Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Television

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is a style guide for those who edit television-related articles under Wikipedia:WikiProject Television. Remember that Wikipedia is foremost an encyclopedia and that articles therefore should try to be prosaic instead of lists of arbitrary information pulled out of IMDb or other such user-contributed sources. Articles should be verifiable and establish notability. Please cite your sources wherever possible. Articles should be written from an out-of-universe perspective. Remember, this is only a guide, and may change depending on Wikipolicy or participant consensus. For other guidelines see Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Contents.

Naming conventions

If an article does not already exist with the name of the television show, episode title, or character name for the article being created, then simply use the name of the subject as the article title (e.g. Carnivàle, Pauline Fowler or "Cape Feare").

If an article already exists with the name of a television show for the article being created, use one of the following disambiguators as necessary:

Article titles for television shows are properly italicized as long as {{Infobox television}} is used in the article. If not, {{Italic title|string=Show Name}} or {{DISPLAYTITLE}} may be used. The former has the advantage of continuing to work in case the disambiguation suffix is changed or removed from the article's title.

If an article already exists with the name of an episode title or character, then the title of the article should contain the name of the episode or character followed by (SERIES NAME): Episode/Character name (SERIES NAME) (e.g. "Through the Looking Glass" (Lost) or Spike (Buffy the Vampire Slayer)). In order for an article with this disambiguation to properly stylize, the {{DISPLAYTITLE}} template should be used.

Disambiguation for list of episodes or list of characters articles may or may not need to be used, depending on if other list articles exist. (e.g. NCIS: New Orleans and List of NCIS: New Orleans episodes; The Flash (2014 TV series) and List of The Flash episodes; Mistresses (American TV series) and List of Mistresses (American TV series) episodes, and Mistresses (British TV series) and List of Mistresses (British TV series) episodes). Once again, in order for an article with this disambiguation to properly stylize, the {{DISPLAYTITLE}} template should be used.

The above is only a summary of Wikipedia:Naming conventions (television) to cover most situations. For the most current guideline and expanded examples, refer to that page.

Parent, season, and episode article structure

The structure of television articles, season/series articles, and episode articles should generally follow the suggested formatting outlined below. The basic order of these pages tends to follow: Lead, plot, cast lists, production, broadcast and home media, and reception, with any other miscellaneous sections coming afterward. If a section consisting of an article-spanning table (i.e. the "Episodes" section with {{Episode table}}) is being pushed down by the infobox creating a large amount of whitespace (example), then that section can be moved further down in the article. However, if said section contains plot or episode summaries, it should ideally be as high up the page as possible, since Wikipedia uses plot information as context for understanding the real world information to follow in the article. This is the same setup used on WikiProject Film articles, which have a similar structure as television articles.


Below are the three main infoboxes to use across the project with the code to copy: {{Infobox television}} for parent articles; {{Infobox television season}} for season articles; and {{Infobox television episode}} for individual episode articles. For any questions or problems with these templates, please consult each template's documentation or start a discussion at the corresponding talk page(s). All parameters are not meant to be used on every article, as some are not relevant to many television articles.

If multiple entries are required for any individual field, for example for the starring parameter, {{Plainlist}} or {{Unbulleted list}} should be used, over <br />. Additionally, if any individual field becomes excessively long, again using the starring parameter as an example, it may be beneficial to link readers to a corresponding section of the article (in this case, the "Cast", "Characters", or "Cast and characters" section) instead. As well, flag icons should not be used for countries in the infobox.

Parent article
{{Infobox television
| image                = 
| image_alt            = 
| caption              = 
| alt_name             = 
| genre                = 
| creator              = 
| showrunner           = 
| writer               = 
| screenplay           = 
| teleplay             = 
| story                = 
| director             = 
| presenter            = 
| starring             = 
| theme_music_composer = 
| music                = 
| open_theme           = 
| end_theme            = 
| composer             = 
| country              = 
| language             = 
| num_seasons          = 
| num_series           = 
| num_episodes         = 
| list_episodes        = 
| runtime              = 
| company              = 
| network              = 
| first_aired          = 
| last_aired           = 
{{Infobox television
| image                = 
| image_size           = 
| image_upright        = 
| image_alt            = 
| caption              = 
| alt_name             = 
| native_name          = <!-- {{Infobox name module|language|title}} or {{Infobox name module|title}} -->
| genre                = <!-- Must be reliably sourced -->
| creator              = 
| based_on             = <!-- {{Based on|title of the original work|creator of the original work|additional creator(s), if necessary}} -->
| inspired_by          = <!-- {{Based on|title of the original work|creator of the original work|additional creator(s), if necessary}} -->
| developer            = 
| showrunner           = 
| writer               = 
| screenplay           = <!-- Only use without |teleplay= -->
| teleplay             = <!-- Only use without |screenplay= -->
| story                = 
| director             = 
| creative_director    = 
| presenter            = <!-- Organized by broadcast credit order, with new main cast added to the end of the list -->
| starring             = <!-- Organized by broadcast credit order, with new main cast added to the end of the list -->
| judges               = <!-- Organized by broadcast credit order, with new main cast added to the end of the list -->
| voices               = <!-- Organized by broadcast credit order, with new main cast added to the end of the list -->
| narrator             = <!-- Only use without |announcer= -->
| announcer            = <!-- Only use without |narrator= -->
| theme_music_composer = 
| music                = 
| open_theme           = 
| end_theme            = 
| composer             = 
| country              = 
| language             = 
| num_seasons          = <!-- Increment when new seasons begin. Only use without |num_series= -->
| num_series           = <!-- Increment when new series begin. Only use without |num_seasons= -->
| num_episodes         = <!-- Value is incremented when new episodes air. -->
| num_specials         = 
| list_episodes        = 
| executive_producer   = 
| producer             = 
| news_editor          = <!-- Content editor or editors of a current affairs/political show such as Newsnight. -->
| location             = <!-- Nation the series was primarily filmed in, if different from the nation of origin. -->
| cinematography       = 
| animator             = <!-- Person(s) who served as animators, not animation houses, companies, etc. -->
| editor               = <!-- Film or video editors -->
| camera               = <!-- Either Single-camera or Multi-camera -->
| runtime              = <!-- Reliable source required -->
| company              = <!-- Production companies only -->
| budget               = 
| network              = 
| released             = <!-- {{Start date|YYYY|MM|DD}}. Only use without |first_aired= -->
| first_aired          = <!-- {{Start date|YYYY|MM|DD}}. Only use without |released= -->
| last_aired           = <!-- {{End date|YYYY|MM|DD}} -->
| related              = <!-- To be used only for remakes, spin-offs, and adaptations -->
Season article
{{Infobox television season
| bg_colour      = <!-- Colours used must meet the contrast requirements of WP:COLOR. -->
| image          = 
| image_alt      = 
| caption        = 
| showrunner     = 
| starring       = 
| num_episodes   = <!-- Value is incremented when new episodes air. See template documentation for more info. -->
| network        = 
| released       = <!-- {{Start date|yyyy|mm|dd|df=y}} - Only use this template once-->
| first_aired    = <!-- {{Start date|yyyy|mm|dd|df=y}} - Only use this template once -->
| last_aired     = <!-- {{End date|yyyy|mm|dd}} -->
| episode_list   = 
Episode article
{{Infobox television episode
| series         = <!-- without italics or formatting. -->
| image          = <!-- bare filename only. Wikilinking, "File:", and pixel size not required. -->
| image_size     = <!-- raw number. "px" not required. -->
| image_alt      = 
| caption        = 
| season         = 
| series_no      = 
| episode        = 
| director       = 
| writer         = 
| story          = 
| teleplay       = 
| based_on       = 
| narrator       = 
| presenter      = 
| producer       = 
| music          = 
| photographer   = 
| editor         = 
| production     = 
| airdate        = <!-- {{Start date|YYYY|MM|DD}} -->
| length         = 
| guests         = 
| prev           = 
| next           = 
| season_article = 
| episode_list   = 


Depending on the article in question, a different image should be used in the infobox, based on non-free content criteria:

  • For a main article, use an intertitle shot of the show (i.e., a screenshot capture of the show's title) or a promotional poster used to represent the show itself. Alternatively, use a home media cover. If a show has multiple intertitles throughout its run, the most representative one should be used; the intertitle does not need to be updated each time a new version is used.
  • For season articles, use a season-specific promotional poster or home media cover, or alternatively a season-specific title card, if one exists.
  • Individual episode articles are less likely to justify an infobox image, but if a promotional poster or image exists then it may be used. Other options are an episode-specific title card or home media cover (if the episode received an individual release), or a screenshot of a significant moment or element from the episode. The latter may only be used if it meets the non-free content criteria, i.e., (typically) if it is required to illustrate the object of explicit, sourced analytical commentary, and where that commentary needs visual support to be understood.

Additional images in an article outside of the infobox must also comply with non-free content criteria, for the same reasons as above, and should strive to use free images whenever possible. Free images can be used from Wikimedia Commons. (Examples of when not to include non-free content can be seen at WP:Non-free content § Images.)

After uploading a suitable image, which can be done with the File Upload Wizard:

Example images that meet the criteria:

Lead paragraphs

The lead paragraphs of an article should serve both as a quick introduction to the topic, and as a concise overview of the article itself, as per the Lead section style guideline. For example, an article on a television series should begin with basic information about the show, such as when it first premiered, genre(s) and setting, who created or developed the show, its primary broadcasting station or streaming platform (typically the studio that produces the show), and when the show stopped airing (the first airing of the final episode), etc. All genre classifications throughout the article, including in the lead, should be reliably sourced and comply with Wikipedia's due weight policy and represent what is specified by a majority of mainstream reliable sources.

A series's nationality (country of origin) should be referenced by reliable sources, directly if possible, but otherwise by referencing the country or collaboration within which principal creative control was exercised. If singularly defined, it should be identified in the opening sentence. If the nationality is not singular or cannot be supported by appropriate citation, omit the information from the introductory sentence and cover the different national interests later, where these can reliably be referenced.

A good example of a first paragraph (taken from The Simpsons):

The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of American life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. Set in the fictional town of Springfield, it caricatures society, Western culture, television, and the human condition.

The lead should also summarize the major points of the rest of the article: premise, basic production information (e.g. where the show is filmed), principal cast, critical reception, influences, place in popular culture, major awards, and anything else that made it unique. The appropriate length of the section depends on the length of the article; it should be a short, but useful and complete, summary of the topic. (For appropriate-length guidelines, please see WP:Manual of Style/Lead section § Length.) A rule of thumb is to write at least one sentence on each section of the article. Information in the lead should always be given due weight, so if an article has twice as much information about the writing as it does about the filming, the lead should also say more about the writing.

The lead should avoid peacock words and superlatives. The phrase "award-winning" should not be used since it provides insufficient context; major awards and accolades may be mentioned in the lead with no more than a single sentence.

References to the show, and its characters and locations, should always be in the present tense, as the show will still exist even after it is no longer airing new episodes (e.g. "The Dick Van Dyke Show is a show that aired from 1961 to 1966."). In the case of some defunct non-fiction and live programs, most production and broadcast information should be referred to in past tense. However, the program's existence should still be in present tense (e.g. "The Afternoon Show is a British talk show which was broadcast by Channel 1 between 2008 and 2011. The programme was hosted by Susan Jones and John Smith and recorded in London...").

Plot section

Plot summaries provide context, allowing a reader who has not seen the work to understand the other sections of the article that comment on the plot (such as "Production" or "Reception"). Therefore, this section should be the first in an article, or as close to the start as possible. In addition to "Plot", other appropriate headings for this section may be "Premise", "Synopsis", or "Overview". All articles should contain a few sentences in the lead to summarize the overall storyline, generally done via a non-copyrighted logline or preview summary.

Plot sections should summarize the core storyline(s), but not offer a scene-by-scene sequence of everything that happens, or attempt to evaluate, interpret or analyze it. Avoid minutiae like dialogue, scene-by-scene breakdowns, individual jokes, or technical detail. Also avoid information that belongs in other sections, such as actors' names. Overly detailed summaries are unencyclopedic. Material copied verbatim from other sources can risk a breach of US copyright law, and a plot summary may not be copied from elsewhere unless its license is compatible with Wikipedia use. Also note that Wikipedia's content disclaimer and guideline on spoilers is that an episode's important events should be outlined without censoring details considered spoilers, and without a disclaimer or warning.

Plot summaries, and other aspects of a program's content, such as its credits, may be sourced from the works themselves, as long as only basic descriptions are given. Exceptions to this include lost episodes (which are not available to the public to verify), for which editors are required to use secondary sources. Any content that is analytical, interpretive or evaluative should not be in the plot summary, unless it is necessary to clarify an unclear or contentious plot point, in which case it must be accompanied by a secondary source.

For main series articles, plot summaries of no more than 200 words per episode should ideally be presented in a table using {{Episode table}} and {{Episode list}} (such as State of Affairs). If appropriate, these articles could instead include a prose plot summary of no more than 500 words per season (such as Scouted) instead of an episode table, but an article should not have both an episode table with summaries and a prose plot summary. If the plot summaries are moved to a separate list of episodes (such as with Outlander) or to individual season articles (such as with Monk), then the plot summary at the series article should be replaced with a simple overview or premise section that allocates around 100 words per season (such as a logline for each season in non-copyrighted language). This may lead to articles about long-running series having quite long premise sections; it is highly recommended that these be cut down, as this should be a brief overview that avoids redundancy with the more detailed plot summaries that have been split off. Individual season articles should use either episode tables with no more than 200 words per episode (such as Smallville (season 1)), or a prose summary of no more than 500 words, not both. Episode articles should have a prose plot summary of no more than 400 words.

For non-fiction series, such as talk shows, game shows, news programming or reality shows, a "plot summary" may be interpreted as an outline of the show's format or gameplay rules; in such cases, the heading may be changed to "Format" or "Gameplay" as appropriate. This will likely be enough for news programming or talk shows. However, some non-scripted reality series may require summaries similar to scripted series, in which case they should follow the guidelines above.

Cast and characters information

Information about cast and characters should generally be presented in one of two ways:

  • Cast list: In a section titled "Cast" or "Cast and characters", indicate the name of the cast member and their noteworthy role(s), followed by a brief description of the character. Example: Fringe (TV series); see also Jonny Lee Miller example below
  • Characters list: In a section titled "Characters" or "List of characters", indicate noteworthy characters, including the name of their portrayer, followed by a brief description of the character. Example: Mutant X (TV series); see also Frasier Crane example below

In accordance with the guideline on boldface, actors and roles should not be bolded, nor should they be in italics. Follow correct syntax when compiling lists. List items in MediaWiki cannot contain line breaks, as they create accessibility problems. To insert a line break in the output, use the <br /> tag, or a template such as {{break}}. Style should be consistent throughout a given list; examples include:

In some cases, such as unscripted shows with a small cast or series where the cast frequently changes, it may be more appropriate to include cast information in prose form. It could be presented in an appropriately titled section (e.g. "Presenters") or as a subsection of the "Production" section (such as at The Price Is Right). To avoid redundancy, use only one method. It may be more appropriate to use a character list for a series where an actor portrays several characters.

Remember to follow the notability guidelines when creating a cast list; not every character deserves to be listed and fewer will justify an individual article (most series have no characters that need stand-alone articles). It may be appropriate to split the cast listing by "Main" and "Recurring" cast or characters. If the series is long-running, and has a large number of recurring guest stars, it may be better to create a separate list of characters articles (see below for style guidelines on "List of ..." pages).

The cast listing should be ordered according to the original broadcast credits, with new cast being added to the end of the list.[a] Articles should reflect the entire history of a series, and as such cast members remain on the list even after their departure. Please keep in mind that although "main" cast members are determined by the producers (not by popularity, screen time, or episode count) and generally have a set order in the credits, recurring and guest stars will not necessarily be credited in the same order in each episode, so their place in the list should be based on the order of credits from the first episode in which they appear. The cast listing should not contain an episode count, such as "(6 episodes)" or "(episodes 1–6)", to indicate the number of episodes in which the actor or character appeared. If an actor misses an episode due to a real-world occurrence, such as an injury, this can be noted in the character's description or "Production" section, supported by a reliable source. New casting information for forthcoming characters should be added to the bottom of the list, with their position readjusted if necessary as defined above.

A cast member or character appearing in more than one episode, or in two or more consecutive episodes, does not necessarily mean that character has a "recurring" role. An actor or character may simply have a guest role across several episodes, rather than a recurring story arc throughout the show. If reliable sources cannot adequately distinguish between recurring or guest roles, then local consensus should determine their status.

All names should be referred to as credited, or by common name supported by a reliable source. For unscripted shows where cast are referred to in a program by a stage name or first name only, that name should be used in episode descriptions, but their full proper name (where available) should be used in cast lists. In subsequent sections dealing with real-world information, their surname should be used.

Cast tables (such as the one found at The Killing (American TV series) § Cast) can be used as a visual representation of cast duration for multi-season programs but should not be used for programs with fewer than three seasons or where cast changes are minimal. Only cast members who have been part of the main cast for at least one season should be included. If a program has a separate article about casting, the table should only appear in that article or in the parent article but not both. A separate cast table for recurring cast can be included in articles listing characters and cast but should never be included in parent series articles.

Try to avoid using the section as a repository for "in-universe" information that belongs in the plot summary; instead, focus on real-world information about the characters and actors (such as, casting of the actor or how the character was created and developed over the series). The key is to provide real-world context to the character using production information, without simply re-iterating entertainment websites such as IMDb.

Contestant progress tables

In articles about elimination-style reality television programs, by default progress of contestants should be presented in a table, but there are circumstances that may justify excluding a table, and such tables should comply with accessibility guidelines. In general, the presence (or not) of tables should be consistent across a particular show. Tables supplement and enhance prose. The existence of vandalism alone is insufficient a reason to exclude tables from an article.

Background and production

Whether for the main article, season, or episode article, this section could contain the following parts:

  • Development: This can cover the development of a series, season or episode, including what led to its creation, production entities behind the project, as well as its format (such as with a game show or reality series).
  • Casting: This can cover the hiring of actors or personalities associated with the series or episode.
  • Writing: This can include notable writers and the development of any scripts.
  • Production design: This could highlight information about set design or special features that make up a set or scene, or other design elements such as costumes, makeup and practical effects, or title sequences.
  • Filming: This can cover aspects related to filming, such as locations, single-camera or multi-camera format, equipment used, and filming dates.
  • Visual effects: This could include individuals or companies related to the visual effects of a show, and how the effects were developed and incorporated.
  • Music: This could include details of the composers and how any scores or themes were developed and recorded. The template {{Infobox album}} can be used for the score or the collection, although cover images of the albums are discouraged (album covers are generally visually similar to posters and other material for a series, season or episode, having cover images for the album is considered extraneous). If an album is notable enough for a stand-alone article (see notability guidelines for albums), an album infobox with a cover image can exist in the new article. Tracks from the score can be identified and discussed in prose, or used with the {{Track listing}} template.
  • Cancellation and future: This may address details that led to a show's cancellation, or the status of any future plans.

This section should be structured to fit the content and type of article being written. Not all shows will have information on each element. For example, if there is sufficient material about each topic, the section could be divided into subsections as above, or it might be more beneficial to have some material combined (e.g. a "Development and writing" or "Filming and visual effects" section).

This section should not be an indiscriminate collection of information, but provide context for what is included. For example, it should not simply list crew members, film locations, or dates of events (e.g. David Nutter was an associate producer) but instead be relevant in context (e.g. John and James Smith left their roles as executive producers in 2007 after a falling out with the studio, with Susan Doe taking over for the series's eighth season. Doe would leave after one year so that she could produce a new show for the network.)

Themes and analysis

Themes are unifying or dominant ideas and motifs in a television show's elements (such as plot, dialogue, photography, and sound) conveying a position or message about life, society, and human nature. Most themes are implied rather than explicitly stated, regardless of whether their presence is the conscious intent of the producer, writer, or director. Inclusion of a treatment of a shows's themes – well-sourced and cited to avoid original research – is encouraged since an article's value to a reader and its real-world context will be enhanced by this inclusion. A separate section is not required if it is more appropriate to place the material in the "Production" or "Reception" sections. This information may be more applicable to a series or a season article than to an individual episode article, although episode articles may contain such information if available.


A section titled "Release" can be added if information exists for two or more of the following subsections. If only one of those below is able to be used, do not use any subsections under "Release" to avoid single subsections. It may be beneficial to forgo the inclusion of this section if the only information available results in a single sentence such as "[Series] aired on [Network] from [Date 1] to [Date 2].", as this information can be noted in a preceding section.


This subsection should cover broadcast and release information about the series or season. This can include: the original network or streaming service of release in the country of production (e.g. the British network for a British series such as Doctor Who); a change in network throughout the run, such as with Futurama; start and end dates; and discussion of technical data such as picture and audio format, accompanied by critical commentary. Days or timeslots are not inherently notable, but if covering a series that switches these during its run, it may be helpful to note them for each season. If episodes are released all at once on a streaming service, it may be more appropriate to title this section "Release" rather than "Broadcast". Any syndication deals can also be noted.

As Wikipedia is not a television guide, do not include an indiscriminate list of every network that carried a series outside the country of production. Editors are encouraged instead to add noteworthy foreign broadcasts, if reliably sourced. These can include: broadcasts in primarily English-speaking nations such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand; special cases such as an American series airing its finale first in France; or a mass international distribution deal, such as Netflix acquiring the international rights for Riverdale and Designated Survivor. If reliable sources exist for English broadcasts in other countries, a talk page discussion should decide whether these are notable.

Home media and streaming services

This subsection should be used to detail release on home media (VHS, DVD, Blu-ray etc.; written as prose). Features about a home media set should be presented in prose format, with focus only going to unique features. Listing of every episode with a commentary track or deleted scenes is discouraged – this type of information can be readily provided by any sales vendor. Instead, focusing on special featurettes that discuss something unique about the season would be appropriate. This section can also include reviews about the home media (e.g., special features, sound and video quality, price/quality-quantity, etc.) and sales information.

The addition or removal of a season or series to a streaming service (Netflix, Amazon Prime, etc.) or other on-demand service can also be noted here. Given the information available, it may be beneficial to combine this information with physical home media information, rather than having separate sections for each.


The reception information should include details such as critical reviews and analysis, audience viewership (ratings), any award nominations or wins, and any cultural impact.

For the main article, it is best to seek critical reviews that look at the series as a whole, while season and episode articles can use more selective reviews. Reviews should preferably come from global media outlets (such as the Associated Press, Reuters, Canadian Press), major newspapers (such as USA Today, Toronto Star, The Times) and major entertainment publications (such as TV Guide, The A.V. Club, The Hollywood Reporter, Variety, Entertainment Weekly). These reviews can either critique the show, or comment on its impact. They should not just be descriptions of the episodes, and preferably should not exceed two or three sentences per critic, so as not to give undue weight to any one reviewer.

Reviews should be paraphrased as much as possible, avoiding vague, non-descriptive claims that do not provide the context necessary to understand the reviewer's conclusions. If a review only contains such claims, without providing the rationale and examples to back them, then it should usually not be used. Describing a show with superlatives such as "critically acclaimed", "universal acclaim" or "audience or ratings bomb" is loaded language and an exceptional claim that must be attributed to multiple high-quality sources. Using reviews from the show's country of origin is recommended, although evaluations from several English-speaking countries are desirable. Be careful when searching for reviews to make sure they are coming from professional reviewers, and not from a fan of the series. Review aggregation websites such as Rotten Tomatoes or Metacritic are citable for data pertaining to the ratio of positive to negative reviews; caution should be exercised when using aggregator scores that combine original reviews with reviews from later dates, or where reviews of selected episodes are averaged to form a season or series score that is not comprehensive. Where Metacritic indications are quoted, it should be made clear that this is Metacritic's view and not the article's. The use of prevalent summary styles or templates is not required.

Unless quoting an author from a reliable source citing public commentary, do not quote comments from members of the general public (e.g., user comments from, the Internet Movie Database or personal blogs), as they are self-published and their authors have no proven expertise or credibility. Do not include user ratings submitted to websites such as the Internet Movie Database, Metacritic, or Rotten Tomatoes (including its "Audience Says" feature), as they are vulnerable to vote stacking and demographic skew.

Information about audience size should use reliably sourced official ratings data, such as Nielsen ratings (US), Numeris (CAN), BARB (UK), OzTAM (AU); see the Television FAQ page for further suggested sources. Depending on the nature of the article, it may be easier to maintain seasonal averages for the main page using a template such as {{Television season ratings}}, while season and episode articles could contain a list of ratings for each episode using {{Television episode ratings}}). Unless the ratings of all episodes are below one million viewers, viewership should be presented in tables or templates as being rounded to the nearest million (for example, 2,653,000 should be written as 2.65). Ratings should only be included from the program's country of origin or where it debuts, unless viewership is particularly notable in another territory and can be reliably sourced. Similarly, ratings should only be included for the first run of a program unless reliable sources show that the ratings for a subsequent release are particularly noteworthy. Lists of ratings on episode articles should be included under headers that state the season involved, without a year, to comply with Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Section headings in not having headers duplicate any pre-existing headers.

Awards and nominations can also go in this section. In order to present a global perspective, it would also be beneficial to the article to find international reception. Any awards tables should follow WP:ACCESSIBILITY.

This section can also contain information on how the show has impacted society, for example if it created a craze, popularized a word (such as Seinfeld with "yada, yada, yada"), revolutionized the medium (e.g. Sesame Street in children's television; the mini-series Roots), or similar (for example many American stores and businesses closed early on Mondays to allow employees to get home to watch I Love Lucy).

Media information

This section can be broken up into individual sections if need be. It would typically consist of marketing and merchandising, adaptations to other media (novels, comics, video games, etc.), or spin-off series.

Character article structure

When creating an article on a single character, the section headers below are not mandatory, and some such good and featured articles have different section headers (and placement). Find the structure that works best for the particular article, with real world context.


General character infoboxes can be found at Template:Infobox character, though editors should see if the character article they are creating is part of a larger Wikipedia community (e.g. Buffyverse task force or WikiProject The Simpsons) as those respective communities may have a special infobox already created.

When filling in the infobox, useful infobox data might include the creators or actors, first appearance, an image, and in-universe information essential to understanding the entity's context in the overall fiction. What qualifies as essential varies based on the nature of the work. Where facts change at different points in a story or series, there may be no appropriate in-universe information at all to add. By contrast, the average reader is probably not going to know who every member of Chloe Sullivan's family is, so it would not be essential to list them all. On the other hand, the average reader probably knows who Lois Lane is, and listing her as Chloe's cousin would be essential to understanding the character.

The same can be said for information that is rather obvious to the reader. If the image in the infobox clearly shows a black female, then listing the race and sex of the character would be redundant; this is regardless of the fact that the show the character appears on happens to contain characters that appear female but are really male. Now, if the character image is of a black female, but in fact the sex of the character is "male", then it would be essential to indicate this in the infobox – be sure to cite a source for this type of information.

Lead paragraphs

Like any article, the first paragraph should consist of basic information about the character: who created the character, where they first appeared, who portrayed the character (if applicable), a general overview of where the character has appeared (no specific episodes). The subsequent paragraphs should be filled with generalized information on the character itself: characteristics, influences in popular culture, and anything else that summarizes the character's importance.

As an example of lead paragraphs:

Professor Bernard Quatermass is a fictional scientist, originally created by the writer Nigel Kneale for BBC Television. An intelligent and highly moral British scientist, Quatermass is a pioneer of the British space programme, heading the British Experimental Rocket Group. He continually finds himself confronting sinister alien forces that threaten to destroy humanity.


Like every article, the use of non-free images must comply with Wikipedia's policy on fair-use images. When looking for an image for the character infobox, ideally use one that best represents the character in question – this can sometimes be a promotional image, which provide better lighting of the character. Images in the body of the article could consist of concept designs for the character, behind-the-scenes images, and any others that have critical commentary adjacent that requires an image to illustrate what is written.

Role in "SHOW NAME"

This section should chronicle the character's appearances on their respective show, and any appearances on other programs or media. If the character has only appeared on the one show, and no other media, then the title could be as represented above, or similar (e.g. Character storyline). If the character has appeared in media beyond the television show, such as a comic book based on the show or a film adaptation, then it may be better to subdivide by medium (e.g. "Television", "Film", "Literature") and label the section "Appearances". Regardless of the title, this section is not a character's biography and should not be a detailed recording of their every move, as this can create an overly long section devoted entirely to in-universe information – think of it as being similar to a plot section of an episode article; the information should be succinct. Instead, set out the major events that involve the character. Avoid using "Biography" as the header, as it can mislead editors into detailing everything that happened to the character.

For drama shows where there are long-running storyline arcs, it is reasonable to describe a character's arc split into individual seasons, but avoid using a per-episode breakdown. Instead consider the key events that happen to the character across multiple episodes, tying in with those of the overall show. It is good to provide episode names inline or episode citation references to help with verification of the content. In other shows like sit-coms where there is little episode continuity, write about characters from the perspective of the entire show.

Concept and creation

Similar to a production section of an episode article, this section should contain information about how the character was first envisioned, what ideas helped create the character, and how the creative team went about casting an actor for the role. If the actor portraying the character had to wear make-up or body prosthetics, then this is the place to detail the work that went into giving the character their specific appearance.


Included here should be information about the character's personality, motives, and interpretations of their actions. If essential to understanding the character, include a description of their physical appearance (not the same as describing the work that went into creating their physical appearance). Not every character's physical appearance is noteworthy, so use good judgement. Information for this section will typically come from secondary sources, like scholarly journals analyzing the character or the show, or television critics. It could also come from the creative team of the show.


Reception for a specific character may not always be found, or it may have a better home in another section. Generally, this would be where critical response to the character—not necessarily an analysis of the character, like what would be found in the "Characterization" section—would be placed. A character might be deemed to be a hindrance to the show because of poor writing, or poor acting; on the other hand, the character could be deemed important to the show for the very opposite of reasons. Information on how the character has progressed throughout the series, or how they were portrayed would also be important aspects to consider.

Impact on popular culture

Some television characters have influences on other television shows, or in other entertainment mediums. For instance, Billy West based his performance as Zapp Brannigan on The Simpsons character Troy McClure[dubiousdiscuss]. A character might be so popular that toys, video games, and other merchandise are created based on said character. This section deals with how a television character reaches outside their respective show, and becomes part of popular culture in some fashion. Analyses should be backed by reliable sources and not just by personal observations.

"List of ..." structure

The overall list structure should be flexible and responsive to unique or exceptional aspects of individual series or list of characters, but the following guidelines should be followed in most cases. (General list-article guidelines are available at WP:Stand-alone lists.)


A single representative image should be placed at the top of the list article, aligned to the right, with an appropriate caption. The image should be uploaded and include an appropriate fair use rationale to comply with Wikipedia policies. Ideally for episode lists, this image will be the title screen from the series, or the typeface logo of the series name. For character lists, an image showing the whole cast, or most of the series regulars, is useful at the top of the article, while an image for every individual character is generally not appropriate, unless the amount of critical commentary on the character's appearance warrants an illustration. When offering such commentary, cite the sources of the commentary in addition to the source of the image, for example in the thumbnail of the image, in the paragraph commenting on the image or both. Additionally, multiple non-free images should not be used within a list article.


The lead of an episode or character list should keep the recommendations of Wikipedia:Lead section, and for episode listings, follow the general idea stated above with regard to article leads.

For a good episode example, see List of The O.C. episodes:

The O.C. is an American teen drama television series created by Josh Schwartz. It premiered on Fox, an American television network, on August 5, 2003, with the pilot episode "Premiere". The O.C. is set in Newport Beach, Orange County, California and follows the stories of residents in the wealthy, harbor-front community. The series mainly focuses around the Cohen and Cooper families, and the Cohen's adoption of Ryan Atwood, a troubled teenager from Chino, California.[1] The show ran until February 22, 2007, with 92 episodes split over 4 seasons. The first season consisted of twenty-seven episodes, the second season was twenty-four episodes long and preceded by two specials that gave a retrospective look at season one, and previewed the upcoming second season. Season three was twenty-five episodes long, but only sixteen episodes were ordered for the final fourth season as falling ratings led to the show's cancellation.[2]

For a good character list example, see Characters of Kingdom Hearts, although it is not a television-related article:

Kingdom Hearts is a series of action role-playing video games developed and published by Square Enix (formerly Square). It is the result of a collaboration between Square and Disney Interactive Studios. Kingdom Hearts is a crossover of various Disney settings based in a universe made specifically for the series. The series features a mixture of familiar Disney and Final Fantasy characters, as well as several new characters designed and created by Tetsuya Nomura. In addition, it has an all-star voice cast which includes many of the Disney characters' official voice actors.

The series centers around the main character Sora's search for his friends and his encounters with Disney and Final Fantasy characters on their worlds. There are few playable characters in the games, though there are numerous characters that are able to join Sora's party as computer controlled members. The majority of the characters were introduced in the first game, Kingdom Hearts. Several new characters were introduced in the sequel, Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories, which also featured alternate versions of previous characters created from Sora's memories. The third game, Kingdom Hearts II, added more Disney and Final Fantasy characters as well as introduced new antagonists.

Episode listing

Ideally, the episode list will be presented as a table. There are various ways to create the episode table, refer to the list of featured episode lists to find the table that best represents that article being created. Episodes should generally be arranged in order of airdate, with any notable production discrepancies covered in appropriate notes or in a production section. However, there may be situations where ordering by airdate would not be beneficial to readers, such as with Firefly and List of Futurama episodes, and should be discussed to determine the best approach to list the episodes, with reliable secondary sources needed to support a different ordering.

Episode title, writers, directors, episode numbers, airdates, production codes, and viewership numbers must be reliably sourced, either from the opening/closing credits or from secondary sources (preferred, see WP:RSPRIMARY). In the WGA screenwriting credit system, an ampersand (&) is used to indicate a writing team or duo, while "and" is used to separate multiple writers who are not part of a team. Such distinctions, as credited, should be used in tables. A summary of the plot can be included and should be brief (100–200 words), but complete, including spoilers.

If the episode lists includes episodes from multiple seasons, give them appropriate section headers such as "Season 1", "Season 2", or "Series 1", "Series 2" if that is the identifier for the show.

Series overview

When a television show has produced two or more seasons/series, it may be advantageous to set out the episode data in a series overview table. This should be placed where a reader would expect to find information about specific episodes. If a show's episode list is in the main article, the series overview should be presented at the top of the episode list. If a separate "List of episodes" article exists, the table should be presented in a "Series overview" section just below that article's lead, then transcluded to the episodes section at the main article.


The basic overview table should contain:

SeasonEpisodesOriginally aired
First airedLast aired
126September 8, 2012 (2012-09-08)June 15, 2013 (2013-06-15)
226September 13, 2013 (2013-09-13)June 21, 2014 (2014-06-21)

If a television program has enough reliable sources to support viewership data, the overview should resemble the following:

SeasonEpisodesOriginally airedAverage viewership
(in millions)
First airedLast aired
126September 8, 2012 (2012-09-08)June 15, 2013 (2013-06-15)3.2[1]
226September 13, 2013 (2013-09-13)June 21, 2014 (2014-06-21)2.2[2]

If additional viewership information can be obtained with adequate sources, the fully-expanded overview should resemble this format:

SeasonEpisodesOriginally airedRankRatingAverage viewership
(in millions)
First airedLast aired
126September 8, 2012 (2012-09-08)June 15, 2013 (2013-06-15)5511.83.2[1]
226September 13, 2013 (2013-09-13)June 21, 2014 (2014-06-21)659.22.2[2]
  • A new season should be added to the overview table only after a section header has been created for it (either because an episode table has been created, a season article exists, or substantial information about the season is available; see MOS:TVUPCOMING for more details).
  • If a new season is airing on a new network from previous seasons, a "Network" column should be added after the "Last aired" column.
  • If average viewership numbers are included, they should be properly sourced or routinely calculated with a public method approved by consensus, rather than from personal private calculations. Sourcing or reproducibility is crucial for accuracy and to help other editors quickly respond to numerical vandalism.
  • Since many series do not have proper "premieres" and "finales", such language should be avoided in the overview, with "first aired" and "last aired" used instead. There are practical reasons for this: Some networks air series previews (e.g., Fanboy & Chum Chum) in advance of that show's official "premiere". Restricting the series overview to the literal "first aired" date in the intended market avoids any confusion; the first aired date would be that preview date. Further, if a series is cancelled before it can tie up loose ends with a proper "finale", the table header will not need to be changed to reflect this unpredictable event and will be consistent with other articles.
  • Check the documentation of {{Series overview}} for multiple ways to add further information to a television series's overview.
  • It is preferable to link the season number within the table to the appropriate section at the "List of episodes" article, or if a unique episode list article has not yet been created, link to the appropriate season section within the main article.
  • The overview table should be presented compactly, for ease of viewing across multiple devices. Since some users have large monitors, overviews that span the user's entire screen are not useful.
  • Colors for the seasons are often selected based on the series logo, DVD or promotional artwork, or for other reasons. Colors must conform to the color guideline, which attempts to make content accessible for the visually impaired, such as readers with colorblindness. Once established, colors that meet that guideline should not be changed arbitrarily without discussion.
  • Home media releases do not belong in the series overview tables. Such data can quickly overload a simple table and are not germane to our understanding of the series. Home media release information is best suited within their own section on the "List of episodes" article or main article.
  • If data does not exist yet, fields can be left blank. Alternatively, editors can use TBA (to be announced) as a placeholder, with the wikicode, {{N/a|TBA}} until the data becomes available. Once a trend has been established, it should not be changed arbitrarily without discussion. Additionally, if the data is determined to not be available, a blank or "TBA" field can be changed to "N/a" (not applicable, not available) to indicate such with {{N/a}}.

Multiple pages

For very lengthy series, generally 80+ episodes, it may be necessary to break the episode list into individual season or story arc lists. These lists are often the first stepping stone for season articles, but generally lack the amount of real world information (e.g. production, themes, etc.) that a season article has. They may contain some awards or a reception section, but they are generally a list of information pertaining to that respective season.

If this is done, the main list of episodes should still contain the entire episode list, appropriately sectioned, without the episode summaries. Each section should have a {{main}} link to the sublist. These separate lists should include a full lead, as noted above, and follow the same guidelines laid out here as they will be evaluated as stand alone articles.

In circumstances when a series with two or more seasons has achieved significant coverage earlier in its run and its main article can no longer contain all of the information sufficiently, beyond just episode tables and summaries, season pages may be created.

Forthcoming or announced seasons

When a series is renewed for an additional season, a section is not to be added for that season until such time as an episode table can be created. Information regarding the renewal should be added to the article's lead, when it is revealed. An example is the lead from List of Person of Interest episodes, when the series was renewed for a fourth season in March 2014 with an air date that had not yet been announced:

Person of Interest is an American crime drama television series created for CBS by Jonathan Nolan, who serves as an executive producer alongside J. J. Abrams, Bryan Burk, Greg Plageman and Richard J. Lewis. The series stars Jim Caviezel as John Reese, a presumed dead former CIA agent who is approached by a mysterious billionaire named Harold Finch (Michael Emerson) to prevent violent crimes before they happen by using an advanced surveillance technology. Their unique brand of vigilante justice attracts the attention of two NYPD officers, Joss Carter (Taraji P. Henson) and Lionel Fusco (Kevin Chapman), whom Reese uses to his advantage as he investigates persons of interest.

On March 13, 2014, CBS renewed the show for a fourth season,[3] later announcing that the series will return in 2014 as part of the 2014–15 television season.[4]

The second paragraph seen above is the proper formatting, in order to comply with the seasons guideline. Once a scheduled premiere date is announced, the information between the two reference tags above may be changed to indicate the scheduled start, as seen here:

On March 13, 2014, CBS renewed the show for a fourth season,[3] which is scheduled to premiere on September 23, 2014.[5]

Years should not be added to a season section heading until an episode airs in that calendar year. For example, for the eleventh season of NCIS, the heading on its list of episodes page would have been "Season 11" until September 23, 2013. After episode 1 aired on September 24, 2013, it would be changed to "Season 11 (2013)". And finally, once episode 12 aired on January 7, 2014, it would be changed once again to "Season 11 (2013–14)" or "Season 11 (2013–2014)", depending on local usage of year ranges. Sections for ratings tables on episode articles should only include the season, not the year (see § Reception for more).

Possible instances when a section header may be added for a season before an episode table is ready could include: a separate article exists for the season and meets notability guidelines (in which case a section header followed by a "main article" link leading to the season article would be appropriate); if substantial information for the season is available but there is no separate season article and it could not be easily included in the lead. An example of the latter is taken from the "Season 8" section on The Big Bang Theory list of episodes page, before a season page or episode table was created:

In February 2014, CBS CEO Les Moonves confirmed an eighth season, when announcing that the first half of the new season would air on a different night, due to CBS acquiring the rights to Thursday Night Football games. The show will return to its Thursday slot that it has held for the past few seasons once the football games end.[6] The series is scheduled to premiere on Monday, September 22, 2014, as well as scheduled to return to its previous Thursday time slot on October 30.[7]

Production for the season was expected to begin on July 30, 2014, however the start may have been delayed due to the five main cast members looking to renegotiate new contracts, with Jim Parsons, Johnny Galecki and Kaley Cuoco seeking around $1 million per episode, as well as more backend money. Simon Helberg and Kunal Nayyar are negotiating together, separate from Parsons, Galecki and Cuoco's negotiations.[8] Production was officially delayed on July 30, due to the contract negotiations,[9] and was rescheduled for August 6, 2014.[10] On August 4, Parsons, Galecki and Cuoco signed new contracts, worth $1 million per episode for three years, with the possibility to extend for a fourth year. The deals also include larger pieces of the show, signing bonuses, production deals and advances towards the back-end.[11] The following day, Helberg and Nayyar renegotiated their contracts, giving them a per-episode pay in the "mid six-figure range", up from around $100,000 per episode they each received in years prior. Production was expected to begin on August 6, in order to fulfill the 24-episode season order.[11][12]

During the season, Sheldon's whereabouts will be revealed in the season premiere, Stuart will still be Mrs. Wolowitz's caretaker and Penny will abandon her plans of being an actress to be a salesperson at Bernadette's pharmaceutical company, which will cause problems between her and Leonard.[13]

DVD and Blu-ray releases

The inclusion of DVD and Blu-ray releases in episode lists is not a requirement but up to editor preference.

Such releases, if included, should be in a "Home media" section, which includes all primary release dates (i.e. Region 1, Region 2, and Region 4 DVD codes and A, B, and C for Blu-ray). If the series is available on VHS or Laser disc, name the section Home video releases instead and note the VHS releases with the DVD and Blu-ray information. Include a column in the table for VHS release date(s) if different from the DVD and/or Blu-ray release(s). This table's presentation is up to the editors of the article; feel free to inspect featured lists or featured articles to find an appropriate presentation of releases for the article. Please cite the sources for the release information using citation templates, such as the company website showing release information or the DVD, Blu-ray, VHS, or Laser disc itself.

Article splitting

When considering whether to split article content from the main page into a "List of episodes" page, a season page, or an individual episode page Wikipedia's guideline for splitting content should be taken into account. Accordingly, a split should occur when an article reaches 50kB to 60kB of readable prose. To determine this (using Prosesize), simply click the "Page size" icon in the banner on the left of the article's page; readable prose will be highlighted in yellow. Because of episode table coding, episode summaries are not highlighted nor counted in this number. To assist editors, an episode summary of approximately 200 words (see WP:TVPLOT above) creates an estimated 1kB of readable prose.

Considering episode summaries alone, it would take between 50 and 60 episodes to warrant separating those off to a "List of episodes" page. However, additional content usually exists on a series's parent article, so it is recommended that this guide be applied after determining the size of readable prose for the rest of the article. For example, an article with readable prose listed at 15kB, which has an episode list of 15 episodes, would be at approximately 30kB of readable prose. That would generally not be appropriate for splitting, regardless of how many seasons those episodes encompass. An article that is 40kB of readable prose, not factoring in the episode table, would most likely require splitting as the main page is sufficiently large to justify it.

When splitting from a "List of episodes" into season pages, or into individual episode articles, the size of the page may require a larger threshold before splitting IF the only information available are episode summaries and ratings for the show (as ratings themselves would never be counted as "readable prose"). A "List of episodes" page would need a threshold closer to 70kB to 80kB (approximately 70 to 80 episodes). There should be real world content to accompany any additional split that is not simply a duplication of the main page's content (e.g., reception specifically for that season, or that episode; production information for the season or the episode), or duplication of the season page's content (e.g., an episode article that contains one or two reviews, and used the overall production information about the season that isn't specific to any one episode). This is because notability is not inherited from a parent article, and all articles must stand on their own. So be careful when splitting pages too soon; if the material for the new article is too short to provide encyclopedic coverage of the subject, or would simply duplicate the summary that would be left behind, then it may be too soon to move.

Please remember that anytime a split has occurred, proper attribution must be noted, usually via both the edit summary in the original article and in the new article.

Character listing

Treat individual character sections within articles about shows as if they were mini-character articles and refer to the above style guidelines. Given that the character is part of a list, and does not have its own article, there probably will not be a reason to have subsections underneath the character header. If there is a lot of real world information available, but not enough to separate the character, then simply separate the distinctive topics into their own paragraphs.


The preferred method for sourcing information is inline citations with footnotes in this section. (For instructions, see Help:Footnotes and WP:Citing sources.) In rare cases, it might be advisable to include a "See also" or "Further reading" section.

External links

Links to the Official Website or IMDb profile pages should go in the external links section of the article. Linking to a major fansite may be appropriate, if it can be determined that that fansite is more significant than any random fansite on the web. For example, Craig Byrne, the webmaster for Kryptonsite—a fansite devoted to Smallville and several other fantasy driven shows—has written four official companion books for the show that contain detailed interviews with the cast and crew, as well as behind-the-scenes information on the episodes of the show. As such, including a link to Kryptonsite in this section would be relevant, but editors must be careful as many shows inspire dozens of fansites, and Wikipedia is not a repository of links. Things like forums or blogs should not be linked to.


  • In general, link relevant connections to another article that will help readers to understand the current article more fully; articles explaining technical terms (e.g., "diegetic music", but not commonly understood words such as "television" and "studio"), jargon or slang expressions, unless commonly understood; and articles about geographical places that are likely to be unfamiliar to readers.
  • Avoid linking terms whose meaning can be understood by most readers of the English Wikipedia, including plain English words, the names of major geographic features, locations and nationalities (e.g., "British", "United States"), religions, languages, common professions, common units of measurement, common currencies (e.g., US$) and chronological items such as months and years. Rather than linking them in the body of the text using "hidden" pipes to plain years, which readers are unlikely to click on, consider either (1) listing "Year in television" links, unpiped, in the "See also" section, or (2) clarifying at least the first occurrence as an unpiped link within parentheses in the main text; e.g. "(see 2002 in television)".
  • Consider linking only a more specific item where the target page links to a more general item nearby in the anchor text (Atlanta, Georgia).
  • Generally link only the first occurrence of an item (there are possible exceptions).
  • Always link to the article or section on the most specific topic appropriate to the context from which it is linked: it will generally contain more focused information, as well as links to more general topics.


The standard navigation box for television articles is the {{Navbox}} template. See the template's documentation for instructions on creating a navbox.


Please categorize all TV articles appropriately. Try looking at similar shows as an example and use Category:Television programming as the starting point for finding the right categories. TV series should avoid network categories when they were not originally produced for that network. Exceptions to this include co-productions (such as The 4400), or when a show changes networks during its original run.

Things to avoid

There are several components to a television article—which include articles on individual characters as well—that should be avoided, as they are either unencyclopedic in nature, or are better placed in another section. These include:


As a general rule, do not include taglines in an article. Wikipedia is not an indiscriminate collection of information. However, if a particular tagline was a significant part of the cultural influence of the television program, create a section for it and describe its effects.

Trivia sections

Trivia sections are unencyclopedic and indiscriminate information. Relevant information should be integrated into the body of the article.


Extensive use of these may breach copyright, and many entertainment-related quotations are indiscriminate information. Consider adding these to Wikiquote instead.

Lists of featured music or song lyrics

Original song lyrics for a television episode breach copyright. References to featured music should be supported by reliable sources. Do not just list music: Wikipedia is not a directory. In other words, provide context as to why these songs were used for the show.

Technical errors and continuity issues ("bloopers" or "goofs")

Unsourced sections about technical errors or continuity issues should generally be avoided. If there is a major mistake that is discussed by a reliable source, it can become a part of the production section.

Differences in an adaptation

Sometimes television shows are adapted from another form of media (e.g., The Incredible Hulk). In such cases, an article should not contain merely a list of differences. Differences can be addressed by including text detailing the reasons for a change, its effect upon the production, or the reaction to it, placed within a relevant section (e.g., Production, Themes, or Reception). A simple list of differences is deprecated because it can give undue weight to very minor aspects of the two source materials (such as a character in a show usually wearing a black shirt, but in the original version wears a purple shirt).

Parental ratings

Parental ratings given to episodes of television series by television content rating systems will vary by territories in accordance to their cultures and their types of governance. In television articles, avoid indiscriminate identification of ratings and instead focus on ratings for which there is substantial coverage from reliable sources. Coverage of ratings can include how a series or episode of television is produced to target specific audiences, the late editing of a television episode to acquire a specific rating, or controversy over whether or not a television series or episode's rating was appropriately assigned. Since this is the English-language Wikipedia and not the American Wikipedia, avoid mere identification of ratings issued by American broadcast and cable networks to counter systemic bias (see Wikipedia:WikiProject Countering systemic bias for more information). Provide global coverage of how different territories rate individual television shows or episodes if substantial coverage exists. Retrospective coverage is also welcomed to evaluate how television shows/episodes were rated in their time period. It is recommended that parental ratings information be placed in the "Production" section of the appropriate article, but a stand-alone section can cover controversy surrounding a rating if enough detail exists.


See also


  1. ^ Note that "new cast" does not necessarily mean cast members new to a series, although it can. It refers to any new to the respective cast list. For example, when a previously recurring cast member is promoted to a starring role, such as with Sara Gilbert in The Big Bang Theory, or Richard Harmon in The 100, they are moved to the end of the "starring" lists regardless of the number of episodes in which they previously appeared as a recurring character.


  1. ^ "The O.C." Warner Bros. Retrieved July 20, 2008.
  2. ^ de Moraes, Lisa (January 4, 2007). "Fox Puts 'The O.C.' Out To Pasture". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
  3. ^ a b Kondolojy, Amanda (March 13, 2014). "CBS Renews 'The Good Wife', 'The Millers', 'Two and a Half Men', 'Hawaii Five-0', 'Mom', 'Blue Bloods', 'Elementary' and 11 More". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  4. ^ "CBS unveils 2014–2015 primetime schedule". May 14, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
  5. ^ Fowler, Matt (June 25, 2014). "CBS 2014 Fall Schedule: One-Hour Big Bang Theory Premiere, Elementary Back In October, More". IGN. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
  6. ^ Lieberman, David (February 12, 2014). "CBS Will Launch 'Big Bang Theory' On Different Night As NFL Begins Season On Thursdays". Deadline. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  7. ^ Fowler, Matt (June 25, 2014). "CBS 2014 Fall Schedule: One-Hour Big Bang Theory Premiere, Elementary Back In October, More". IGN. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
  8. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (July 16, 2014). "'The Big Bang Theory' Production Start In Limbo As Cast Contract Negotiations Drag On". Deadline. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
  9. ^ Goldberg, Lesley (July 30, 2014). "'Big Bang Theory' Delays Production as Cast Still Without Contracts". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
  10. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (August 1, 2014). "'The Big Bang Theory' Negotiations Update: Production Start Date Pushed To Next Wednesday As Talks Continue". Retrieved August 1, 2014.
  11. ^ a b Andreeva, Nellie (August 4, 2014). "'Big Bang Theory' Stars Jim Parsons, Johnny Galecki & Kaley Cuoco Close Big New Deals". Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  12. ^ Friedlander, Whitney; Littleton, Cynthia (August 5, 2014). "'Big Bang Theory': Production to Resume as Simon Helberg, Kunal Nayyar Set New Deals". Variety. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  13. ^ "Returning Fall Shows – Where We Left Off". TV Guide. Retrieved August 6, 2014.