were continuing to push southward. Ukraine continued to liberate settlements over the next few months, raising the Ukrainian flag over the significant settlement Robotyne in late August.
On 24 June, the Wagner Group launched a brief rebellion against the Russian government, capturing several cities in western Russia largely unopposed before marching towards Moscow. This came as the culmination of prolonged infighting and power struggles between Wagner and the Russian Ministry of Defense. After about 24 hours, the Wagner Group backed down and agreed to a peace deal in which Wagner's leader Yevgeny Prigozhin would go into exile in Belarus, and his forces would be free of prosecution. On 27 June, the UK's Ministry of Defence reported that Ukraine were "highly likely" to have reclaimed territory in the eastern Donbas region occupied by Russia since 2014 among its advances. Pro-Russian bloggers also reported that Ukrainian forces had made gains in the southern Kherson region, establishing a foothold on the left bank of the Dnipro river after crossing it.
In August, The Guardian reported that Ukraine had become the most mined country in the world, Russia laying millions of mines attempting to thwart Ukraine's counteroffensive. The vast minefields forced Ukraine to extensively demine areas to allow advances, with Ukrainian officials reporting shortages in men and equipment as Ukrainian soldiers unearth five mines for every square metre in certain places.
Following Russia pulling out of the Black Sea Grain Initiative, the conflict on the Black Sea escalated with Ukraine targeting Russian ships. On 4 August, Ukrainian security service sources reported that the Russian landing ship Olenegorsky Gornyak had been hit and damaged by an unmanned naval drone. Video footage released by Ukraine's security services appeared to show the drone striking the ship, with another video showing the ship seemingly listing to one side. On 12 September, both Ukrainian and Russian sources reported that Russian naval targets in Sevastopol had been struck by unconfirmed weaponry, damaging two military vessels, one of them reportedly a submarine. Ukraine also reported that several oil and gas drilling platforms on the Black Sea held by Russia since 2015 had been retaken.
On 21 September, Russia began missile strikes across Ukraine, damaging the country's energy facilities. On 22 September, the US announced it would send long-range ATACMS missiles to Ukraine, despite the reservations of some government officials. The same day, the Ukrainian Main Directorate of Intelligence launched a missile strike on the Black Sea Fleet headquarters in Sevastopol, Crimea, killing several senior military officials.
The supreme commanders-in-chief are the heads of state of the respective governments: President Vladimir Putin of Russia and President Volodymyr Zelenskyy of Ukraine. Putin has reportedly meddled in operational decisions, bypassing senior commanders and giving orders directly to brigade commanders.
US general Mark Milley said that Ukraine's top military commander in the war, commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, General Valerii Zaluzhnyi, "has emerged as the military mind his country needed. His leadership enabled the Ukrainian armed forces to adapt quickly with battlefield initiative against the Russians." Russia started its "special military operation" with no overall commander. The commanders of the four military districts were each responsible for their own offensives.
After initial setbacks, commander of the Russian Southern Military District Aleksandr Dvornikov was placed in overall command on 8 April 2022, while still responsible for his own campaign. Russian forces benefited from the centralization of command under Dvornikov, but continued failures to meet expectations in Moscow led to multiple changes in overall command:
- commander of the Eastern Military District Gennadii Zhidko (Eastern Military District, 26 May – 8 October 2022)
- commander of the southern grouping of forces Sergei Surovikin October 2022 – 11 January 2023)
- commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces Valerii Gerasimov (from 11 January 2023)
Missile attacks and aerial warfare
By September, the Ukrainian air force had shot down about 55 Russian warplanes. In mid-October, Russian forces launched missile strikes against Ukrainian infrastructure, intended to knock out energy facilities. By late November, hundreds of civilians had been killed or wounded in the attacks, and rolling blackout had left millions without power.
On 31 July 2022, Russian Navy Day commemorations were cancelled after a drone attack reportedly wounded several people at the Russian Black Sea Fleet headquarters in Sevastopol. On 9 August 2022, large explosions were reported at Saky Air Base in western Crimea. Satellite imagery showed at least eight aircraft damaged or destroyed. Initial speculation attributed the explosions to long-range missiles, sabotage by special forces or an accident; Ukrainian general Valerii Zaluzhnyi claimed responsibility on 7 September.
The base is near Novofedorivka, a destination popular with tourists. Traffic backed up at the Crimean Bridge after the explosions with queues of civilians trying to leave the area. A week later Russia blamed "sabotage" for explosions and a fire at an arms depot near Dzhankoi in northeastern Crimea that also damaged a railway line and power station. Russian regional head Sergei Aksyonov said that 2,000 people were evacuated from the area. On 18 August, explosions were reported at Belbek Air Base north of Sevastopol. On the morning of 8 October 2022, the Kerch Bridge linking occupied Crimea to Russia, partially collapsed due to an explosion. On 17 July 2023, there was another large explosion on the bridge.
Russian attacks against Ukrainian civilian infrastructure
Russia has carried out waves of strikes on Ukrainian electrical and water systems.
On 16 October 2022, The Washington Post reported that Iran was planning to supply Russia with both drones and missiles. On 18 October the U.S. State Department accused Iran of violating Resolution 2231 by selling Shahed 131 and Shahed 136 drones to Russia, agreeing with similar assessments by France and the United Kingdom. Iran denied sending any arms to Russia for the Ukraine war. On 22 October France, Britain and Germany formally called for a UN investigation. On 1 November, CNN reported that Iran was preparing to send ballistic missiles and other weapons to Russia for use in Ukraine. On 21 November, CNN quoted an intelligence assessment that Iran had begun to help Russia produce Iran-designed drones in Russia.
A 29 December New York Times report stated that the US was working to "choke off Iran’s ability to manufacture the drones, make it harder for the Russians to launch the unmanned “kamikaze” aircraft and — if all else fails — to provide the Ukrainians with the defenses necessary to shoot them out of the sky."
On 15 November 2022, Russia fired 85 missiles at the Ukrainian power grid, causing major power outages in Kyiv and neighboring regions. On 31 December, Putin in his New Year address called the war against Ukraine a "sacred duty to our ancestors and descendants" as missiles and drones rained down on Kiev.
On 10 March 2023, The New York Times reported that Russia has converted its massive missile attacks of Ukraine towards the preferred use of hypersonic missile systems, which are more effective in evading conventional Ukrainian anti-missile defenses which were proving useful against conventional, non-hypersonic Russian missile systems.
Ukraine lies on the Black Sea, which has ocean access only through the Turkish-held Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits. On 28 February, Turkey invoked the 1936 Montreux Convention and sealed off the straits to Russian warships not registered to Black Sea home bases and not returning to their ports of origin, denying passage of four Russian naval vessels through the Turkish Straits. On 24 February, the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine announced that an attack on Snake Island by Russian Navy ships had begun. The guided missile cruiser Moskva and patrol boat Vasily Bykov bombarded the island with their deck guns. When the Russian warship identified itself and instructed the Ukrainian soldiers stationed on the island to surrender, their response was "Russian warship, go fuck yourself!" After the bombardment, a detachment of Russian soldiers landed and took control of Snake Island.
Russia stated on 26 February that US drones supplied intelligence to the Ukrainian navy to help target Russian warships in the Black Sea, which the US denied. By 3 March, the Ukrainian frigate Hetman Sahaidachny, the flagship of the Ukrainian navy, was scuttled in Mykolaiv to prevent its capture by Russian forces. On 14 March, the Russian source RT reported that the Russian Armed Forces had captured about a dozen Ukrainian ships in Berdiansk, including the Polnocny-class landing ship Yuri Olefirenko. On 24 March, Ukrainian officials said that a Russian landing ship docked in Berdiansk – initially reported to be the Orsk and then its sister ship, the Saratov – was destroyed by a Ukrainian rocket attack. In March 2022, the UN International Maritime Organization (IMO) sought to create a safe sea corridor for commercial vessels to leave Ukrainian ports. On 27 March, Russia established a sea corridor 80 miles (130 km) long and 3 miles (4.8 km) wide through its Maritime Exclusion Zone, for the transit of merchant vessels from the edge of Ukrainian territorial waters south-east of Odesa. Ukraine closed its ports at MARSEC level 3, with sea mines laid in port approaches, until the end to hostilities.
The Russian cruiser Moskva, the flagship of the Black Sea Fleet, was, according to Ukrainian sources and a US senior official, hit on 13 April by two Ukrainian Neptune anti-ship cruise missiles, setting the ship on fire. The Russian Defence Ministry confirmed the warship had suffered serious damage due to a munition explosion caused by a fire, and said that its entire crew had been evacuated. Pentagon spokesman John Kirby reported on 14 April that satellite images showed that the Russian warship had suffered a sizeable explosion onboard but was heading to the east for expected repairs and refitting in Sevastopol. Later on the same day, the Russian Ministry of Defence stated that Moskva had sunk while under tow in rough weather. On 15 April, Reuters reported that Russia launched an apparent retaliatory missile strike against the missile factory Luch Design Bureau in Kyiv where the Neptune missiles used in the Moskva attack were manufactured and designed. On 5 May, a US official confirmed that the US gave "a range of intelligence" (including real-time battlefield targeting intelligence) to assist in the sinking of the Moskva.
In early May, Ukrainian forces launched counterattacks on Snake Island. The Russian Ministry of Defense claimed to have repelled these counterattacks. Ukraine released footage of a Russian Serna-class landing craft located in the Black Sea being destroyed near Snake Island by a Ukrainian drone. The same day, a pair of Ukrainian Su-27 conducted a high-speed, low level bombing run on Russian-occupied Snake Island; the attack was captured on film by a Baykar Bayraktar TB2 drone. On 1 June, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov asserted that Ukraine's policy of mining its own harbours to impede Russia maritime aggression had contributed to the food export crisis, stating that: "If Kyiv solves the problem of demining ports, the Russian Navy will ensure the unimpeded passage of ships with grain to the Mediterranean Sea." On 30 June 2022, Russia announced that it had withdrawn troops from the island in a "gesture of goodwill." The withdrawal was later officially confirmed by Ukraine.
Four days into the invasion, President Putin placed Russia's nuclear forces on high alert, raising fears that Russia could use tactical nuclear weapons against Ukraine, or a wider escalation of the conflict could occur. Putin alluded in April to the use of nuclear weapons, and Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov said there was a "real" danger of a World War III. On 14 April, CIA director William Burns said that "potential desperation" in the face of defeat could encourage President Putin to use tactical nuclear weapons. In response to Russia's disregard of safety precautions during its occupation of the disabled former nuclear power plant at Chernobyl and its firing of missiles in the vicinity of the active Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, Zelenskyy called on 26 April for an international discussion on Russia's use of nuclear resources, saying: "no one in the world can feel safe knowing how many nuclear facilities, nuclear weapons and related technologies the Russian state has ... If Russia has forgotten what Chernobyl is, it means that global control over Russia's nuclear facilities, and nuclear technology is needed." In August shelling around Zaporizhzhia power plant became a crisis, prompting an emergency inspection by the IAEA. Ukraine described the crisis nuclear terrorism by Russia. On 19 September Biden warned of a "consequential response from the U.S." Before the United Nations on 21 September he criticized Putin's nuclear sabre-rattling, calling Putin was "overt, reckless and irresponsible... A nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought." Writing for Time in January 2023, Graham Allison presented a seven-point summary of Putin's hypothetical intention to deploy tactical nuclear weapons in Ukraine. In March 2023, Putin announced plans to install Russian tactical nuclear weapons in Belarus.
Ukrainian civilians resisted the Russian invasion by volunteering for territorial defence units, making Molotov cocktails, donating food, building barriers like Czech hedgehogs, and helping to transport refugees. Responding to a call from Ukravtodor, Ukraine's transportation agency, civilians dismantled or altered road signs, constructed makeshift barriers, and blocked roadways. Social media reports showed spontaneous street protests against Russian forces in occupied settlements, often evolving into verbal altercations and physical standoffs with Russian troops. By the beginning of April, Ukrainian civilians began to organise as guerrillas, mostly in the wooded north and east of the country. The Ukrainian military announced plans for a large-scale guerrilla campaign to complement its conventional defence.
People physically blocked Russian military vehicles, sometimes forcing them to retreat. The Russian soldiers' response to unarmed civilian resistance varied from reluctance to engage the protesters, to firing into the air, to firing directly into crowds. There have been mass detentions of Ukrainian protesters, and Ukrainian media has reported forced disappearances, mock executions, hostage-taking, extrajudicial killings, and sexual violence perpetrated by the Russian military. To facilitate Ukrainian attacks, civilians reported Russian military positions via a Telegram chatbot and Diia, a Ukrainian government app previously used by citizens to upload official identity and medical documents. In response, Russian forces began destroying mobile phone network equipment, searching door-to-door for smartphones and computers, and in at least one case killed a civilian who had pictures of Russian tanks.
As of 21 May 2022, Zelenskyy indicated that Ukraine had 700,000 service members on active duty fighting the Russian invasion. Ukraine withdrew soldiers and military equipment back to Ukraine over the course of 2022 that had been deployed to United Nations peacekeeping missions like MONUSCO in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The invasion received widespread international condemnation from governments and intergovernmental organisations. On 2 March 2022 and on 23 February 2023, 141 member states of the UN General Assembly voted for a resolution saying that Russia should immediately withdraw. Seven, including Russia, voted against the measure. Political reactions to the invasion included new sanctions imposed on Russia, which triggered widespread economic effects on the Russian and world economies. Over seventy sovereign states and the European Union delivered humanitarian aid to Ukraine, and nearly fifty countries plus the EU provided military aid. Economic sanctions included a ban on Russian aircraft using EU airspace, a ban of certain Russian banks from the SWIFT international payments system, and a ban on certain Russian media outlets. Reactions to the invasion have included public response, media responses, peace efforts, and the examination of the legal implications of the invasion.
The invasion received widespread international public condemnation. Some countries, particularly in the Global South, saw public sympathy or outright support for Russia, due in part to distrust of US foreign policy. Protests and demonstrations were held worldwide, including some in Russia and parts of Ukraine occupied by Russia. Calls for a boycott of Russian goods spread on social media platforms, while hackers attacked Russian websites, particularly those operated by the Russian government. Anti-Russian sentiment against Russians living abroad surged after the invasion. In March 2022, Russian President Putin introduced prison sentences of up to 15 years for publishing "fake news" about Russian military operations, intended to suppress any criticism related to the war.
According to the Economist Intelligence Unit in 2023, 31 percent of the world's population live in countries that are leaning towards or supportive of Russia, 30.7 percent live in neutral countries, and 36.2 percent live in countries that are against Russia in some way.
By October 2022, three countries—Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia—had declared Russia a "terrorist state." On 1 August, Iceland became the first European country to close its embassy in Russia as a result of the invasion of Ukraine.
The Kiel Institute tracked $155.9 billion from 41 countries and European Union institutions in financial, humanitarian, and military aid to Ukraine from 24 January 2022 to 24 February 2023. NATO is coordinating and assisting member states in providing billions of dollars in military equipment and financial aid to Ukraine. The United States has provided the most military assistance, having committed over $29.3 billion from 24 February 2022 to 3 February 2023.[e] Many NATO allies, including Germany, have reversed past policies against providing offensive military aid in order to support Ukraine. The European Union, for the first time in its history, supplied lethal arms, and has provided €3.1 billion to Ukraine. Bulgaria, a major manufacturer of Soviet-pattern weapons, has covertly supplied more than €2 billion worth of arms and ammunition to Ukraine, including a third of the ammunition needed by the Ukrainian military in the critical early phase of the invasion; Bulgaria also provides fuel supplies and has, at times, covered 40% of the fuel needed by the Ukrainian armed forces.
Foreign involvement in the invasion has been worldwide and extensive, with support ranging from foreign military sales and aid, foreign military involvement, foreign sanctions and ramifications, and including foreign condemnation and protest. The US adopted a policy of "no boots on the ground" in Ukraine. Western and other countries imposed limited sanctions on Russia for recognising the separatist people's republics as independent nations. When the attack began, many countries applied new sanctions intended to cripple the Russian economy. The sanctions targeted individuals, banks, businesses, monetary exchanges, bank transfers, exports, and imports.
Politico reported in March 2023 that Chinese state-owned weapons manufacturer Norinco shipped assault rifles, drone parts, and body armor to Russia between June and December 2022, with some shipments via third countries including Turkey and the United Arab Emirates. According to the United States, Chinese ammunition has been used on battlefields in Ukraine. In May 2023, the EU identified that Chinese and the UAE firms were supplying weapon components to Russia.
In June 2023, US military intel suggested Iran was providing UAV production material to Russia.
On 21 September 2023, Poland said it would cease sending arms to Ukraine after a dispute between the two countries over grain.
International arrest warrants
The International Criminal Court (ICC) opened an investigation into possible crimes against humanity, genocide and war crimes. On 17 March 2023 the ICC issued a warrant for Putin's arrest, charging him with individual criminal responsibility in the abduction of children forcibly deported to Russia. It was the first time that the ICC had issued an arrest warrant for the head of state of a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council (the world's five principal nuclear powers). Moscow has denied any involvement in war crimes, a response Vittorio Bufacchi of University College in Cork says "has bordered on the farcical," and its contention that the images coming out of Bucha were fabricated "a disingenuous response born by delusional hubris, post-truth on overdrive, (that) does not merit to be taken seriously." Even the usually fractured United States Senate came together to call Putin a war criminal. One of several efforts to document Russian war crimes concerns its repeated bombardment of markets and bread lines, destruction of basic infrastructure and attacks on exports and supply convoys, in a country where deliberate starvation of Ukrainians by Soviets the Holodomor still looms large in public memory. Forcible deportation of populations, such as took place in Mariuopol, is another area of focus, since "(f)orced deportations and transfers are defined both as war crimes under the Fourth Geneva Convention and Protocol II and Article 8 of the Rome Statute—and as crimes against humanity—under Article 7 of the Rome Statute. As both war crimes and crimes against humanity, they have several mechanisms for individual accountability, the International Criminal Court and also, at the individual state level, universal jurisdiction and Magnitsky sanctions legislation.
Combat deaths can be inferred from a variety of sources including satellite imagery of military action. Russian and Ukrainian sources may both inflate the casualty numbers for opposing forces, and downplay their own losses for the sake of morale; certainly both have been accused of doing so. Leaked US documents say that "under-reporting of casualties within the [Russian] system highlights the military's 'continuing reluctance' to convey bad news up the chain of command." Russian news outlets have largely stopped reporting the Russian death toll. Russia and Ukraine have each admitted suffering "significant" and "considerable" losses, respectively. BBC News has reported that Ukrainian Russian casualty figures included the injured.
The numbers of civilian and military deaths have been as always impossible to determine precisely. On 12 October 2022, the independent Russian media project iStories, citing sources close to the Kremlin, reported that more than 90,000 Russian soldiers had been killed, seriously wounded, or gone missing in Ukraine. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) estimates that the number of civilian casualties is considerably higher than the numbers it has been able to certify. AFP says that "a key gap in casualty counts is the lack of information from Russian-occupied places like the port city of Mariupol, where tens of thousands of civilians are believed to have died." Agence France-Presse and independent conflict monitors were unable to verify Russian and Ukrainian claims of enemy losses and suspected that they were inflated. On 16 June 2022, the Ukrainian Minister of Defence told CNN that he believed that tens of thousands of Ukrainians had died, adding that he hoped that the total death toll was below 100,000. In the destroyed city of Mariupol alone, Ukrainian officials believe that at least 25,000 have been killed; but morgue records indicate far higher numbers, and in September some bodies remained uncollected. The mayor said over 10,000 and possibly as many as 20,000 civilians died in the siege of Mariupol and that Russian forces had brought mobile cremation equipment with them when they entered the city.
|Ukrainian civilians||9,614 killed, 17,535 wounded[f]||24 Feb 2022 – 10 September 2023||United Nations (OHCHR)|
|16,500+ killed[g]||24 Feb 2022 – 17 September 2023||Ukrainian government|
|Ukrainian forces (ZSU)||up to 13,000 killed||24 Feb 2022 – 2 December 2022||Ukrainian official|
|Russian forces (DPR/LPR excluded)||32,656 killed[h]||24 Feb 2022 – 22 September 2023||Mediazona, BBC News Russian|
|Donetsk & Luhansk PR||11,500+ killed, 8,400+ missed||24 Feb 2022 – 4 August 2023||BBC News Russia|
|Ukrainian civilians||42,000 killed||24 Feb 2022 – 21 May 2023||US estimate|
in DPR/LPR areas
|17 Feb 2022 – 22 June 2023||DPR[i] and LPR|
|24 Feb 2022 – 18 August 2023||US estimate|
|24 Feb 2022 – 21 May 2023||US estimate|
|Russian forces||66,000+ killed (DPR/LPR excluded)
86,000+ killed (DPR/LPR included)
|24 Feb 2022 – 29 September 2023||BBC News Russian|
|24 Feb 2022 – August 18, 2023||US estimate|
|60,000+ killed, 210,000 wounded (of which 102,000 heavily (irreversible)[j]) (DPR/LPR excluded)
80,000+ killed (DPR/LPR included)
|24 Feb 2022 – 4 August 2023||BBC News Russian|
(killed and wounded)
|24 Feb 2022 – 23 June 2023||BBC News Russian|
|47,000 killed||February 24, 2022 - May 31, 2023||Mediazona, Meduza|
|7,000 killed||24 Feb 2022 – March 15, 2022||US estimate|
Prisoners of war
Official and estimated numbers of prisoners of war (POW) have varied. On 24 February Oksana Markarova, Ukraine's ambassador to the US, said that a platoon of 74th Guards from Kemerovo Oblast had surrendered, saying they were unaware that they had been brought to Ukraine and tasked with killing Ukrainians. Russia claimed to have captured 572 Ukrainian soldiers by 2 March 2022, while Ukraine said it held 562 Russian soldiers as of 20 March. It also released one soldier for five of its own and exchanged another nine for the detained mayor of Melitopol.
On 24 March 2022, 10 Russian and 10 Ukrainian soldiers, as well as 11 Russians and 19 Ukrainian civilian sailors, were exchanged. On 1 April 86 Ukrainian servicemen were exchanged for an unknown number of Russian troops. The Independent on 9 June 2022 cited an intelligence estimate of more than 5,600 Ukrainian soldiers captured, while the Russian servicemen held prisoner fell to 550 from 900 in April after several prisoner exchanges.
An 25 August 2022 report by the Humanitarian Research Lab of the Yale School of Public Health identified some 21 filtration camps or Ukrainian "civilians, POWs, and other personnel" in the vicinity of Donetsk oblast. Imaging of one of these, Olenivka prison, found two sites with disturbed earth consistent with "potential graves." Kaveh Khoshnood, a professor at the Yale School of Public Health, said: "Incommunicado detention of civilians is more than a violation of international humanitarian law—it represents a threat to the public health of those currently in the custody of Russia and its proxies." Conditions described by freed prisoners include confinement include exposure, insufficient access to sanitation, food and water, cramped conditions, electrical shocks and physical assault.
In March 2023, UN human rights commissioner Volker Türk reported that more than 90% of the Ukrainian POWs interviewed by his office, which could only include those who were released from Russia, said in Russia "they were tortured or ill-treated, notably in penitentiary facilities, including through so-called – it is an awful phrase – 'welcoming beatings' on their arrival, as well as frequent acts of torture throughout detention."
In April 2023, several videos started circulating on different websites purportedly showing Russian soldiers beheading Ukrainian soldiers. Zelensky compared Russian soldiers to "beasts" after the footage was circulated. Russian officials opened an investigation of the footage shortly thereafter.
The humanitarian impact of the invasion has been extensive and has included negative impacts on international food supplies and the 2022 food crises. An estimated 6.6 million Ukrainians were internally displaced by August 2022, and about the same number were refugees in other countries. The invasion has also had a negative impact upon the cultural heritage of Ukraine, with over 500 Ukrainian cultural heritage sites, including cultural centers, theatres, museums, and churches, affected by "Russian aggression." Ukraine's Minister of Culture called it cultural genocide. The deliberate destruction and looting of Ukrainian cultural heritage sites in this way is considered a war crime.[better source needed]
On the 15th of September 2023, a U.N.-mandated investigative body presented their findings showing that Russian occupiers tortured Ukrainians so brutally that some of their victims died, and forced families to listen as they raped women next door. The commission has previously said that violations committed by Russian forces in Ukraine, including the use of torture, may constitute crimes against humanity.
The war caused the largest refugee and humanitarian crisis within Europe since the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s; the UN described it as the fastest growing such crisis since World War II. As Russia built up military forces along the Ukrainian border, many neighbouring governments and aid organisations prepared for a mass displacement event in the weeks before the invasion. In December 2021, the Ukrainian defence minister estimated that an invasion could force three to five million people to flee their homes.
In the first week of the invasion, the UN reported over a million refugees had fled Ukraine; this subsequently reached over eight million by 31 January 2023. On 20 May, NPR reported that, following a significant influx of foreign military equipment into Ukraine, a significant number of refugees are seeking to return to regions of Ukraine which are relatively isolated from the invasion front in south-eastern Ukraine. However, by 3 May, another 8 million people were displaced inside Ukraine.
Most refugees were women, children, the elderly, or people with disabilities. Most male Ukrainian nationals aged 18 to 60 were denied exit from Ukraine as part of mandatory conscription, unless they were responsible for the financial support of three or more children, single fathers, or were the parent/guardian of children with disabilities. Many Ukrainian men, including teenagers, opted to remain in Ukraine voluntarily in order to join the resistance.
Regarding destinations, according to the UN High Commission for Refugees, as of 13 May, there were 3,315,711 refugees in Poland, 901,696 in Romania, 594,664 in Hungary, 461,742 in Moldova, 415,402 in Slovakia, and 27,308 in Belarus, while Russia reported it had received over 800,104 refugees. As of 13 July 2022, over 390,000 Ukrainian refugees had arrived in the Czech Republic, where the average refugee was a woman accompanied by one child. These refugees were twice as likely to have a college degree as the Czech population as a whole. Turkey has been another significant destination, registering more than 58,000 Ukrainian refugees as of 22 March, and more than 58,000 as of 25 April. The EU invoked the Temporary Protection Directive for the first time in its history, granting Ukrainian refugees the right to live and work in the EU for up to three years. Britain has accepted 146,379 refugees, as well as extending the ability to remain in the UK for 3 years with broadly similar entitlements as the EU, three years residency and access to state welfare and services.
According to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Russia has engaged in "massive deportation" of over 1.3 million Ukrainian civilians, potentially constituting crimes against humanity. The OSCE and Ukraine have accused Russia of forcibly moving civilians to filtration camps in Russian-held territory, and then into Russia. Ukrainian sources have compared this policy to Soviet-era population transfers and Russian actions in the Chechen War of Independence. For instance, as of 8 April, Russia claimed to have evacuated about 121,000 Mariupol residents to Russia. Also, on 19 October, Russia announced the forced deportation of 60,000 civilians from areas around the line of contact in Kherson oblast. RIA Novosti and Ukrainian officials said that thousands were dispatched to various centers in cities in Russia and Russian-occupied Ukraine, from which people were sent to economically depressed regions of Russia. In April, Ukraine's National Security and Defence Council secretary Oleksiy Danilov said Russia planned to build "concentration camps" for Ukrainians in western Siberia, and that it likely planned to force prisoners to build new cities in Siberia.[k]
Long-term demographic effects
Both Russia and Ukraine were facing the prospect of significant population decline even before the war, having among the lowest fertility rates worldwide and, in the Ukrainian case, considerable emigration. Russia had a fighting-age (18- to 40-year-old) male population more than four times higher than Ukraine's and slightly higher birth rates, while the willingness to fight was more pronounced in Ukraine.
Several sources have pointed out how the war is considerably worsening Ukraine's demographic crisis, making significant shrinking very likely. A July 2023 study by the Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies stated that "[r]egardless of how long the war lasts and whether or not there is further military escalation, Ukraine is unlikely to recover demographically from the consequences of the war. Even in 2040 it will have only about 35 million inhabitants, around 20% fewer than before the war (2021: 42.8 million) and the decline in the working-age population is likely to be the most severe and far-reaching." The study took different scenarios, from a "best case" (end of the war in 2023 without much further escalation) to a "worst case" (end of the war in 2025 with further escalation) into account. Flight from war affects especially the southern and eastern regions and especially educated women of child-bearing age and their children. With an estimate of more than 20% of refugees not returning, study author Maryna Tverdostup concludes that this will lead to long-term shrinking and will significantly impair the conditions for reconstruction.
Since February 2022, hundreds of thousands of Russians have left their country, with estimates ranging from 370,000 to over 700,000. Combined with mobilization, this might have removed roughly between half a million and one million working-age males from Russia's population. Studies report that this will have a demographic effect especially in Russia lasting much longer than the conflict will take place, and much longer than Putin will remain president.
According to BBC:
They come from different walks of life. Some are journalists like us, but there are also IT experts, designers, artists, academics, lawyers, doctors, PR specialists, and linguists. Most are under 50. Many share western liberal values and hope Russia will be a democratic country one day. Some are LGBTQ+. Sociologists studying the current Russian emigration say there is evidence that those leaving are younger, better educated and wealthier than those staying. More often they are from bigger cities.
According to Johannes Wachs, "The exodus of skilled human capital, sometimes called brain drain, out of Russia may have a significant effect on the course of the war and the Russian economy in the long run."
Based on a preliminary assessment, the war has inflicted USD 51 billion in environmental damage in Ukraine; according to a report by the Yale School of the Environment, some 687,000 tons of petrochemicals have burned as a result of shelling, while nearly 1,600 tons of pollutants have leaked into bodies of water. Hazardous chemicals have contaminated around 70 acres of soil, and likely made agricultural activities temporarily impossible. Around 30% of Ukraine's land is now littered with explosives and more than 2.4 million hectares of forest have been damaged.
According to Netherlands-based peace organization PAX, Russia's "deliberate targeting of industrial and energy infrastructure" has caused "severe" pollution, and the use of explosive weapons has left "millions of tonnes" of contaminated debris in cities and towns. In early June 2023, the Kakhovka Dam, under Russian occupation, was damaged, causing flooding and triggering warnings of an "ecological disaster."
The Ukrainian government, international observers and journalists have described the damage as ecocide. The Ukrainian government is investigating more crimes against the environment and ecocide (a crime in Ukraine). Zelenskyy has met with prominent European figures (Heidi Hautala, Margot Wallstrom, Mary Robinson and Greta Thunberg) to discuss the environmental damage and how to prosecute it.
Peace negotiations between Russia and Ukraine took place on 28 February,3 March, and 7 March 2022, in an undisclosed location in the Gomel Region on the Belarus–Ukraine border, with further talks held on 10 March in Turkey prior to a fourth round of negotiations which began on 14 March.
On 13 July, the Ukrainian foreign minister Dmytro Kuleba stated that peace talks are frozen, Ukraine must first recapture all the lost territories in the east of the country, and then the time for negotiations will come. On 19 July, former Russian President and current Deputy head of the Russian Security Council, Dmitry Medvedev, said: "Russia will achieve all its goals. There will be peace – on our terms."
Putin's spokesperson Dmitry Peskov and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said that any peace plan can only proceed from Ukraine's recognition of Russia's sovereignty over the regions it annexed from Ukraine in September 2022. By 29 December, following the Russian declared annexation of multiple Ukrainian oblasts, hopes for Ukrainian peace talks with Russia dimmed significantly with Russia taking a hardline position that the full Russian occupation of the four oblasts would be non-negotiable under any circumstances. In addition, Zelenskyy announced that Ukraine would not hold peace talks with Russia while Putin was president and signed a decree to ban such talks. In January 2023, Putin's spokesperson Peskov said that "there is currently no prospect for diplomatic means of settling the situation around Ukraine."
In May 2023, UN Secretary-General António Guterres said peace negotiations to end the Russo-Ukrainian War were "not possible at this moment", saying it was clear that Russia and Ukraine "are completely absorbed in this war" and "are convinced that they can win."
In June 2023, Ukrainian Defense Minister Oleksii Reznikov said that the peace plans presented by China, Brazil and Indonesia are attempts at mediation on behalf of Russia, saying that "they all currently want to be mediators on Russia's side. That's why this sort of mediation currently doesn't fit for us at all because they aren't impartial." He said that Ukraine is willing to accept China as a mediator for peace talks between Russia and Ukraine only if Beijing could convince Russia to withdraw from all the territories it had occupied.
- Outline of the Russo-Ukrainian War
- 2020s in military history
- List of conflicts in territory of the former Soviet Union
- List of interstate wars since 1945
- List of invasions and occupations of Ukraine
- List of ongoing armed conflicts
- List of wars between Russia and Ukraine
- Russian emigration following the Russian invasion of Ukraine
- 2022 Russia–Ukraine tornado outbreak — Tornado outbreak affecting both countries during the conflict.
- Red lines in the Russo-Ukrainian War
- The Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic were Russian-controlled puppet states that declared their independence from Ukraine in May 2014. In 2022 they received international recognition from each other, Russia, Syria and North Korea, and some other partially recognised states. On 30 September 2022, after a referendum, Russia declared it had formally annexed both entities.
- Russian forces were permitted to stage part of the invasion from Belarusian territory. Belarusian territory has also been used to launch missiles into Ukraine. See also: Belarusian involvement in the Russian invasion of Ukraine
- See § Foreign involvement for more details.
- Including military, paramilitary, and 34,000 separatist militias.
- By early September 2022 the US had given 126 M777 howitzer cannons and over 800,000 rounds of 155 mm ammunition for them. By January 2023 the US had donated 250,000 more 155 mm shells to Ukraine. The US is producing 14,000 155 mm shells monthly and plans to increase production to 90,000 shells per month by 2025.
- "OHCHR believes that the actual figures are considerably higher, as the receipt of information from some locations where intense hostilities have been going on has been delayed and many reports are still pending corroboration. This concerns, for example, Mariupol (Donetsk region), Lysychansk, Popasna, and Sievierodonetsk (Luhansk region), where there are allegations of numerous civilian casualties." Figures are for Ukraine as a whole and include disputed and occupied territory.
- See here for a detailed breakdown of civilian deaths by oblast, according to Ukrainian authorities.
- BBC Russia says the actual losses are "definitely higher"
- DPR said 1,285 civilians were killed and 4,243 wounded between 1 January 2022 and 22 June 2023, of which 8 died and 23 were wounded between 1 January and 25 February 2022, leaving a total of 1,277 killed and 4,220 wounded in the period of the Russian invasion.
- "According to the calculations of our colleagues, the ratio of seriously wounded to the number killed during this war may be 1.7 to 1 - that is, 102 thousand people were heavily injured and will not be able to return to duty."
- Most likely, new cities meant new industrial cities in Siberia, the construction plans of which were announced by Shoigu in the fall of 2021.
- Lister, Tim; Kesa, Julia (24 February 2022). "Ukraine says it was attacked through Russian, Belarus and Crimea borders". Kyiv: CNN. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Murphy, Palu (24 February 2022). "Troops and military vehicles have entered Ukraine from Belarus". CNN. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- "Missiles launched into Ukraine from Belarus". BBC News. 27 February 2022. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
- Bengali, Shashank (18 February 2022). "The U.S. says Russia's troop buildup could be as high as 190,000 in and near Ukraine". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 February 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
- Hackett, James, ed. (February 2021). The Military Balance 2021 (1st ed.). Abingdon, Oxfordshire: International Institute for Strategic Studies. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-03-201227-8. OCLC 1292198893. OL 32226712M.
- The Military Balance 2022. International Institute for Strategic Studies. February 2022. ISBN 9781000620030 – via Google Books.
- "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 30, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 31 May 2023.
- The Military Balance 2022. International Institute for Strategic Studies. February 2022. ISBN 9781000620030 – via Google Books.
- "Ukraine", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2023-01-18, retrieved 2023-01-19
- Hall, Gavin E.L. (14 February 2022). "Ukraine: the history behind Russia's claim that NATO promised not to expand to the east". Retrieved 25 September 2023.
- Budjeryn, Mariana. "Issue Brief #3: The Breach: Ukraine's Territorial Integrity and the Budapest Memorandum" (PDF). Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
- Vasylenko, Volodymyr (15 December 2009). "On assurances without guarantees in a 'shelved document'". The Day. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
- Harahan, Joseph P. (2014). "With Courage and Persistence: Eliminating and Securing Weapons of Mass Destruction with the Nunn-Luger Cooperative Threat Reduction Programs" (PDF). DTRA History Series. Defense Threat Reduction Agency. ASIN B01LYEJ56H. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
- "Istanbul Document 1999". Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 19 November 1999. p. 3 (PDF). Archived from the original on 1 June 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- Russia, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) agreed in the Budapest Memorandum to uphold the territorial integrity of Ukraine. In 1999, Russia signed the Charter for European Security, affirming the "right of each and every participating state to be free to choose or change its security arrangements, including treaties of alliance."
- Bevan, Scott (5 April 2008). "Ukraine-Georgia NATO membership a 'direct threat to Russia'". ABC News.
- Evans, Michael (5 April 2008). "President tells summit he wants security and friendship". The Times. p. 46.
President Putin, in a bravura performance before the world's media at the end of the Nato summit, warned President Bush and other alliance leaders that their plan to expand eastwards to Ukraine and Georgia "didn't contribute to trust and predictability in our relations.
- Evans, Michael (5 April 2008). "President tells summit he wants security and friendship". The Times. p. 46.
- Brown, Colin (3 April 2008). "EU allies unite against Bush over Nato membership for Georgia and Ukraine". The Independent. p. 24.
- "NATO promises Ukraine, Georgia entry one day". Reuters. 3 April 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
- NATO. "Bucharest Summit Declaration issued by NATO Heads of State and Government (2008)". NATO. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
- Dick, Charles, ed. (11 April 2008). "Russia army vows steps if Georgia and Ukraine join NATO". Reuters. Moscow.
- Baker, Peter (9 January 2022). "In Ukraine Conflict, Putin Relies on a Promise That Ultimately Wasn't". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- Walker, Shaun (22 September 2013). "Ukraine's EU trade deal will be catastrophic, says Russia". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
- Dinan, Desmond; Nugent, Neil (eds.). The European Union in Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 3, 274.
- Salem, Harriet; Walker, Shaun; Harding, Luke (27 February 2014). "Crimean parliament seized by unknown pro-Russian gunmen: Gunmen storm Crimea's regional administrative complex in Simferopol and hoist Russian flag above parliament building". The Guardian.
- Grytsenko, Oksana; Vlasova, Anastasia (12 April 2014). "Armed pro-Russian insurgents in Luhansk say they are ready for police raid". Kyiv Post. Luhansk: Businessgroup LLC. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
- Ragozin, Leonid (16 March 2019). "Annexation of Crimea: A masterclass in political manipulation". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
- "Exclusive: Charred tanks in Ukraine point to Russian involvement". Reuters. 23 October 2014. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- "Ukraine ceasefire violated more than 100 times within days: OSCE". Al Jazeera. 29 July 2020. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- "France says Russia refused to hold ministerial meeting on Ukraine". Reuters. 9 November 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
- "Article by Vladimir Putin 'On the Historical Unity of Russians and Ukrainians'". President of Russia. 12 July 2021. Archived from the original on 19 February 2022. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
... the outcome of both Minsk‑1 and Minsk‑2 which give a real chance to peacefully restore the territorial integrity of Ukraine by coming to an agreement directly with the DPR and LPR with Russia, Germany and France as mediators, contradicts the entire logic of the anti-Russia project.
- "Russia Shouldn't Negotiate With 'Vassal' Ukraine, Ex-President Medvedev Says". Moscow Times. 11 October 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
- Michael, Casey (19 June 2015). "Pew Survey: Irredentism Alive and Well in Russia". The Diplomat.
- Socor, Vladimir (24 March 2014). "Putin's Crimea Speech: A Manifesto of Greater-Russia Irredentism". Vol. 11, no. 56. Eurasia Daily Monitor.
- Putin, Vladimir (12 July 2021). "Article by Vladimir Putin 'On the Historical Unity of Russians and Ukrainians'". The Kremlin. Government of Russia. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
- "Extracts from Putin's speech on Ukraine". Reuters. 21 February 2022.
- Snyder, Timothy D. (18 January 2022). "How to think about war in Ukraine". Thinking about... (newsletter). Substack. Archived from the original on 19 January 2022. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
Historically speaking, the idea that a dictator in another country decides who is a nation and who is not is known as imperialism.
- Roth, Andrew (7 December 2021). "Putin's Ukraine rhetoric driven by distorted view of neighbor". The Guardian. Moscow. Archived from the original on 7 December 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
But that fear has gone hand-in-hand with chauvinistic bluster that indicates Moscow has a distorted view of modern Ukraine and the goals it wants to achieve there.
- Lucas, Edward (15 September 2020). "Why Putin's history essay requires a rewrite". The Times. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
- Dickinson, Peter; Haring, Melinda; Lubkivsky, Danylo; Motyl, Alexander; Whitmore, Brian; Goncharenko, Oleksiy; Fedchenko, Yevhen; Bonner, Brian; Kuzio, Taras (15 July 2021). "Putin's new Ukraine essay reveals imperial ambitions". Atlantic Council. Archived from the original on 15 July 2021. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
Vladimir Putin's inaccurate and distorted claims are neither new nor surprising. They are just the latest example of gaslighting by the Kremlin leader.
- Wilson, Andrew (23 December 2021). "Russia and Ukraine: 'One People' as Putin Claims?". Royal United Services Institute. Archived from the original on 24 January 2022. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
Putin's key trope is that Ukrainians and Russians are 'one people', and he calls them both 'Russian'. He starts with a myth of common origin: 'Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians are all descendants of Ancient Rus', which was the largest state in Europe' from the 9th–13th centuries AD.
- Wiśnicki, Jarosław (14 July 2023). "History as an information weapon in Russia's full-scale war in Ukraine".
- Zwack, Peter B.; Andrusiv, Victor; Antonenko, Oksana (15 April 2021). "The Russian Military Buildup on Ukraine's Border | An Expert Analysis". Wilson Center.
- Ullah, Zahra; Chernova, Anna; Mackintosh, Eliza (23 April 2021). "Russia pulls back troops after massive buildup near Ukraine border". CNN.
- Harris, Shane; Sonne, Paul (3 December 2021). "Russia planning massive military offensive against Ukraine involving 175,000 troops, U.S. intelligence warns". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
- Schogol, Jeff (22 February 2022). "Here's what those mysterious white 'Z' markings on Russian military equipment may mean". Task & Purpose. North Equity. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
[B]ottom line is the 'Z' markings (and others like it) are a deconfliction measure to help prevent friendly fire incidents.
- Schogol, Jeff (22 February 2022). "Here's what those mysterious white 'Z' markings on Russian military equipment may mean". Task & Purpose. North Equity. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
- Taylor, Adam (24 February 2022). "Russia's attack on Ukraine came after months of denials it would attack". The Washington Post. Photograph by Evgeniy Maloletka (Associated Press). Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
On Sunday ... "There is no invasion. There is no such plans," Antonov said.
- Farley, Robert; Kiely, Eugene6y Aris Messinis (Agence-France Presse) (24 February 2022). "Russian Rhetoric Ahead of Attack 66 Ukraine: Deny, Deflect, Mislead". FactCheck.org. Annenberg Public Policy Center. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
Nov. 28 – ... 'Russia has never hatched, is not hatching and will never hatch any plans to attack anyone,' Peskov said. ... 19 Jan – ... Ryabkov ... 'We do not want and will not take any action of aggressive character. We will not attack, strike, invade, quote unquote, whatever Ukraine.'
- "Kremlin Insiders Alarmed Over Growing Toll of Putin's War in Ukraine". Bloomberg News. 20 March 2022.
- Tétrault-Farber, Gabrielle; Balmforth, Tom (17 December 2021). "Russia demands NATO roll back from East Europe and stay out of Ukraine". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- MacKinnon, Mark (21 December 2021). "Putin warns of unspecified military response if U.S. and NATO continue 'aggressive line'". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Szayna, Thomas S. (29 October 1997). "The Enlargement of NATO and Central European Politics". Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
- Coyer, Cassandre (25 February 2022). "Why is Ukraine not in NATO and is it too late to join? Here's what experts, NATO say". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on 29 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- "NATO chief: "Russia has no right to establish a sphere of influence"". Axios. 1 December 2021. Archived from the original on 14 February 2022. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
- "NATO-Russia: Setting the record straight". NATO. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
- "US offers no concessions in response to Russia on Ukraine". Associated Press. 26 January 2022.
- Rose, Michael; Polityuk, Pavel (8 February 2022). "France's Macron calls for calm to resolve Ukraine crisis". Reuters.
- Gordon, Michael R.; Pancevski, Bojan; Bisserbe, Noemie; Walker, Marcus (1 April 2022). "Vladimir Putin's 20-Year March to War in Ukraine—and How the West Mishandled It". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
- "Ukraine crisis: Russia orders troops into rebel-held regions". BBC News. 22 February 2022.
- "Federation Council gives consent to use the Russian Armed Forces outside of the Russian Federation". Federation Council of Russia. 22 February 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2023.
- The Kyiv Independent news desk (24 February 2022). "Putin declares war on Ukraine". The Kyiv Independent. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
- "Putin announces formal start of Russia's invasion in eastern Ukraine". Meduza. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Haltiwager, John (23 February 2022). "Russian President Vladimir Putin announces military assault against Ukraine in surprise speech". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Hinton, Alexander (25 February 2022). "Putin's claims that Ukraine is committing genocide are baseless, but not unprecedented". The Conversation.
- "Full text: Putin's declaration of war on Ukraine". The Spectator. 24 February 2022.
- "Ukraine conflict: Russian forces attack after Putin TV declaration". BBC News. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Sheftalovich, Zoya (24 February 2022). "Battles flare across Ukraine after Putin declares war". Politico. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Mongilio, Heather; LaGrone, Sam (27 February 2022). "Russian Navy Launches Amphibious Assault on Ukraine; Naval Infantry 30 Miles West of Mariupol". USNI News.
- Corten, Olivier; Koutroulis, Vaios (22 May 2023). "The 2022 Russian intervention in Ukraine: What is its impact on the interpretation of jus contra bellum?". Leiden Journal of International Law: 1–26. doi:10.1017/S0922156523000249. ISSN 0922-1565. S2CID 258857526.
- Coakley, Amanda (24 February 2022). "Lukashenko Is Letting Putin Use Belarus to Attack Ukraine". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
- Ball, Tom (7 March 2022). "This war will be a total failure, FSB whistleblower says". The Times. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
- "Missiles rain down around Ukraine". Reuters. 25 February 2022.
- "Russian forces launch full-scale invasion of Ukraine". Al Jazeera. 24 February 2022.
- Kagan, Frederick; Barros, George; Stepanenko, Kateryna (5 March 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, March 4". CriticalThreats. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
- Kagan, Frederick; Barros, George; Stepanenko, Kateryna (4 March 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, March 4". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
- "Ukrainian Armed Forces attacked Millerovo with Tochka-U". Rostov Gazeta. 25 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- Олексій Данілов: Росія розпадеться ще при нашому житті [Alexei Danilov: Russia will fall apart during our lifetime]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 24 June 2022.
- "Ukraine rejects Russian demand to surrender port city of Mariupol in exchange for safe passage". CBS News. 20 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
- "Ukraine refuses to surrender Mariupol as scope of human toll remains unclear". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 21 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
- Dean, Jeff (9 March 2022). "The letter Z is becoming a symbol of Russia's war in Ukraine. But what does it mean?". NPR.
- Lock, Samantha (24 February 2022). "Russia-Ukraine crisis live news: Putin has launched 'full-scale invasion', says Ukrainian foreign minister – latest updates". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- "Ukraine president declares martial law following Russia invasion". The Independent. 24 February 2022. Retrieved 11 September 2023.
- "Zelensky signs decree declaring general mobilization". Interfax-Ukraine. 25 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- Gilbert, Asha C. (25 February 2022). "Reports: Ukraine bans all male citizens ages 18 to 60 from leaving the country". USA Today. Retrieved 26 March 2022.
- Boffey, Daniel (7 August 2023). "Zelenskiy assassination plot foiled by security service, says Ukraine". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 11 September 2023.
More than 400 Russian mercenaries from the Wagner group were reported to have been in Kyiv in February 2022 with orders to kill Zelenskiy as part of a "decapitation strategy".
- "Ukraine: More Wagner Group mercenaries in country to attempt to assassinate Zelensky". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 11 September 2023.
- Bostock, Bill. "The Kremlin ordered 400 Russian mercenaries in Kyiv to hunt and kill Ukraine's president, report says". Business Insider. Retrieved 11 September 2023.
- Rana, Manveen (3 March 2022). "Volodymyr Zelensky survives three assassination attempts in days". The Times. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
- Kube, Courtney; Siemaszko, Corky (26 February 2022). "Russian offensive unexpectedly slowed by fierce Ukrainian resistance". NBC News. Retrieved 16 September 2022.
- "Russia's failure to take down Kyiv was a defeat for the ages". Associated Press News. 7 April 2022. Retrieved 16 September 2022.
- Sonne, Paul; Khurshudyan, Isabelle (24 August 2022). "Battle for Kyiv: Ukrainian valor, Russian blunders combined to save the capital". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- Kramer, Andrew E. (15 March 2022). "How a Line of Russian Tanks Became an Inviting Target for Ukrainians". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 September 2022.
- "Russian advance slowed by Ukrainian resistance and logistical setbacks, U.S. defense official says". CBS. 28 February 2022. Retrieved 16 September 2022.
- "Russian focus on 'liberating' Donbas hints at shift in strategy". Al Jazeera English. 25 March 2022. Retrieved 4 February 2023. ^"Russia targets east Ukraine, says first phase over". BBC. 26 March 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
- Bielieskov, Mykola (21 September 2021). "The Russian and Ukrainian Spring 2021 War Scare". Center for Strategic & International Studies. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
- Epstein, Jake; Haltiwanger, John (6 April 2022). "NATO chief says Putin still wants to control all of Ukraine, despite repositioning forces to the eastern Donbas region". Retrieved 7 April 2022.
- "Russia's battle for the east has begun, Zelenskyy says". PBS NewsHour. 18 April 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
- Vandiver, John; Svan, Jennifer H. (26 April 2022). "US and allies gather at Ramstein to discuss how to help Ukraine defeat Russia's 'unjust invasion'". Stars and Stripes. Ramstein Air Base, Germany. Archived from the original on 4 May 2022. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
- Barnes, Julian E. (10 May 2022). "The U.S. intelligence chief says Putin is preparing for a prolonged conflict". The New York Times. ISSN 1553-8095. OCLC 1645522. Archived from the original on 10 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
- Sabbagh, Dan (31 May 2022). "Biden will not supply Ukraine with long-range rockets that can hit Russia". The Guardian.
- Champion, Marc; Kudrytski, Aliaksandr (28 May 2022). "Russian Wins in Eastern Ukraine Spark Debate Over Course of War". Bloomberg.
- Atlamazoglou, Stavros (30 May 2022). "War in Ukraine, Day 96 Update: Russia's Military Losses are 'Unsustainable'". 19fortyfive.com.
- CBS News Videos. "Russia bombards Kyiv, vows to strike new targets if U.S. sends long-range missiles to Ukraine". 6 June 2022. 
- Koshiw, Isobel (10 June 2022). "We're almost out of ammunition and relying on western arms, says Ukraine". The Guardian.
- Alper, Alexandra; Freifeld, Karen; Landay, Jonathan (29 June 2022). "Putin still wants most of Ukraine, war outlook grim -U.S. intelligence chief". Reuters. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
- Rainford, Sarah (5 July 2022). "Ukraine war: Putin presses on after Lysychansk capture". BBC News.
- Sly, Liz; Lamothe, Dan (20 March 2022). "Russia's war for Ukraine could be headed toward stalemate". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. OCLC 2269358. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
- Roblin, Sebastien (27 February 2022). "At Vasylkiv, Ukrainians Repel Russia's Paratroopers and Commandos in Frantic Night Battle". 19FortyFive. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
- Boot, Max (21 March 2022). "Opinion: Against all odds, Ukrainians are winning. Russia's initial offensive has failed". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
- Kemp, Richard (22 March 2022). "The Russian army has run out of time". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
- "Live updates: Zelenskyy declines US offer to evacuate Kyiv". AP News. 25 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2023.
- "Analysis | Zelensky's famous quote of 'need ammo, not a ride' not easily confirmed". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 28 February 2023.
- "Ukraine loses control of Chernobyl nuclear site, amid battles in Kyiv outskirts". The Times of Israel. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- "Ukrayinsʹki viysʹkovi pid Kyyevom zupynyly kolonu rosiysʹkykh tankiv" Українські військові під Києвом зупинили колону російських танків [The Ukrainian military stopped a column of Russian tanks near Kyiv]. Gazeta (in Ukrainian). 25 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- "Battle Underway for Airbase on Kyiv Outskirts". Moscow Times. AFP. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- "Russia claims to take control of Hostomel airport just outside Kyiv". The Times of Israel. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- "Okupanty namahayutʹsya vysadyty desant u Vasylʹkovi, ydutʹ boyi" Окупанти намагаються висадити десант у Василькові, йдуть бої [The occupiers are trying to land in Vasylkiv, fighting is going on] (in Ukrainian). Ukrinform. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
- "U Vasylʹkovi zbyly vynyshchuvach ta dva hvyntokryly okupantiv" У Василькові збили винищувач та два гвинтокрили окупантів [A fighter and two helicopters of the occupiers were shot down in Vasylkiv] (in Ukrainian). Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
- Stern, David L. (5 March 2022). "After temporary cease-fires break down, Putin threatens Ukraine's government". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
- Arnold, Edward (6 March 2022). How is the war in Ukraine going for Russia?. DW News. Interviewed by Rebecca Ritters. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022 – via YouTube.
- Lister, Tim; Pennington, Josh; McGee, Luke; Gigova, Radina (7 March 2022). "'A family died ... in front of my eyes': Civilians killed as Russian military strike hits evacuation route in Kyiv suburb". CNN. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
- "Bucha, Vorzel, Hostomel under enemy's control, situation remains critical". Ukrinform. 7 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
- Lister, Tim; Voitovych, Olga (8 March 2022). ""Irpin can't be bought, Irpin fights": Mayor refuses Russian demand to surrender". CNN. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
- Murphy, Paul (11 March 2022). "Stalled 40-mile-long Russian convoy near Kyiv now largely dispersed, satellite images show". CNN. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
- Cullison, Alan; Coles, Isabel; Trofimov, Yaroslav (16 March 2022). "Ukraine Mounts Counteroffensive to Drive Russians Back From Kyiv, Key Cities". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
- Gordon, Michael R.; Leary, Alex (21 March 2022). "The Wall Street Journal News Exclusive | Russia, Failing to Achieve Early Victory in Ukraine, Is Seen Shifting to 'Plan B'". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
- Ali, Idrees; Stewart, Phil (27 February 2022). "Russian forces appear to shift to siege warfare in Ukraine- U.S. official". Reuters. Retrieved 24 March 2022.[dead link]
- "Ukraine war: Ukrainian fightback gains ground west of Kyiv". BBC News. 23 March 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- Walters, Joanna; Bartholomew, Jem; Belam, Martin; Lock, Samantha (25 March 2022). "Russia-Ukraine war latest: Ukraine takes back towns east of Kyiv; hopes of Mariupol humanitarian corridor grow – live". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
- Rudenko, Olga (2 April 2022). "Hundreds of murdered civilians discovered as Russians withdraw from towns near Kyiv (Graphic Images)". The Kyiv Independent. Archived from the original on 3 April 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
- "Ukraine war latest: Ukraine says it has retaken entire Kyiv region". BBC News. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
- "Russia attacks Kyiv as U.N. leader visits, and onslaught continues in eastern Ukraine". CBS News. 28 April 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
- Tebor, Celina; Miller, Ryan W.; Hayes, Christal; Santucci, Jeanine (30 April 2022). "Ukraine in 'a fight for life' in Donbas region, Zelenskyy says in nightly address; Russian strike kills at least 1 in Kyiv: Live updates". Yahoo News. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
- Ward, Alexander (25 February 2022). "'Almost not possible' for Ukraine to win without West's help, Ukraine official says". Politico. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
- "Ukraine war news from February 25: Kyiv suburbs breached, Russian forces face resistance, Zelensky warns Russia will 'storm' capital". Financial Times. 26 February 2022. ISSN 0307-1766. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
- Недилько, Владимир (28 February 2022). "Boi pod Sumami: artilleriya i "Bayraktary" unichtozhili 100 tankov i 20 "Gradov" okkupantov" Бои под Сумами: артиллерия и "Байрактары" уничтожили 100 танков и 20 "Градов" оккупантов [Battles near Sumy: Artillery and Bayraktars destroyed 100 tanks and 20 "Grad" of invaders]. Апостроф [Apostrophe] (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- Polyakovskaya, Tanya (26 February 2022). "Rossiyskaya voyennaya tekhnika zanyala territoriyu byvshego aeroporta "Berdyansk" – gorsovet" Российская военная техника заняла территорию бывшего аэропорта "Бердянск" – горсовет [Russian military equipment occupied the territory of the former airport "Berdyansk" – city council] (in Russian). Berdyansk City Council. Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
- Demirjian, Karoun; Lamthoe, Dan (6 April 2022). "Pentagon: Russia has fully withdrawn from Kyiv, Chernihiv". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
- Kalatur, Anastasiya (8 April 2022). "Sumy region liberated from Russian troops". Ukrainska Pravda. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
- Marrow, Alexander; Ostroukh, Andrey (24 February 2022). "Russian forces unblock water flow for canal to annexed Crimea, Moscow says". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022.
- NEXTA [@nexta_tv] (26 February 2022). "The tanks of the occupiers have circled #Berdyansk and are heading towards #Mariupol. t.co/jwsIoORzH0" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022 – via Twitter.
- Lister, Tim; Alkhaldi, Celine; Voitovych, Olga; Mezzofiore, Gianluca (24 March 2022). "Ukrainians claim to have destroyed large Russian warship in Berdyansk". CNN. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
- Zadorozhnaya, Anastasia (1 March 2022). "Voyska okkupanta gotovyat nastupleniye na Melitopol'" Войска оккупанта готовят наступление на Мелитополь [Invader's troops are preparing an attack on Melitopol]. RIA Melitopol (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
- Korobova, Marina (1 March 2022). ""Melitopol' ne sdalsya, Melitopol' – vremenno okkupirovan" – gorodskoy golova o situatsii na 1 marta" "Мелитополь не сдался, Мелитополь – временно оккупирован" – городской голова о ситуации на 1 марта ["Melitopol did not surrender, Melitopol is temporarily occupied" – the mayor on the situation on March 1]. Mestnyye Vesti (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
- "Battle ongoing near Mariupol – mayor". Ukrinform. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- Richárd, Jabronka (25 February 2022). "Így áll most a háború Ukrajnában: több nagyvárosban harcok dúlnak, megtámadtak egy orosz repülőteret" [This is how the war in Ukraine is now: fighting is raging in several big cities, a Russian airport has been attacked]. Ellenszél (in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- ""Amphibious assault" underway west of Mariupol on the Sea of Azov, senior US defense official says". CNN. 25 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- "Russian Navy Carries Out Amphibious Assault Near Mariupol". The Maritime Executive. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- "Ukraine official says Russian troops approaching Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant". National Post. 26 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- "Russian forces attacking Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant in Ukraine, per multiple reports". Business Insider Australia. 3 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- "Ukraine nuclear plant on fire after Russia shelling". News.com.au. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- "Russian forces strike Ukraine from multiple fronts, including at power plant". ABC News. 3 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- "Ukraine loses control over crossing to Kherson". Ukrinform. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- Schwirtz, Michael; Pérez-Peña, Richard (2 March 2022). "First Ukraine City Falls as Russia Strikes More Civilian Targets". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
- "Ukrainian defenders repelled attack on Mykolaiv city, fighting continues on outskirts". Ukrinform. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- "First in 7 days of war Ukrainian units go on offensive advancing to Horlivka – Arestovych". Interfax Ukraine. 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
- Huijboom, Stefan (22 June 2015). "Resident of Russian-held Horlivka: 'We have nothing'". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
- Lister, Tim; Kesa, Julia (14 March 2022). "Ukraine puts death toll in Mariupol bombardment at more than 2,500". CNN. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
- Boffey, Daniel; Tondo, Lorenzo (18 March 2022). "Fighting reaches central Mariupol as shelling hinders rescue attempts". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
- "Russian forces bomb school sheltering 400 people in Mariupol, city council says". CNN. 20 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
- "Ukraine refuses to surrender Mariupol as scope of human toll remains unclear". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 21 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
- Scully, Rachel (27 March 2022). "Ukrainian official: Mariupol 'simply does not exist anymore'". The Hill. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- "Ukraine War: Putin demands Mariupol surrender to end shelling". BBC News. 30 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
- "Ukraine: No 'plan B' for evacuation of shattered Mariupol, say humanitarians, as Friday attempt fails". UN News. 1 April 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
- "Missiles hit Ukraine refinery, 'critical infrastructure' near Odessa". The Straits Times. SPH Media Trust. Reuters. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
- "Video analysis reveals Russian attack on Ukrainian nuclear plant veered near disaster". NPR. 11 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- Losh, Jack (25 February 2022). "Kharkiv's Resistance to Russia's War Has Already Begun". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
- "Rosiya atakuvala ukrayinsʹki mista: de vidbulysya boyi" Росія атакувала українські міста: де відбулися бої [Russia attacked Ukrainian cities: where the fighting took place]. Channel 24 (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
- Lister, Tim; Voitovych, Olya (1 March 2022). "Russian-backed separatist leader expects his forces to surround Mariupol on Tuesday". CNN. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
- "Novyny Ukrayiny: Rosiysʹke vtorhnennya: potochna sytuatsiya na Luhanshchyni" Новини України: Російське вторгнення: поточна ситуація на Луганщині [News of Ukraine: Russian invasion: the current situation in Luhansk region]. galinfo.com.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 3 March 2022.
- "Pentagon says Russian advance is frozen". BBC News. 17 March 2022. Archived from the original on 17 March 2022. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
- Clark, Mason; Barros, George; Stepanenko, Kateryna (18 March 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, March 18". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
- Trevelyan, Mark, ed. (25 March 2022). "Russia says first phase of Ukraine operation mostly complete, focus now on Donbass". London: Yahoo! Finance. Reuters. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
- "Na Kyyivshchyni ZSU zvilʹnyly 15 naselenykh punktiv – zvedennya Heneralʹnoho shtabu" На Київщині ЗСУ звільнили 15 населених пунктів – зведення Генерального штабу [In the Kyiv region, the Armed Forces of Ukraine liberated 15 settlements – the building of the General Staff]. Radio Svoboda (in Ukrainian). 1 April 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
- "The Russians are controlling Izyum – General Staff of the Ukrainian Armed Forces". Militarnyi. 1 April 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
- Hewson, Jack; Ram, Ed; Frantsev, Dmitri (30 March 2022). "Civilians endure intense suffering as Russian shelling reduces Kharkiv to 'a smoking ruin'". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- "Russia alleges Ukrainian helicopters struck Belgorod fuel depot". Al Jazeera. 1 April 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
- "War in Ukraine: Russia accuses Ukraine of attacking oil depot". BBC News. 1 April 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
- Picheta, Rob (6 April 2022). "The fight for Sloviansk may be 'the next pivotal battle' of Russia's war in Ukraine". CNN. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
- "Ukraine war: Mariupol defenders will fight to the end". Radio New Zealand. 17 April 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
- Arraf, Jane; Nechepurenko, Ivan; Landler, Mark (19 April 2022). "Ukraine Says Russia Begins Assault in the East After Raining Missiles Nationwide". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
- "Russia bombards Kharkiv but Ukrainians having 'tactical successes', says Zelenskiy". The Guardian. 30 April 2022.
- "US official briefs on Russia's war effort". BBC. 2 May 2022.
- Cherkasov, Alexander (26 June 2022). Люди, стрелявшие в наших отцов. Novaya Gazeta.
- "Ukraine News: Kyiv Intensifies Attacks on Russian Positions in South". The New York Times. 20 July 2022.
- "Russia prepares to deploy new strike force against Ukraine – Ukrainian Intelligence". Ukrainska Pravda. 29 July 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
- "Russia forming 3rd Army Corps for war in Ukraine – ISW". Ukrinform. 6 August 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
- Axe, David (15 September 2022). "The Russians Spent Months Forming A New Army Corps. It Lasted Days in Ukraine". Forbes. MSN. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
- "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, September 18". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
- Harding, Luke; Koshiw, Isobel; McKernan, Bethan (13 April 2022). "Last marines defending Mariupol 'running out of ammunition'". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
- "Ukraine war: Mariupol defenders will fight to the end". Radio New Zealand News. 17 April 2022.
- Schreck, Adam (21 April 2022). "Putin claims victory in Mariupol despite steel-mill holdouts". Associated Press News.
- Prentice, Alessandra (28 April 2022). "U.N. chief Guterres calls for escape route from Mariupol 'apocalypse'". Reuters. Kyiv. Archived from the original on 29 April 2022. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
- "Civilians flee Azovstal bunkers in evacuation led by U.N." Yahoo News. Reuters. 1 May 2022.
- "Russia shells Mariupol plant with civilians still reported trapped". Reuters. 3 May 2022. Archived from the original on 6 May 2022. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
- Vasilyeva, Nataliya (5 May 2022). "Ukraine loses contact with Azovstal defenders as Russian troops storm steelworks". The Daily Telegraph.
- "'All' civilians have been evacuated from a besieged steel plant in Mariupol". NPR. 7 May 2022. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
- Koshiw, Isobel (8 May 2022). "'Surrender is not an option': Azov battalion commander in plea for help to escape Mariupol". The Guardian.
- Petrenko, Roman (8 May 2022). "Mariupol defenders tell how the commander of marines fled the city". Yahoo News. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
- Krasnolutska, Daryna; Champion, Marc (8 May 2022). "Mariupol Steel Plant's 'Dead Men' Defenders Call for Rescue Plan". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
- Hopkins, Valerie; Nechepurenko, Ivan; Santora, Marc (16 May 2022). "Ukrainian authorities declare an end to the combat mission in Mariupol after weeks of Russian siege". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 16 May 2022. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
- Virginia Harrison and agencies (17 May 2022). "Hundreds of Ukrainian troops evacuated from Mariupol steelworks after 82-day assault: Blow for Ukraine as removal of soldiers, many wounded, suggests city that became symbol of resistance has fallen into Russian hands". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
- "Azovstal siege ends as hundreds of Ukrainian fighters surrender". Reuters. Mariupol. 17 May 2022. Archived from the original on 17 May 2022. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
- Laizans, Janis; Piper, Elizabeth (8 April 2022). "Ukraine and allies blame Russia for strike on station that killed over 50". Reuters. Kyiv. Archived from the original on 7 April 2022. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
- Tebor, Celina; Lee, Ella (8 April 2022). "'An evil without limits': Dozens killed, injured in rocket strike on train station in eastern Ukraine: Live updates". USA Today. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
- "Tens of thousands feared dead in Mariupol". NBC News. 11 April 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
- Bacon, John; Mansfield, Erin; Wadington, Katie; Santucci, Jeanine; Vanden Brook, Tom; Tebor, Celina (10 April 2022). "EU to consider Ukraine membership in weeks; Russia warns of 'direct military confrontation' with US: April 10 recap". USA Today. Archived from the original on 10 April 2022. Retrieved 28 May 2022.
- Telford, Taylor; Timsit, Annabelle; Pietsch, Bryan; Duplain, Julian (10 April 2022). "As war enters bloody new phase, Ukraine again calls for more weapons". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 11 April 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
- Saric, Ivana (10 April 2022). "Satellite images: Russian military convoy heads south toward Donbas region". Axios.
- "Ukraine says 'Battle of Donbas' has begun, Russia pushing in east". Reuters. 18 April 2022. Archived from the original on 18 April 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
- Murphy, Matt (23 May 2022). "Ukraine war: Russian assault on key Donbas city intensifies". BBC. Archived from the original on 23 May 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
- "Russia seeking to capture Ukraine's Lyman: separatist leader". The Australian. 25 May 2022. ISSN 1038-8761. Archived from the original on 26 May 2022. Retrieved 15 June 2022.
- "Russian forces have 'upper hand' in Donbas fighting, Ukrainian officials say". The Guardian. 26 May 2022.
- Markic, Igor. "Ucraina, Belgorod sotto attacco, ma i Russi stringono la morsa su Severodonetsk" [Ukraine, Belgorod under attack, but the Russians tighten their grip on Severodonetsk]. Rivista Italiana Difesa (in Italian). Coop Giornalistica La Riviera. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
- "Donetsk region: occupying forces capture Svitlodarsk". Yahoo News. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
- "Russian troops enter outskirts of key city in eastern Ukraine's Donbas". NBC News. 30 May 2022. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
- Thebault, Reis; Iati, Marisa; Timsit, Annabelle; Suliman, Adela; Pietsch, Bryan; Pannett, Rachel (2 June 2022). "Russia, U.S. trade barbs over weapons pledge; Severodonetsk on the brink". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
- "Russia 'suffering huge casualties' as troops retreat: Ukraine". Al Jazeera. 4 June 2022. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
- "Ukraine war: Chemical plant hit as fighting rages in Severodonetsk". BBC News. 12 June 2022. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
- Sauer, Pjotr (12 June 2022). "Fighting in eastern Ukraine rages as Sievierodonetsk chemical plant hit". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
- Gibbons-Neff, Thomas; Stevis-Gridneff, Matina (13 June 2022). "Ukraine Allies Ponder Options As Cities Falter" (PDF). The New York Times. Vol. 59, 453 (Late, New York ed.). p. 1.
- Hughes, Clyde (20 June 2022). "Russian troops capture key suburb near Severodonetsk after months of battle". UPI.
- Berlinger, Joshua; Lister, Tim (24 June 2022). "Ukraine to withdraw from key city of Severodonetsk as Russia's advance grinds on". CNN.
- "Russia claims capture of pivotal city in eastern Ukraine". CBS News. 3 July 2022.
- Jones, Sam (4 July 2022). "Putin declares victory in Luhansk after fall of Lysychansk". The Guardian.
- Chaturvedi, Amit, ed. (14 April 2022). "Ukraine Military Claims It Blew Up A Bridge Destroying Russian Convoy". NDTV. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
- Axe, David (5 May 2022). "The Ukrainian Army Is On The Attack. This Is How The War With Russia Could End". Forbes. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
- Sommerville, Quentin (11 May 2022). "Ukraine war: Russia pushed back from Kharkiv—report from front line". BBC. Archived from the original on 11 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
- Hubenko, Dmytro (22 April 2022). "Russia eyes route to Trans-Dniester: What do we know?". Deutsche Welle.
- "Russia plans to seize Donbas, southern Ukraine: Military official". Al Jazeera. 22 April 2022.
- Gotev, Georgi (22 April 2022). "Russian general says Moscow aim is to leave Ukraine as a landlocked country". Euractiv. Reuters.
- "Russia renews Mariupol attack, missiles hit Odesa". The Jerusalem Post. Reuters. 24 April 2022.
- Petrenko, Roman (26 April 2022). "New explosions in Transnistria: antennas broadcasting Russian radio channel destroyed". Ukrainian Pravda.
- Al-Arshani, Sarah (30 April 2022). "A Russian missile strike damaged the runway of an airport in Odesa, rendering it unusable, Ukraine says". Yahoo News.
- Latschan, Thomas (14 May 2022). "Ukraine and Russia fight intense battles for Snake Island". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
- "Minoborony ob"yavilo o vyvode voysk s ostrova Zmeinyy" Минобороны объявило о выводе войск с острова Змеиный [The Ministry of Defense announced the withdrawal of troops from Snake Island]. РБК (in Russian). 30 June 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
- Talmazan, Yuliya (30 June 2022). "All eyes are on the battle for the east. But the south might hold the key to Ukraine's fate". NBC News.
- "Russia, Ukraine seal grain deal in Istanbul". Le Monde. 22 July 2022. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
- Macias, Amanda (23 July 2022). "'He simply cannot be trusted:' World leaders slam Putin's attack on Odesa following sea corridor deal". CNBC.
- Kottasová, Ivana; Voitovych, Olga; Tarasova, Darya; Suri, Manveena; Khadder, Kareem; Pennington, Josh; Robertson, Nic (31 July 2022). "Ukrainian grain tycoon killed in Mykolaiv shelling as Putin threatens 'lightning speed' response to interference". CNN News. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
- "Russian rockets destroy airport in Ukrainian city of Dnipro". Al Jazeera. 10 April 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
- Rai, Arpan; Bancroft, Holly (2 May 2022). "Mariupol steelworks shelling resumes as doctors describe dire bunker conditions". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
- Lewis, Simon (28 June 2022). "Dozens missing after Russian missile strike on mall kills 18". Reuters.
- "Russia accused of shelling from Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant in Ukraine". France 24. 7 July 2022. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
- Murphy, Francois (20 July 2023). "Russia yet to grant access to Zaporizhzhia nuclear reactor roofs, IAEA says". Reuters. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
- Mureephy, Matt (19 August 2022). "Ukraine war: Russia to allow inspectors at Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant – Putin". BBC News. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
- "Growing concern about Zaporizhzya NPP sparks international diplomacy". Nuclear Engineering International. 22 August 2022. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
- "UK, US Set Ultimatum Against Russia Due To Provocations At Zaporizhzhia NPP". Charter 97. 20 August 2022.
- "The West considers applying NATO's Article 5 in response to possible accident at Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant". Ukrainska Pravda. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
- Fairley, Peter (26 August 2022). "Fitful Ukrainian nuclear plant stokes powerful fears". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved 31 August 2022.
- "Russian-held nuclear plant resumes power supply to Ukraine, two reactors connected". Reuters. 26 August 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
- IAEA Imagebank (29 August 2022). "Lydie Evrard (02011236)". Flickr. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
- "Grossi: IAEA mission heading to Ukraine's besieged nuclear plant". La Prensa Latina Media. 29 August 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
Hird, Karolina; Barros, George; Philipson, Layne; Kagan, Frederick W. (6 September 2022). Russian offensive campaign assessment, September 6 (PDF) (Report). Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
- "Oleksandr Syrskyi, o coronel-general que está a orquestrar a contraofensiva na Ucrânia" [Oleksandr Syrskyi, the Colonel General who is orchestrating the counter-offensive in Ukraine]. Observador (in Portuguese).
- Sauer, Pjotr; Koshiw, Isobel (8 September 2022). "Ukraine launches surprise counterattack in Kharkiv region". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
- Troianovski, Anton (12 September 2022). "Retreat Dents Image of a Might Putin" (PDF). The New York Times. Vol. 59544 (Late, New York ed.). p. 1.
- "Putin calls up reservists, warns Russia will use 'all means' for defence". France 24. 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
- Scott-Geddes, Arthur (21 September 2022). "Putin calls up 300,000 reservists in 'partial mobilisation'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
- "Russia calls up 300,000 reservists, says 6,000 soldiers killed in Ukraine". Reuters. 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
- "Ukraina odpowiada na orędzie Władimira Putina: Rosjanie dostali "prezent"" [Ukraine responds to Vladimir Putin's message: Russians got a "gift"]. gazetapl (in Polish). 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
- Ellyatt, Holly (21 September 2022). "Russia's Putin announces partial military mobilization". CNBC. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
- "'We're minor losses': Russia's mobilisation targets ethnic minorities". Financial Times. 4 October 2022. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
- "Ukraine war: Russia claims win in occupied Ukraine 'sham' referendums". BBC News. 27 September 2022. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
- Berlinger, Joshua; Chernova, Anna; Lister, Tim (30 September 2022). "Putin announces annexation of Ukrainian regions in defiance of international law". CNN. Retrieved 26 January 2023.
- Speri, Alice (8 October 2022). "Will Putin Face Prosecution for the Crime of Aggression in Ukraine?". The Intercept. Retrieved 26 January 2023.
- Trevelyan, Mark (30 September 2022). "Putin declares annexation of Ukrainian lands in Kremlin ceremony". Reuters. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
- "Ukraine war: Putin should face trial this year, says top lawyer". BBC News. 1 January 2023.
- Janowski, Tomasz, ed. (6 September 2022). "Factbox: Seven recommendations the IAEA makes in its Ukraine report". Vienna: Reuters. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguards in Ukraine: 28 April – 5 September 2022" (PDF). IAEA. 6 September 2022. pp. 13–16, 46–48. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- "Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant halts operations in Ukraine". ABC News. 11 September 2022. Retrieved 11 September 2022.
- "Vladimir Putin calls blast on Crimea-Russia bridge an 'act of terror'". The Guardian. 9 October 2022. Retrieved 9 October 2022.
- "Russian strikes kill 17 in Ukraine following bridge attack". CNBC. 9 October 2022. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
- "Scores killed and wounded in 'Russian attack' on Zaporizhzhia". Euronews. 9 October 2022. Retrieved 9 October 2022.
- "Ukraine's south is on the line as a major counteroffensive appears to be underway". NBC News. Retrieved 31 August 2022.
- "Ukraine says long-anticipated southern offensive has begun". Reuters. 29 August 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
- "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, August 29". Institute for the Study of War. 29 August 2022. Retrieved 31 August 2022.
- Asami, Terajima (4 September 2022). "Ukraine war latest: Ukraine liberates villages in south and east". The Kyiv Independent. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
- Gadzo, Mersiha; Ibrahim, Arwa (4 September 2022). "Ukraine-Russia live 4 September 2022". Al Jazeera.
- Dammers, Tobias (10 September 2022). "Gegenoffensive in Südukraine. "Je schneller vorbei, desto besser"" [Counteroffensive in southern Ukraine. "The quicker it's over, the better"]. Tagesschau (in German). Retrieved 10 September 2022.
- "Ukraine war: We retook 6,000 sq km from Russia in September, says Zelensky". BBC. 12 September 2022. Retrieved 13 September 2022.
- Peter, Laurence; Murphy, Matt (4 October 2022). "Ukraine makes breakthrough in south against Russia Published". BBC News. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
- "Ukraine says it recaptured 1,200 sq km of Kherson region in ongoing counteroffensive". Reuters. 9 October 2022. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
- Beaumont, Peter; Sauer, Pjotr (9 November 2022). "Russian troops ordered to retreat from Kherson in face of Ukrainian advance". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 November 2022.
- Kramer, Andrew E.; Santora, Marc (11 November 2022). "Russia-Ukraine War: Zelensky Hails 'Historic Day' as Ukrainian Troops Enter Kherson". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
- Hird, Karolina; Mappes, Grace; Barros, George; Philipson, Layne; Clark, Mason (7 September 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, September 7". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 10 September 2022 – via understandingwar.org.
- Stepanenko, Kateryna; Mappes, Grace; Barros, George; Philipson, Layne; Clark, Mason (8 September 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, September 8". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 10 September 2022 – via understandingwar.org.
- Santora, Marc; Nechepurenko, Ivan; Hernandez, Marco (9 September 2022). "Ukraine Attacks Russia Along Northern Front, Swiftly Making Gains". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
- Osterman, Cynthia (9 September 2022). "Ukraine retakes settlements in Kharkiv advance – Russian-installed official". Reuters. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
- Lister, Tim; Kesaieva, Julia; Pennington, Josh (9 September 2022). "Russia sends reinforcements to Kharkiv as Ukrainians advance". CNN. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
- "Ukrainian troops liberate Kupiansk, Kharkiv oblast – media". Euromaidan Press. 10 September 2022. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
- "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, September 9". Archived from the original on 10 September 2022. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
- Hunder, Max; Hnidyi, Vitalii (10 September 2022). "Russian grip on northeast Ukraine collapses after Kyiv severs supply line". Reuters. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
- "Ukraine continues to consolidate its control in Kharkiv area, UK says". Reuters. 15 September 2022.
- Balmforth, Tom; Polityuk, Pavel (1 October 2022). "Ukraine troops say they take key town, Putin ally mulls possible nuclear response". Reuters. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
- AFP (8 April 2023). "Russia Takes Stock After Winter Offensive Fails to Deliver Gains". Retrieved 26 April 2023.
- Trofimov, Yaroslav. "Ukraine, Russia Gird for a Decisive Spring Campaign After a Bloody Winter". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 April 2023.
- Holder, Josh; Hernandez, Marco (6 April 2023). "How Russia's Offensive Ran Aground". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 26 April 2023.
- Galeotti, Mark (24 May 2023). "Ukraine's next move: can Putin be outsmarted?". The Spectator. Retrieved 25 May 2023.
- Schwirtz, Michael; Addario, Lynsey (6 February 2023). "Outnumbered and Worn Out, Ukrainians in East Brace for Russian Assault". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 March 2023.
- "The success of Russia's mercenary group says something about Putin's war". 13 January 2023. Retrieved 26 April 2023.
- Grove, Thomas (24 January 2023). "Fighting Intensifies in Southern Ukraine". The Wall Street Journal. p. A6.
- "Ukraine Latest: Russia Makes 'Incremental Gains' Around Bakhmut". Bloomberg.com. 22 January 2023. Retrieved 17 June 2023.
- Kramer, Andrew E. (1 March 2023). "How Russia Lost an Epic Tank Battle, Repeating Earlier Mistakes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 26 April 2023.
- Santora, Marc (16 February 2023). "Moscow's Military Capabilities Are in Question After Failed Battle for Ukrainian City". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 26 April 2023.
- "Ukrainian military source: Russia controls administrative territory of Soledar". The Kyiv Independent. 15 January 2023. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
- "Ukraine confirms that Russia has taken control of disputed town of Soledar". MSN. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
- "Russia Pours Fighters Into Battle for Bakhmut". The New York Times. 1 February 2023.
- Guerin, Orla (8 February 2023). "Ukraine war: Borrowed time for Bakhmut as Russians close in". BBC News. Retrieved 10 February 2023.
- Engel, Richard (9 February 2023). "Ukraine's defiant city struggles to hold out as Russia pushes for a bloody victory". CBS News. Retrieved 10 February 2023.
- "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, March 3, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 17 June 2023.
- "Bakhmut: Fighting in the street but Russia not in control – deputy mayor". BBC News. 4 March 2023. Retrieved 4 March 2023.
- Badshah, Nadeem; Clinton, Jane; Gerts, Mark (4 March 2023). "As it happened: street fighting in Bakhmut as battle rages for control of the city". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 March 2023.
- "Ukraine's top generals want to keep defending Bakhmut, as Russian fighters demand more ammunition". The New York Times. 7 March 2023.
- Pennington, Josh (26 March 2023). "Wagner in 'full control' of AZOM plant in Bakhmut, reports Russian state media". CNN.
- Britzky, Haley (29 March 2023). "Battle for Bakhmut has turned into a "slaughter-fest for the Russians," top US general says". CNN. Retrieved 11 April 2023., and Russia is 'getting hammered': Top US general on Bakhmut battle, CNN, 30 March 2023 (accessed 11 April 2023).
- Hird, Karolina; Mappes, Grace; Wolkov, Nicole; Philipson, Layne; Kagan, Frederick W. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 3, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 4 May 2023. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
- Santora, Marc; Hicks, Tyler (17 May 2023). "Gains Near Bakhmut Raise Ukraine's Hopes of a Turning Tide". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
- Olearchyk, Roman (10 May 2023). "Ukraine claims successful counterattack close to Bakhmut". Financial Times. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
- "Ukrainian military begins counteroffensive to oust Russian occupiers". The Washington Post. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "Ukraine begins counteroffensive against Russia, officials say". abc. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "Ukraine launches counteroffensive against Russia". nbc. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "Ukraine army attacks Russian forces in southern Zaporizhzhia region". BBC News. 9 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "Intense fighting reported as Ukrainian forces go on attack south of Zaporizhzhia". The Guardian. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "Ukraine counteroffensive: Kyiv claims gains in Bakhmut". Politico. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "Ukraine counteroffensive ramps up, but meets stiff Russian resistance". Politico. 9 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, June 8, 2023". ISW. 8 June 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
- Balmforth, Tom (12 June 2023). "Ukraine claims new gains in early phase of counteroffensive". Reuters. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
- Smilianets, Vladyslav (26 August 2023). "Ukraine will speed up advance on southern front, commander says". Retrieved 27 August 2023.
- "Russian mercenaries' short-lived revolt could have long-term consequences for Putin". Associated Press. 25 June 2023. Retrieved 25 June 2023.
- "'There's nobody on earth who can stop them' What Wagner Group veterans have to say about Yevgeny Prigozhin's armed rebellion". Meduza. Retrieved 25 June 2023.
- Maynes, Charles (24 June 2023). "Wagner Group chief says his mercenaries will halt their march on Moscow". NPR.
- "Ukraine in maps: Tracking the war with Russia". BBC News. 1 July 2023. Retrieved 4 July 2023.
- "Ukraine desperate for help clearing mines, says defence minister". The Guardian. 13 August 2023. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
- "In Ukraine with the minesweepers: 'At times, it took me four days to clear 150 meters, there was no other option'". Le Monde. 7 September 2023. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
- Waterhouse, James (4 August 2023). "Russian ship hit in Novorossiysk, Black Sea drone attack, Ukraine sources say". BBC News. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
- "Russian navy vessel damaged in drone attack - Ukrainian source". Reuters. 4 August 2023. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
- Balmforth, Tom (13 September 2023). "Ukraine hits Russian naval targets in major Crimea attack". Reuters. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
- Santora, Marc (12 September 2023). "Ukraine Strikes the Headquarters of Russia's Black Sea Fleet in Crimea". New York Times. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
- "Russia concentrated over 420,000 troops in Ukraine - Main Intelligence Directorate MoD" (in Ukrainian). Interfax Ukraine. 9 September 2023.
- "Military intelligence: More than 420,000 Russian soldiers deployed across occupied territories". The Kyiv Independent. 10 September 2023. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
- "As Russia hits Ukraine's energy facilities with a deadly missile attack, fear mounts over nuclear plants - CBS News". www.cbsnews.com. 21 September 2023. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
- "Ukraine to receive US long-range ATACMS missiles, US media report". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
- DeYoung, Karen; Hudson, John (22 September 2023). "U.S. will send Ukraine long-range missiles, after delay". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
- Kube, Courtney; Tsirkin, Julie; Alba, Monica; Gutierrez, Gabe (22 September 2023). "Biden tells Zelenskyy U.S. sending Ukraine ATACMS". www.nbcnews.com. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
- Stern, David L. (22 September 2023). "Ukraine hits headquarters of Russia's Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
- Kilner, James (23 September 2023). "Russian commanders killed in Storm Shadow missile strike". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 25 September 2023.
- Sabbagh, Dan (16 May 2022). "Putin involved in war 'at level of colonel or brigadier', say western sources". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
- Shuster, Simon (26 September 2022). "Inside the Ukrainian Counterstrike That Turned the Tide of the War". Time. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
- Congressional Research Service (13 February 2023). "Russia's War in Ukraine: Military and Intelligence Aspects". p. 8.
- Nathan Hodge. "Russia has appointed a new general for Ukraine. Can Moscow reboot its war in time for Putin to claim a victory?". CNN.
- "The Russians may be learning from the mistakes of the Ukraine war. But are they adapting fast enough?". ABC. 31 May 2022.
- "Russia's War in Ukraine: Military and Intelligence Aspects". Congressional Research Service. 13 February 2023.
- Deliso, Meredith (8 May 2022). "Why Russia has suffered the loss of an 'extraordinary' number of generals". ABC News. Retrieved 26 June 2023.
- Insinna, Valerie (19 September 2022). "It took 'couple of months' to put US anti-radiation missiles on Ukrainian fighters, USAF reveals". Breaking Defense. Retrieved 26 December 2022.
- Meilhan, Pierre; Roth, Richard (22 October 2022). "Ukrainian military says 18 Russian cruise missiles destroyed amid attacks on energy infrastructure". CNN. Retrieved 26 December 2022.
- "UN: Russian attacks on Ukraine's energy system have killed 77 civilians since Oct. 10". The Kyiv Independent. 25 November 2022. Retrieved 26 December 2022.
- "Ukraine battles to restore power as millions face blackouts". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 26 December 2022.
- "Evidence of Russian crimes mounts as war in Ukraine drags on". Associated Press. 30 December 2022.
- "Three dead in explosions at Russian airbases". english.nv.ua. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
- "Three killed in second attack on Engels base deep inside Russia". CNBC. 26 December 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
- "Russian Navy Day Celebrations Canceled In Crimea's Sevastopol After Reported Drone Attack". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 31 July 2022. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
- Cheetham, Joshua (11 August 2022). "Ukraine war: Crimea airbase badly damaged, satellite images show". BBC News. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
- Sands, Leo (7 September 2022). "Saky airfield: Ukraine claims Crimea blasts responsibility after denial". BBC News. Retrieved 12 September 2022.
- Galeotti, Mark. "Ukraine's Crimean strike marks a new stage of the war". The Spectator. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
- KIrby, Paul (16 August 2022). "Ukraine war: Russia blames sabotage for new Crimea blasts". BBC News. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
- Graham-Harrison, Emma (19 August 2022). "Fires and explosions reported at military targets in Russia and Crimea". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
- Kramer, Andrew E.; Schwirtz, Michael (11 October 2022) [8 October 2022]. "Explosion on 12-Mile Crimea Bridge Kills 3". The New York Times. eISSN 1553-8095. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Archived from the original on 8 October 2022. Retrieved 8 October 2022.
- Pennington, Josh; Stambaugh, Alex (16 July 2023). "Emergency incident reported on bridge linking Crimea with Russia". CNN. Archived from the original on 17 July 2023. Retrieved 16 July 2023.
- "Russia launches another major missile attack on Ukraine". Associated Press News. 16 December 2022. Retrieved 17 December 2022.
- Warrick, Joby; Nakashima, Ellen; Harris, Shane (16 October 2022). "Iran plans to send missiles, drones to Russia for Ukraine war, officials say". The Washington Post.
- "Ukraine war: US says Iranian drones breach sanctions". BBC News. 18 October 2022.
- Kennedy, Niamh; Mahmoodi, Negar; Kottasová, Ivana; Raine, Andrew (16 October 2022). "Iran denies supplying Russia with weapons for use in Ukraine". CNN. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
- "European countries urge UN probe of Iran drones in Ukraine". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 22 October 2022. Retrieved 5 November 2022.
- Atwood, Kylie (1 November 2022). "Iran is preparing to send additional weapons including ballistic missiles to Russia to use in Ukraine, western officials say". CNN. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
- Atwood, Kylie (21 November 2022). "Russia to build attack drones for Ukraine war with the help of Iran, intelligence assessment says". CNN. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
- US tries to stop Iran from giving drones to Russia. The New York Times. By David Sanger. 29 December 2022. Page 1.
- "Barrage of Russian missiles causes blackouts across Ukraine: Ukraine's energy minister says the wave of attacks was the biggest bombardment of power facilities in war so far". AlJazeera. 17 November 2022.
- Steve Rosenberg (1 January 2023). "Ukraine war: New year in Putin's Russia - nothing is normal". BBC.
- Kramer, Andrew E.; Troianovski, Anton (1 January 2023). "Deadly Year in Ukraine Ends With a Big Assault". The New York Times. pp. 1 (PDF), 8.
- The New York Times. 10 March 2023. "Russia Fires Hypersonic Missiles In Largest Air Assault in Weeks." By Andrew E. Kramer.
- "Russia cancelled Black Sea passage bid of four warships: Turkey". Al Jazeera. 2 March 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- Tavsan, Sinan (2 March 2022). "Turkey rejects Russia's request for navy ships to pass Bosporus". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
- "Turkey to implement pact limiting Russian warships to Black Sea". Reuters. 28 February 2022. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
- Boruah, Manash Pratim; Karle, Prathamesh; Tringham, Kate (25 February 2022). "Russian attacks on Ukraine's coast threaten loss of key naval bases as well as critical shipbuilding facilities". Jane's Defence Weekly – via janes.com.
- "Russian Navy Captures Ukraine's Outpost on Snake Island". The Maritime Executive. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- Lister, Tim; Pennington, Josh (24 February 2022). "February 24, 2022 Russia-Ukraine news". CNN. Entry: Audio emerges appearing to be of Ukrainian fighters defending island from Russian warship. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- ""Russkyy korablʹ, ydy na kh.y!": zakhysnyky Zmiyinoho vidpovily vorohovi" "Русский корабль, иди на х.й!": захисники Зміїного відповіли ворогові ['Russian ship, go on f.y!': Defenders of the Serpent responded to the enemy]. Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- Visontay, Elias (25 February 2022). "Ukraine soldiers told Russian officer 'go fuck yourself' before they died on island". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- Hodge, Nathan; Cotovio, Vasco; Lieberman, Oren (26 February 2022). "Pentagon denies Russia's claim that it's "highly likely" US used surveillance drones to help Ukrainian navy". CNN. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022.
- Evans, Michael. "Ukraine scuttles its flagship frigate as the Russians close in". The Times. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- "Frehat Ukrayiny "Hetʹman Sahaydachnyy" vyvedenyy z ladu" Фрегат України "Гетьман Сагайдачний" виведений з ладу [The frigate of Ukraine "Hetman Sagaidachny" is out of order]. Armed Forces of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). 4 March 2022. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
- "Hetman Sahaidachny frigate, being under repair, flooded not to get to enemy – Reznikov". Interfax Ukraine. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- "Analysis: Russian Armed Forces capture dozen Ukrainian ships in Berdyansk". Navy Recognition. 14 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
- Polityuk, Pavel; Heritage, Timothy (24 March 2022). Heavens, Andrew (ed.). "Ukraine says it has destroyed a large Russian landing ship". Reuters. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
- Saul, Jonathan (12 March 2022). "UN to work on safe corridor for ships stranded by Ukraine conflict". Reuters. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
- Pedrozo, Raul (12 April 2022). "Ukraine Symposium – Maritime Exclusion Zones in Armed Conflicts". West Point. United States Military Academy. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
- "Communication from the Government of the Russian Federation" (PDF). Mission of the Russian Federation to the IMO. International Maritime Organization. 28 March 2022. Circular Letter No.4543. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
- "Maritime Security and Safety in the Black Sea and Sea of Azov". International Maritime Organization. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
- "Russia-Ukraine war latest: Ukraine PM to head to Washington; Russian warship sunk by Ukraine missile strike, say US officials – live". The Guardian. 16 April 2022. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 16 April 2022.
- "Russia confirms severe damage to Black Sea Fleet Flagship Moskva, Crew Abandoned Ship". The Free Press Journal. 14 April 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
- Forgey, Quint (14 April 2022). "Pentagon confirms explosion aboard Russian warship". Politico. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
- "Russian warship Moskva has sunk – state media". BBC News. 14 April 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
- Polityuk, Pavel; Piper, Elizabeth (15 April 2022). "Ukraine says fighting rages in Mariupol, blasts rattle Kyiv". Reuters.
- Ohanes, Gasia (14 May 2022). "Did US intelligence-sharing with Ukraine cross a line?". Deutsche Welle.
- "US intelligence helped Ukraine sink Russia's flagship cruiser Moskva". ABC News. 6 May 2022.
- "Ukrainian Military Says Drone Destroys Russian Landing Craft Near Snake Island In Black Sea". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 7 May 2022.
- Payne, Stetson (7 May 2022). "Ukraine Strikes Back: Su-27s Bomb Occupied Snake Island In Daring Raid". The Drive. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
- "Lavrov said Russians would let through ships carrying grain if Ukraine demined ports". Yahoo! News. Ukrainska Pravda. 31 May 2022. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
- Talmazan, Yuliya (30 June 2022). "All eyes are on the battle for the east. But the south might hold the key to Ukraine's fate". NBC News.
- "Putin Orders Russian Nuclear Weapons on Higher Alert | Arms Control Association". www.armscontrol.org. Retrieved 11 September 2023.
- "Russia's Lavrov Warns of 'Real' Danger of World War III". Moscow Times. 25 April 2022.
- Wolfgang, Ben (27 April 2022). "Angry Putin wields energy, nuclear threats against West". The Washington Times.
- Sanger, David E.; Barnes, Julian E. (14 April 2022). "C.I.A. Director Airs Concern That Putin Might Turn to Nuclear Weapons". The New York Times. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 28 May 2022.
- O'Neil, Tyler (27 April 2022). "Zelenskyy demands 'global control' over Russia's nuclear capabilities after 'completely irresponsible actions'".
- "'Russian nuclear terror': Ukraine atomic plant attacked again". www.aljazeera.com. 7 August 2022. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
- Natasha Turoc, "Biden warns of 'consequential' response from U.S. if Putin uses nuclear weapons". CNBC, 19 September 2022. 
- Johnson, Jamie; Scott-Geddes, Arthur; White, Josh; Zagon, Chanel; Allen, Nick (21 September 2022). ""Joe Biden: Putin will not win a 'reckless' nuclear war"". The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
- Allison, Graham (5 January 2023). "Will Russia Go Nuclear? 7 Key Questions to Consider". Time. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
- Chen, Heather; Humayun, Hira; Knight, Mariya; Carey, Andrew; Gigova, Radina; Kostenko, Maria (26 March 2023). "Russia plans to station tactical nuclear weapons in Belarus, Putin says". CNN. Retrieved 24 September 2023.
- Raghavan, Sudarsan; O'Grady, Siobhán; Shefte, Whitney; Khudov, Kostiantyn (28 February 2022). "In a Kyiv under siege, neighbors dig trenches and raise barriers to brace for Russian assault". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. OCLC 2269358. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
- Kirby, Jen (3 March 2022). "The other members of Ukraine's resistance". Vox. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
- Doubek, James (1 March 2022). "Road signs direct expletives at the Russian military". NPR.
- Bella, Timothy (26 February 2022). "Ukrainian agency, urging removal of road signs, posts fake photo with a colorful message for Russia". The Washington Post.
- Hunter, Daniel (1 March 2022). "How Ukrainian Civilians Are Resisting Military Force". YES! Magazine. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
- Motyl, Alexander J. (12 April 2022). "Russians Likely to Encounter Growing Guerrilla Warfare in Ukraine". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
- "Ukrainian Civilians Take On Russian Invaders With Words And Deeds". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 28 February 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.Schwirtz, Michael; Santora, Marc; Hill, Evan; Cardia, Alexander (5 March 2022). "Ukrainian protesters take to the streets in occupied Kherson". The New York Times. ISSN 1553-8095. OCLC 1645522. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
- "Ukrainian authorities accuse Russians of opening fire on civilian protest". CNN International. 5 March 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
- "Ordinary Ukrainians are resisting Vladimir Putin's occupying force in Kherson and elsewhere". The Economist. 9 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
- Judah, Tim (10 April 2022). "How Kyiv was saved by Ukrainian ingenuity as well as Russian blunders". Financial Times.
- "Zelensky: 700,000 soldiers defending Ukraine now". The Kyiv Independent. 21 May 2022. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
- Cyuzuzo, Samba (18 September 2022). "Ukraine troops leave DR Congo peacekeeping mission Monusco". BBC News. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
- Bellinger III, John B. (28 February 2022). "How Russia's Invasion of Ukraine Violates International Law". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 26 January 2023.