|Part of the Swinging Sixties and the broader counterculture of the 1960s|
|Location||United Kingdom and U.S.|
|Outcome||British influence to the music of the U.S.|
The British Invasion was a cultural phenomenon of the mid-1960s, when rock and pop music acts from the United Kingdom and other aspects of British culture became popular in the U.S. and significant to the rising "counterculture" on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Pop and rock groups such as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, the Zombies, the Kinks, the Dave Clark Five, Herman's Hermits, the Hollies, the Animals, Gerry and the Pacemakers, the Searchers, the Yardbirds, the Who and Them, as well as solo singers like Dusty Springfield, Cilla Black, Petula Clark, Tom Jones, and Donovan, were at the forefront of the "invasion".
The rebellious tone and image of US rock and roll and blues musicians became popular with British youth in the late 1950s. While early commercial attempts to replicate US rock and roll mostly failed, the trad jazz–inspired skiffle craze, with its do it yourself attitude, produced two top ten hits in the US by Lonnie Donegan. Young British groups started to combine various British and American styles in different parts of the United Kingdom, such as the movement in Liverpool known as Merseybeat or the "beat boom".
While US acts were popular in the United Kingdom, few British acts had achieved any success in the US prior to 1964. Cliff Richard, who was the best-selling British act in the United Kingdom at the time, only had one top forty hit in the US with "Living Doll" in 1959. Along with Donegan, exceptions to this trend were the US number-one hits "Auf Wiederseh'n, Sweetheart" by Vera Lynn in 1952, "He's Got the Whole World in His Hands" by Laurie London in 1958, and the instrumentals "Stranger on the Shore" by Acker Bilk and "Telstar" by the Tornados, both in 1962. In 1961, Hayley Mills' "Let's Get Together" from The Parent Trap reached the top ten. Also in 1962 on the Hot 100, "Midnight in Moscow" by Kenny Ball peaked at number two, Frank Ifield's "I Remember You" became the next British vocal to crack the top five, and the Springfields' version of "Silver Threads and Golden Needles" reached the top forty.
Some observers have noted that US teenagers were growing tired of singles-oriented pop acts like Fabian. The Mods and Rockers, two youth "gangs" in mid-1960s Britain, also had an impact in British Invasion music. Bands with a Mod aesthetic became the most popular, but bands able to balance both (e.g., the Beatles) were also successful.
In October 1963, the first newspaper articles about the frenzy in England surrounding the Beatles appeared nationally in the U.S. The Beatles' November 4 Royal Variety Performance in front of the Queen Mother sparked music industry and media interest in the group. During November, a number of major US print outlets and two network television evening programs published and broadcast stories on the phenomenon that became known as "Beatlemania".
On 10 December, CBS Evening News anchor Walter Cronkite, looking for something positive to report, re-ran a Beatlemania story that originally aired on the 22 November edition of the CBS Morning News with Mike Wallace but was shelved that night because of the assassination of US President John Kennedy. After seeing the report, 15-year-old Marsha Albert of Silver Spring, Maryland, wrote a letter the following day to disc jockey Carroll James at radio station WWDC asking, "Why can't we have music like that here in America?" On 17 December, James had Miss Albert introduce "I Want to Hold Your Hand" live on the air. WWDC's phones lit up, and Washington, D.C., area record stores were flooded with requests for a record they did not have in stock. James sent the record to other disc jockeys around the country sparking similar reaction. On 26 December, Capitol Records released the record three weeks ahead of schedule. The release of the record during a time when teenagers were on vacation helped spread Beatlemania in the U.S. On 29 December, The Baltimore Sun, reflecting the dismissive view of most adults, editorialised, "America had better take thought as to how it will deal with the invasion. Indeed a restrained 'Beatles go home' might be just the thing." In the next year alone, the Beatles would have thirty different listings on the Hot 100.
On 3 January 1964, The Jack Paar Program ran Beatles concert footage licensed from the BBC "as a joke", but it was watched by 30 million viewers. While this piece was largely forgotten, Beatles producer George Martin has said it "aroused the kids' curiosity". In the middle of January 1964, "I Want to Hold Your Hand" appeared suddenly, then vaulted to the top of nearly every top forty music survey in the U.S., launching the Fab Four's sustained, massive output. "I Want to Hold Your Hand" ascended to number one on the 25 January 1964, edition of Cash Box magazine (on sale January 18) and the 1 February 1964, edition of the Hot 100. On 7 February 1964, the CBS Evening News ran a story about the Beatles' US arrival that afternoon in which Walter Cronkite said, "The British Invasion this time goes by the code name Beatlemania." Two days later, on Sunday, 9 February, the group appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show. Nielsen Ratings estimated that 45 percent of US television viewers that night saw their appearance.
According to Michael Ross, "It is somewhat ironic that the biggest moment in the history of popular music was first experienced in the US as a television event." The Ed Sullivan Show had for some time been a "comfortable hearth-and-slippers experience." Not many of the 73 million viewers watching in February 1964 would fully understand what impact the band they were watching would have.
"In  England lost her American colonies. Last week the Beatles took them back." – Life magazine
The Beatles soon incited contrasting reactions and, in the process, generated more novelty records than anyone—at least 200 during 1964–1965 and more inspired by the "Paul is dead" rumour in 1969. Among the many reactions, favouring the hysteria were British girl group the Carefrees' "We Love You Beatles" (No. 39 on 11 April 1964) and the Patty Cakes' "I Understand Them", subtitled "A Love Song to the Beatles". Disapproving the pandemonium were US group the Four Preps' "A Letter to the Beatles" (No. 85 on 4 April 1964) and US comedian Allan Sherman's "Pop Hates the Beatles."
On 4 April, the Beatles held the top five positions on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart, and no other act simultaneously held even the top four. The Beatles also held the top five positions on Cash Box's singles chart that same week, with the first two positions reversed from the Hot 100. The group's massive chart success, which included at least two of their singles holding the top spot on the Hot 100 during each of the seven consecutive years starting with 1964, continued until they broke up in 1970.
Beyond the Beatles
One week after the Beatles entered the Hot 100 for the first time, Dusty Springfield, having launched a solo career after her participation in the Springfields, became the next British act to reach the Hot 100, peaking at number twelve with "I Only Want to Be with You".[nb 1] During the next three years, many more British acts with a chart-topping US single would appear.[nb 2] As 1965 approached, another wave of British Invasion artists emerged which usually composed of groups playing in a more pop style, such as The Hollies or The Zombies as well as artists with a harder-driving, blues-based approach like the Dave Clark Five, the Kinks, and the Rolling Stones. On 8 May 1965, the British Commonwealth came closer than it ever had to a clean sweep of a weekly Hot 100's Top Ten, lacking only a hit at number two instead of "Count Me In" by Gary Lewis & the Playboys. The previous week, the British Commonwealth held down the top six on the Hot 100 and also nearly swept the Cash Box singles chart's Top Ten, lacking only a hit at number six instead of "Count Me In". That same year, half of the 26 Billboard Hot 100 chart toppers (counting the Beatles' "I Feel Fine" carrying over from 1964) and the number-one position on 28 of the 52 chart weeks belonged to British acts. The British trend would continue into 1966 and beyond. British Invasion acts also dominated the music charts at home in the United Kingdom.
The musical style of British Invasion artists, such as the Beatles, had been influenced by earlier US rock 'n' roll, a genre which had lost some popularity and appeal by the time of the Invasion. However, a subsequent handful of white British performers, particularly the Rolling Stones and the Animals, would appeal to a more 'outsider' demographic, essentially reviving and popularising, for young people at least, a musical genre rooted in the blues, rhythm, and Black culture, which had been largely ignored or rejected when performed by black US artists in the 1950s. Such bands were sometimes perceived by US parents and elders as rebellious and unwholesome unlike parent-friendly pop groups, such as the Beatles. The Rolling Stones would become the biggest band other than the Beatles to come out of the British Invasion, topping the Hot 100 eight times. Sometimes, there would be a clash between the two styles of the British Invasion, the polished pop acts and the grittier blues-based acts due to the expectations set by the Beatles. Eric Burdon of the Animals said "They dressed us up in the most strange costumes. They were even gonna bring a choreographer to show us how to move on stage. I mean, it was ridiculous. It was something that was so far away from our nature and, um, yeah we were just pushed around and told, 'When you arrive in America, don't mention the [Vietnam] war! You can't talk about the war.' We felt like we were being gagged."
"Freakbeat" is a term sometimes given to certain British Invasion acts closely associated with the mod scene during the Swinging London period, particularly harder-driving British blues bands of the era that often remained obscure to US listeners, and who are sometimes seen as counterparts to the garage rock bands in America. Certain acts, such as the Pretty Things and the Creation, had a certain degree of chart success in the UK and are often considered exemplars of the form. The emergence of a relatively homogeneous worldwide "rock" music style marking the end of the "invasion" occurred in 1967.
Other cultural impacts
Outside music, other aspects of British arts and engineering, such as BSA motorcycles became popular in the US during this period and led US media to proclaim the United Kingdom as the centre of music and fashion.
Film and television
"Julie [Andrews] became a movie queen by falling smartly into step with the recent vogue in America for almost anything labeled British." – Life magazine, April 1967.
The Beatles' film A Hard Day's Night marked the group's entrance into film. The film Mary Poppins – starring English actress Julie Andrews as the titular character, and released on 27 August 1964 – became the most Oscar-winning and Oscar-nominated Disney film in history. My Fair Lady, released on 25 December 1964, starring British actress Audrey Hepburn as Cockney flower girl Eliza Doolittle, won eight Academy Awards. AndOliver! released in 1968 won Best Picture, becoming the final musical film to do so until Chicago in 2002.
Besides the Bond series which commenced with Sean Connery as James Bond in 1962, films with a British sensibility such as the "Angry Young Men" genre, What's New Pussycat? and Alfie styled London Theatre. A new wave of British actors such as Peter O'Toole, Michael Caine, and Peter Sellers intrigued US audiences. Four of the decade's Academy Award winners for best picture were British productions, with the epic Lawrence of Arabia, starring O'Toole as British army officer T. E. Lawrence, winning seven Oscars in 1963.
British television series such as Danger Man (renamed Secret Agent in its US airings), The Saint and The Avengers began appearing on US screens, inspiring a series of US-produced espionage programs such as I Spy, The Man From U.N.C.L.E. and the parody series Get Smart. By 1966, spy series (both British and US versions) had emerged as a favourite format of US viewers, along with Westerns and rural sitcoms. Television shows that featured uniquely American styles of music, such as Sing Along with Mitch and Hootenanny, were quickly canceled and replaced with shows such as Shindig! and Hullabaloo that were better positioned to play the new British hits, and segments of the new shows were taped in England.
Fashion and image marked the Beatles out from their earlier US rock and roll counterparts. Their distinctive, uniform style "challenged the clothing style of conventional US males," just as their music challenged the earlier conventions of the rock and roll genre. "Mod" fashions, such as the mini skirt from "Swinging London" designers such as Mary Quant and worn by early supermodels Twiggy, Jean Shrimpton and other models, were popular worldwide. Newspaper columnist John Crosby wrote, "The English girl has an enthusiasm that American men find utterly captivating. I'd like to import the whole Chelsea girl with her 'life is fabulous' philosophy to America with instructions to bore from within."
Even while longstanding styles remained popular, US teens and young adults started to dress "hipper."
Impact on US music
The British Invasion had a profound impact on popular music, internationalizing the production of rock and roll, establishing the British popular music industry as a viable centre of musical creativity, and opening the door for subsequent British performers to achieve international success. In America, the Invasion arguably spelled the end of the popularity of instrumental surf music, pre-Motown vocal girl groups, the folk revival (which adapted by evolving into folk rock), teenage tragedy songs, Nashville country music (which also faced its own crisis with the deaths of some of its biggest stars at the same time), and temporarily, the teen idols that had dominated the US charts in the late 1950s and early 1960s. It dented the careers of established R&B acts like Chubby Checker and temporarily derailed the chart success of certain surviving rock and roll acts, including Ricky Nelson, Fats Domino, the Everly Brothers, and Elvis Presley (who nevertheless racked up thirty Hot 100 entries from 1964 through 1967). It prompted many existing garage rock bands to adopt a sound with a British Invasion inflection and inspired many other groups to form, creating a scene from which many major US acts of the next decade would emerge. The British Invasion also played a major part in the rise of a distinct genre of rock music and cemented the primacy of the rock group, based around guitars and drums and producing their own material as singer-songwriters.
In February 2021, Ken Barnes, a former USA Today radio writer, analyzed US musical acts' success before and during the Invasion in an article for Radio Insight attempting to confirm or debunk the claim that the British Invasion devastated US music. In his analysis, he noted that several of the acts whose careers were eclipsed by the Invasion—among them Bobby Vee, Neil Sedaka, Dion and Elvis Presley—eventually made comebacks after the Invasion waned. Others, such as Bill Anderson and Bobby Bare, remained successful in the country realm, even as their pop crossover success had waned. Barnes noted that one record company, Cameo Parkway, sustained more permanent damage from the Invasion (and the concurrent rise of Motown) than any other, but also noted that it was also affected by another event that happened the same week as the Beatles' arrival: American Bandstand, which had been based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where Cameo Parkway was based and drew many of its performers from Cameo Parkway, moved to Los Angeles. In summation, he noted that a plurality of the alleged victims of the Invasion (42 percent of most US hit music acts of 1963) were already seeing diminishing returns in 1963 before the Invasion began; 24 percent of US acts that year saw their success continue through the invasion, such as the Beach Boys and Frankie Valli and the Four Seasons; 14 percent were the likes of Sedaka, Vee and Presley in that they suffered during the Invasion but recovered afterward; and 20 percent suffered fatal damage to their careers because of it (with Barnes stating that 7 percent of US acts—mostly Cameo Parkway acts and folk revival groups—were wiped out almost entirely due to the Invasion, and the other 13 percent had the Invasion as one of several reasons for their declines). Stylistically, the proportions of US music being made did not change substantially during the Invasion, even as the British acts flooded the charts with a homogenous pop-rock sound; folk, country and novelty music, already small factors in the overall pop realm, dropped to near-nonexistence, while girl groups were also hard hit.
Though many of the acts associated with the invasion did not survive its end, many others would become icons of rock music. The claim[according to whom?] that British beat bands were not radically different from US groups like The Beach Boys and damaged the careers of black US and female artists was made[when?] about the invasion. However, the Motown sound, exemplified by the Supremes, the Temptations, and the Four Tops, each securing their first top 20 record during the invasion's first year of 1964 and following up with many other top 20 records, besides the constant or even accelerating output of the Miracles, Gladys Knight & the Pips, Marvin Gaye, Martha & the Vandellas, and Stevie Wonder, actually increased in popularity during that time.
Other US groups also demonstrated a similar sound to the British Invasion artists and in turn highlighted how the British "sound" was not in itself a wholly new or original one. Roger McGuinn of the Byrds, for example, acknowledged the debt that US artists owed to British musicians, such as the Searchers, but that "they were using folk music licks that I was using anyway. So it's not that big a rip-off." Both the US sunshine pop group the Buckinghams and the Beatles-influenced US Tex-Mex act the Sir Douglas Quintet adopted British-sounding names, and San Francisco's Beau Brummels took their name from the same-named English dandy. Roger Miller had a 1965 hit record with a self-penned song titled "England Swings", in which although its title references the progressive youth-centric cultural scene known as Swinging London, its lyric pays tribute to Britain's traditional way of life. Englishman Geoff Stephens (or John Carter) reciprocated the gesture a la Rudy Vallée a year later in the New Vaudeville Band's "Winchester Cathedral". Even as recently as 2003, "Shanghai Knights" made the latter two tunes memorable once again in London scenes. Anticipating the Bay City Rollers by more than a decade, two British acts that reached the Hot 100's top twenty gave a tip of the hat to America: Billy J. Kramer with the Dakotas and the Nashville Teens. The British Invasion also drew a backlash from some US bands, e.g., Paul Revere & the Raiders and New Colony Six dressed in Revolutionary War uniforms, and Gary Puckett & the Union Gap donned Civil War uniforms. Garage rock act the Barbarians' "Are You a Boy or Are You a Girl" contained the lyrics "You're either a girl, or you come from Liverpool" and "You can dance like a female monkey, but you swim like a stone, Yeah, a Rolling Stone."
In Australia, the success of the Seekers and the Easybeats (the latter a band formed mostly of British emigrants) closely paralleled that of the British Invasion. The Seekers had two Hot 100 top five hits during the British Invasion, the number-four hit "I'll Never Find Another You" (recorded at London's Abbey Road Studios) in May 1965 and the numbr-two hit "Georgy Girl" in February 1967. The Easybeats drew heavily on the British Invasion sound and had one hit in the U.S. during the British Invasion, the number-sixteen hit "Friday on My Mind" in May 1967.
End of the first British Invasion and its aftermath
The historical conclusion of the British Invasion is ambiguous. The wave of anglophilia largely faded as US culture shifted in response to the Vietnam War and the resulting civil unrest in the late 1960s. As the cultural aspects of the British Invasion waned, British musical acts retained their popularity throughout the decade and into the 1970s, competing with their US counterparts as they returned to prominence. British progressive rock acts of the 1970s were often more popular in the U.S. than their native Britain, as the US working class was generally favourable to the virtuosity of progressive rock acts while the bands' British audience was confined to the more genteel upper classes.
British bands such as Badfinger and the Sweet, and US band the Raspberries, are considered to have evolved the genre into power pop. In 1978, two rock magazines wrote cover stories analyzing power pop as a saviour to both the new wave and the direct simplicity of rock. Along with the music, new wave power impacted current the fashion, such as the mod style of the Jam or the skinny ties of the burgeoning Los Angeles scene. Several power pop artists were commercially successful; most notably the Knack, whose "My Sharona" was the highest-ranked US single of 1979. Although the Knack and power pop fell out of mainstream popularity, the genre continues to have a cult following with occasional periods of modest success.
A subsequent wave of British artists rose to popularity in the early 1980s as British music videos appeared in US media, leading to what is now known as the "Second British Invasion". Another wave of British mainstream prominence in US music charts came in the mid-1990s with the brief success of Spice Girls, Oasis, Blur and Robbie Williams. At least one British act would appear somewhere on the Hot 100 every week from 2 November 1963 until 20 April 2002, originating with the debut of the Caravelles' "You Don't Have to Be a Baby to Cry". British acts declined in popularity throughout the 1990s, and in the 27 April 2002 issue of Billboard, none of the songs on the Hot 100 were from British artists; that week, only two of the top 100 albums, those of Craig David and Ozzy Osbourne, were from British artists.
The latest movement came in the mid-to-late 2000s when British R&B and soul artists such as Amy Winehouse, Estelle, Joss Stone, Duffy, Natasha Bedingfield, Florence Welch, Adele, Floetry, Jessie J, Leona Lewis, Jay Sean and Taio Cruz enjoyed huge success in the US charts, which led to talk of a "Third British Invasion" or a "British Soul Invasion". Boyband One Direction have also been described as being a major part of a new "British Invasion" due to them being the first British band to have their debut album at number-one on the US charts along with their overall dominance in America.
- Cool Britannia
- List of Billboard Hot 100 number-ones by British artists
- List of British Invasion artists
- Music of the United Kingdom (1960s)
- Second British Invasion, 1980s
- Third British Invasion, 2000s–2010s
- She soon followed up with several other hits, becoming what AllMusic described as "the finest white soul singer of her era." On the Hot 100, Dusty's solo career lasted almost as long, albeit with little more than one quarter of the hits, as the Beatles' group career before their breakup.
- Peter and Gordon, the Animals, Manfred Mann, Petula Clark, Freddie and the Dreamers, Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders, Herman's Hermits, the Rolling Stones, the Dave Clark Five, the Troggs, Donovan, and Lulu in 1967, would have one or more number one singles in the US. Other Invasion acts included the Searchers, Billy J. Kramer, the Bachelors, Chad & Jeremy, Gerry and the Pacemakers, the Honeycombs, Them (and later its lead singer, Van Morrison), Tom Jones, the Yardbirds (whose guitarist Jimmy Page would later form Led Zeppelin), the Spencer Davis Group, the Small Faces, and numerous others. The Kinks, although considered part of the Invasion, initially failed to capitalise on their success in the US after their first three hits reached the Hot 100's top ten (in part due to a ban by the American Federation of Musicians) before resurfacing in 1970 with "Lola" and in 1983 with their biggest hit, "Come Dancing".
- Ira A. Robbins. "Encyclopædia Britannica Article". Britannica.com. Retrieved January 18, 2011.
- Ira A. Robbins. "British Invasion (music) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved January 18, 2011.
- James E. Perone (2004). Music of the Counterculture Era. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-313-32689-9.
- Stephen Thomas Erlewine. "The Kinks - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Dave Clark Five - Biography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Perone, James E. Mods, Rockers, and the Music of the British Invasion. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2009. Print.
- M. Brocken, The British Folk Revival, 1944–2002 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003), pp. 69–80.
- "Lonnie Donegan > Charts and Awards > Billboard singles". AllMusic. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- Eder, Bruce. "Lonnie Donegan - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Morrison, Craig. American Popular Music. British Invasion (New York: Facts on File, 2006), pp. 32–34.
- J. Gould, Can't Buy Me Love: The Beatles, Britain, and America (New York, Harmony Books, 2007), pp. 344–45.
- When the Beatles hit America CNN February 10, 2004.
- Whitburn, Joel (1990). The Billboard Hot 100 Charts: The Sixties (26 May 1962, 7 July 1962, 22 December 1962 - 5 January 1963). Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research, Inc. ISBN 0-89820-074-1.
- "Hayley Mills busily happy". The Australian Women's Weekly. Vol. 30, no. 8. July 25, 1962. p. 3 (Teenagers Weekly). Retrieved September 15, 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. pp. 147, 166, 167. ISBN 0-214-20512-6.
- Cogan, Brian (December 12, 2011). Abbe A. Debolt; James S. Baugess (eds.). Encyclopedia of the Sixties: A Decade of Culture and Counterculture. Greenwood Press. pp. 80–81. ISBN 9780313329449. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Perone, James (2009). Mods, Rockers, and the Music of the British Invasion. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.
- "How the Beatles Went Viral: Blunders, Technology & Luck Broke the Fab Four in America," by Steve Greenberg, Billboard February 7, 2014
- "The Beatles in America: We Loved Them, Yeah, Yeah, Yeah". Newseum. February 5, 2009. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Tweet the Beatles! How Walter Cronkite Sent The Beatles Viral ANDRE IVERSEN FOR THE WIN! by Martin Lewis based on information from "THE BEATLES ARE COMING! The Birth of Beatlemania in America" by Bruce Spitzer" July 18, 2009.
- Whitburn, Joel (2003). Top Pop Singles 1955-2002. Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research, Inc. pp. 44, 45. ISBN 0-89820-155-1.
- "1 February 1964 Hot 100". Billboard. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
- Steve Greenberg (February 7, 2014). "How the Beatles Went Viral: Blunders, Technology & Luck Broke the Fab Four in America". Billboard. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
- Ross, Michael (August 5, 2010). "Fab Four + 40: Looking back on the British invasion". TODAY.com.
- Puterbaugh, Parke (July 14, 1988). "The British Invasion: From the Beatles to the Stones, The Sixties Belonged to Britain". Rolling Stone. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
- "Beatlesongs!". AlbumLinerNotes.com. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- Whitburn, Joel (1990). The Billboard Hot 100 Charts: The Sixties (11 April 1964). Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research, Inc. ISBN 0-89820-074-1.
- "I Understand Them (A Love Song To The Beatles)". Classic 45's. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
- Whitburn, Joel (1990). The Billboard Hot 100 Charts: The Sixties (4 April 1964). Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research, Inc. ISBN 0-89820-074-1.
- "The Beatles Invade America - A chronicle of the Beatles' first visit to the U.S. in February 1964". February 11, 2007. Archived from the original on May 27, 2014. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
- Trust, Gary (February 19, 2019). "Ariana Grande Claims Nos. 1, 2 & 3 on Billboard Hot 100, Is First Act to Achieve the Feat Since The Beatles in 1964". Billboard. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
- "UK acts disappear from US charts BBC April 23, 2002". BBC News. April 23, 2002. Retrieved January 18, 2011.
- "Cash Box Magazine's (USA) Weekly Single Charts for 1964". April 4, 1964. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
- Gaar, Gillian G. (April 2011). "Women of The British Invasion". Goldmine: 22, 24, 26–28.
- Ankeny, Jason. "Dusty Springfield - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Gilliland 1969, show 29, track 2.
- Thompson, Dave. "Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Eder, Bruce. "Herman's Hermits - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Gilliland 1969, show 30.
- Billboard Dave Clark Five Chart Page
- Gilliland 1969, show 48.
- Eder, Bruce. "The Searchers - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Billy J. Kramer - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Ruhlmann, William. "The Bachelors - Biography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Ankeny, Jason. "Chad & Jeremy - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Gerry & the Pacemakers - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Honeycombs - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Stephen Thomas Erlewine. "Tom Jones - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Yardbirds - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- "iTunes - Music - The Kinks". Itunes.apple.com.
- "The Kinks". The Guardian.
- "U.S. Chart Positions". Kindakinks.com. Archived from the original on January 13, 2014. Retrieved March 19, 2014.
- Alterman, Loraine. "Who Let the Kinks In?" Rolling Stone, 18 December 1969
- British Invasion at AllMusic
- Gilliland 1969, show 38, track 2.
- Gilliland 1969, show 49, track 2.
- "8 May 1965 Hot 100". Billboard. September 12, 2008. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- "Cash Box Magazine's (USA) Weekly Singles Charts for 1965". May 1, 1965. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
- Joel Whitburn (2003). Top Pop Singles 1955-2002. Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research, Inc. pp. 988, 989. ISBN 0-89820-155-1.
- Perone, James E. Mods, Rockers, and the Music of the British Invasion. Westport, CT. Praeger, 2009. Print.
- Cooper, Laura E., and B. Lee, "The Pendulum of Cultural Imperialism: Popular Music Interchanges Between the United States and Britain", Journal of Popular Culture, Jan. 1993
- Cooper, L. and B., Journal of Popular Culture, 93
- Petersen, Jennifer B. "British Bands Invade the United States" 2009. Article.
- Joel Whitburn (2003). Top Pop Singles 1955-2002. Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research, Inc. pp. 602, 603. ISBN 0-89820-155-1.
- Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Remembering the "British Invasion"". Remembering the "British Invasion" - YouTube. CNN. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- "Freakbeat", Allmusic, retrieved 30 June 2011.
- Nicholson, Chris (September 25, 2012). "Freakbeat, The Garage Rock Era". Ministry of Rock. MinistryofRock. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Strong, Martin C. (2000). The Great Rock Discography (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Mojo Books. pp. 769–770. ISBN 1-84195-017-3.
- Allmusic.com biography
- Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 192. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.
- "As Millie, a real Julie Blossoms". Life magazine. April 28, 1967.
- "The 37th Academy Awards (1965) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- "The 35th Academy Awards (1963) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- William E. Sarmento (July 24, 1966). "Fourth TV Network Looming on Horizon". Lowell Sun. p. 20.
- Barnes, Ken (February 9, 2021). "Did the Beatles kill America's radio stars?". Radio Insight. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
- "Two Paths of Folk Music," Hootenanny, Vol. 1 No. 3, May 1964
- James E. Perone (2009). Mods, Rockers, and the Music of the British Invasion. p. 76. ABC-CLIO,
- Fowler, David (2008) Youth Culture in Modern Britain, c.1920-c.1970: From Ivory Tower to Global Movement - A New History p. 134. Palgrave Macmillan, 2008
- Burgess, Anya (May 10, 2004). "Small is still beautiful". Daily Post.
- "The Girl Behind The World's Most Beautiful Face". Family Weekly. February 8, 1967.
- Cloud, Barbara (June 11, 1967). "Most Photographed Model Reticent About Her Role". The Pittsburgh Press.
- "Jean Shrimpton, the Famed Face of the '60s, Sits Before Her Svengali's Camera One More Time". People. Vol. 7, no. 21. May 30, 1977. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Seebohm, Caroline (July 19, 1971). "English Girls in New York: They Don't Go Home Again". New York. p. 34. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- Wolk, Douglas (December 13, 2013). "Reanimated: 'Nowhere Men, Vol. 1,' and More". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
- J. M. Curtis, Rock Eras: Interpretations of Music and Society, 1954–1984 (Popular Press, 1987), p. 134.
- "Surf Music". Nostalgia Central. Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- K. Keightley, "Reconsidering Rock," in S. Frith, W. Straw and J. Street, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 117.
- McGinn, Andrew (June 23, 2011). "Ricky Nelson's sons revive his legacy with 'Remembered' tour". The Springfield News-Sun. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
- F. W. Hoffmann, Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound, Volume 1 (CRC Press, 2nd ed., 2004), p. 132.
- allmusic Genre Garage Rock
- R. Shuker, Popular Music: The Key Concepts. (Routledge, 2nd ed., 2005), p. 35.
- K. Keightley, "Reconsidering Rock". S. Frith, W. Straw and J. Street, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 117–18.
- Whitburn, Joel (2003). Top Pop Singles 1955-2002. Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research, Inc. ISBN 0-89820-155-1.
- K. Keightley, "Reconsidering Rock" in S. Frith, W. Straw and J. Street, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), ISBN 0-521-55660-0, p. 116.
- Holmes, Tim, "US and Them: American Rock's Reconquista" Popular Music and Society, Vol.30, July 07
- Dahl, Bill. "The Buckinghams - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Huey, Steve. "The Sir Douglas Quintet - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- "Trivial Pursuit: The Test of Dandy Knowledge". Dandyism.net. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
- Hoffman, Ken (July 4, 2012). "England still swings". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- James E. Perone (2007). "1". The Words and Music of David Bowie. Westport, Connecticut, and London: Praeger (Singer-Songwriter Collection). p. 6. ISBN 978-0-275-99245-3. Archived from the original on June 16, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- "Winchester Cathedral by New Vaudeville Band". The Kirkham Report. August 16, 2009. Archived from the original on June 17, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Leydon, Joe (January 26, 2003). "Shanghai Knights - Film Reviews - New U.S. Release". Variety. Archived from the original on February 5, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Farance, Jeff. "Shanhai Knights - Movie reviews, trailers, clips and movie stills". Celebrity Wonder. Retrieved December 1, 2012.[permanent dead link]
- Hoffman, Lori (December 7, 2013). "Show Review: Kickin' It with Paul Revere and the Raiders". Atlantic City Weekly. Archived from the original on April 26, 2014. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- "The New Colony Six". Oldies.com. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Voger, Mark (October 10, 2011). "Gary Puckett interview: A perfect Union". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- "The Barbarians - Biography & History - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
- "Are You a Boy or Are You a Girl - The Barbarians - Song Info - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
- Eder, Bruce. "The Seekers - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Eder, Bruce. "The Easybeats - Music Biography, Streaming Radio and Discography - AllMusic". AllMusic.
- Macan, Edward (1997), Rocking the Classics: English Progressive Rock and the Counterculture, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-509887-0
- Cateforis, Theo (June 7, 2011). Are We Not New Wave? Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press. pp. 123 to 150. ISBN 9780472034703.
- Jenkins, Mark (May 3, 2002). "The end of the British invasion". Slate. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- "One Direction, British/Irish boy band about to explode in America says Simon Cowell". March 12, 2012.
- "The British Are Coming! One Direction Set to Conquer America".
Further reading and listening
- Gilliland, John (1969). "The British Are Coming! The British Are Coming!: The U.S.A. is invaded by a wave of long-haired English rockers" (audio). Pop Chronicles. University of North Texas Libraries.
- Harry, Bill. The British Invasion: How the Beatles and Other UK Bands Conquered America. Chrome Dreams. 2004. ISBN 978-1-84240-247-4
- Miles, Barry. The British Invasion: The Music, the Times, the Era. Sterling Publishing. 2009. ISBN 978-1-4027-6976-4
- "The British Invasion" 2002 – oral history by Vanity Fair
Media related to British Invasion at Wikimedia Commons