1989

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
From left, clockwise: an earthquake strikes the San Francisco Bay Area, killing 63 people; the proposal document for the World Wide Web is submitted; the Exxon Valdez oil tanker runs aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, causing a large oil spill; the fall of the Berlin Wall begins the downfall of Communism in Eastern Europe, and heralds German reunification; the United States invades Panama to depose Manuel Noriega; the Baltic Way led to the independence of the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania from the Soviet Union; the stands of Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, Yorkshire, where the Hillsborough disaster occurred; students demonstrate in Tiananmen Square, Beijing; many are killed by forces of the Chinese Communist Party.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1989 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1989
MCMLXXXIX
Ab urbe condita2742
Armenian calendar1438
ԹՎ ՌՆԼԸ
Assyrian calendar6739
Baháʼí calendar145–146
Balinese saka calendar1910–1911
Bengali calendar1396
Berber calendar2939
British Regnal year37 Eliz. 2 – 38 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2533
Burmese calendar1351
Byzantine calendar7497–7498
Chinese calendar戊辰年 (Earth Dragon)
4686 or 4479
    — to —
己巳年 (Earth Snake)
4687 or 4480
Coptic calendar1705–1706
Discordian calendar3155
Ethiopian calendar1981–1982
Hebrew calendar5749–5750
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2045–2046
 - Shaka Samvat1910–1911
 - Kali Yuga5089–5090
Holocene calendar11989
Igbo calendar989–990
Iranian calendar1367–1368
Islamic calendar1409–1410
Japanese calendarShōwa 64 / Heisei 1
(平成元年)
Javanese calendar1921–1922
Juche calendar78
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4322
Minguo calendarROC 78
民國78年
Nanakshahi calendar521
Thai solar calendar2532
Tibetan calendar阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
2115 or 1734 or 962
    — to —
阴土蛇年
(female Earth-Snake)
2116 or 1735 or 963
Unix time599616000 – 631151999

1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1989th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 989th year of the 2nd millennium, the 89th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1980s decade.

1989 was a turning point in political history with the "Revolutions of 1989" which ended communism in Eastern Bloc of Europe, starting in Poland and Hungary, with experiments in power-sharing coming to a head with the opening of the Berlin Wall in November, the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia and the overthrow of the communist dictatorship in Romania in December; the movement ended in December 1991 with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Revolutions against communist governments in Eastern Europe mainly succeeded, but the year also saw the suppression by the Chinese government of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests in Beijing.

It was the year of the first Brazilian presidential election in 29 years, since the end of the military government in 1985 that ruled the country for more than twenty years, and marked the redemocratization process's final point.

F. W. de Klerk was elected as State President of South Africa, and his regime gradually dismantled the apartheid system over the next five years, culminating with the 1994 election that brought jailed African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela to power.

The first commercial Internet service providers surfaced in this year,[1][2] as well as the first written proposal for the World Wide Web and New Zealand, Japan and Australia's first Internet connections. The first babies born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis were conceived in late 1989.[3]

Events

January

February

Soviet unit pictured prior to their withdrawal from Afghanistan

March

Mass demonstration at the Hungarian state television headquarters
The Exxon Valdez

April

Polish Round Table Agreement

May

June

July

August

Voyager 2 at Neptune
Baltic Way in Estonia

September

October

The Phillips disaster

November

Germans standing on top of the Berlin Wall
A peaceful demonstration in Prague during the Velvet Revolution

December

Flames engulf a building following the United States invasion of Panama


Births and deaths

Nobel Prizes

References

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Further reading

  • Ash, Timothy Garton. The Magic Lantern: The Revolution of '89 Witnessed in Warsaw, Budapest, Berlin, and Prague (1999) excerpt
  • Kenney, Padraic, ed. 1989: Democratic Revolutions at the Cold War's End: A Brief History with Documents (2009)
  • Sebestyen, Victor. Revolution 1989: The Fall of the Soviet Empire (2010) excerpt

External links

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