Ouled Abdoun Basin

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Coordinates: 32°54′N 6°57′W / 32.900°N 6.950°W / 32.900; -6.950

The Oulad Abdoun Basin (also known as the Ouled Abdoun Basin or Khouribga Basin) is a phosphate sedimentary basin located in Morocco, near the city of Khouribga. It is the largest in Morocco, comprising 44% of Morocco's phosphate reserves, and at least 26.8 billion tons of phosphate.[1][2] It is also known as an important site for vertebrate fossils, with deposits ranging from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Turonian) to the Eocene epoch (Ypresian), a period of about 25 million years.[3]

Geography

The Oulad Abdoun is located west of the Atlas Mountains, near the city of Khouribga. The Oulad Abdoun phosphate deposits encompass some 100 by 45 kilometres (62 by 28 mi), an area of 4,500 square kilometres (1,700 sq mi).[2] The Oulad Abdoun is the largest and northernmost of Morocco's major phosphate basins, which from northeast to southwest, include the Ganntour, Meskala, and Oued Eddahab (Laayoune-Baa) basins.[1][2]

Paleobiota

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.

The Oulad Abdoun Basin stretches from late Cretaceous to the Eocene, and contains abundant marine vertebrate fossils, including sharks, bony fish, turtles, crocodilians, and other reptiles, as well as sea birds and a small number of terrestrial mammals.[3][4]

Bony fish

Bony fish from the Khouribga Phosphates
Genus Species Location Time Material Notes Images
Enchodus E. libycus Maastrichtian An enchodontid aulopiform.
E. bursauxi Maastrichtian
E. elegans Maastrichtian
Pycnodontidae Indeterminate Maastrichtian
Pseudoegertonia P. sp. Maastrichtian
Stephanodus S. libycus Maastrichtian
Stratodus S. apicalis Maastrichtian An alepisauroform.

Sharks

Sharks from the Khouribga Phosphates
Genus Species Location Time Material Notes Images
Abdounia[5] A. africana Selandian A requiem shark.
Casieria C. maghrebiana Selandian
Chiloscyllium C. salvani. Selandian A carpet shark.
Cretalamna C. appendiculata Maastrichtian
C. maroccana Maastrichtian
Delpitoscyllium D. africanum Selandian
Eostegostoma E. sp. Selandian A carpet shark.
Foumtizia F. abdouni Selandian
Galeorhinus G. mesetaensis Selandian
Ginglymostoma G. chenanei Selandian
G. khouribgaense Selandian
Hologinglymostoma H. jaegeri Selandian
Khouribgaleus K. gomphorhiza Selandian
Metlaouia M. delpiti Selandian
Microscyliorhinus M. simplex Selandian
Palaeogaleus P. larachei Selandian
Palaeorhincodon P. daouii Selandian A carpet shark.
Porodermoides P. spanios Selandian
Premontreia P. peypouqueti Selandian
P. subulidens Selandian
Scyliorhinus S. ptychtus Selandian
S. entomodon Selandian
S. sulcidens Selandian
Serratolamna S. serrata Maastrichtian
S. khderii Maastrichtian
Squalicorax S. pristodontus Maastrichtian
S. bassanii Maastrichtian
S. africanus Maastrichtian
S. microserratus Maastrichtian
S. benguerirensis Maastrichtian
Triakis T. antunesi Selandian

Other Cartilaginous Fish

Other Cartilaginous Fish from the Khouribga Phosphates
Genus Species Location Time Material Notes Images
Archaemanta A. priemi Selandian A ray.
Burnhamia B. cf. davisi Selandian A devil ray
Coupatezia C. larivei Selandian A ray.
C. fallax Maastrichtian
C. elevata Maastrichtian
Dasyatis D. ponsi Selandian A stringray.
Delpitia D. reticulata Selandian A ray.
Gymnura G. delpiti Selandian A ray.
Heterobatis H. talbaouii Selandian A ray.
Heterotorpedo H. brahimi Selandian A ray.
Hypolophodon H. sp. Selandian A ray.
Rhombodus R. binkhorsti Maastrichtian A ray.
R. microdus Maastrichtian
R. meridionalis Maastrichtian
Schizorhiza S. stromeri Maastrichtian A sclerorhynchoid skate which resembled a sawfish.

Crocodylomorphs

Crocodylomorphs from the Khouribga Phosphates
Genus Species Location Time Material Notes Images
Arambourgisuchus[6] A. khouribgaensis Thanetian A dyrosaurid.
Atlantosuchus A. coupatezi Danian A dyrosaurid.
Chenanisuchus C. lateroculi Thanetian The most basal known dyrosaurid.
Dyrosaurus P. maghribensis Ypresian A dyrosaur.
Maroccosuchus[7] M. zennaroi Ypresian A tomistomine crocodylian.
Ocepesuchus[8] O. eoafricanus Maastrichtian A gavialoid crocodylian.

Lepidosaurs

Lepidosaurs from the Khouribga Phosphates
Genus Species Location Time Material Notes Images
Mosasaurus[9] M. beaugei Maastrichtian A large mosasaurine mosasaur.
M. hoffmannii Maastrichtian A large mosasaurine mosasaur.
Eremiasaurus E. heterodontus Maastrichtian A mosasaurine mosasaur with unusual cutting dentition.
Halisaurus H. arambourgi Maastrichtian A halisaurine mosasaur.
Globidens G. phosphaticus Maastrichtian A mosasaurine mosasaur with specialized crushing teeth.
G. simplex Maastrichtian
G. aegyptiacus Maastrichtian Now referred to its own genus, Igdamanosaurus.
Igdamanosaurus I. aegyptiacus Maastrichtian
Carinodens C. minalmamar Maastrichtian A small mosasaurine mosasaur with crushing teeth.
Platecarpus P. ptychodon Maastrichtian A nomen dubium. Now referred to its own genus, Gavialimimus.
Gavialimimus[10] G. almaghribensis Maastrichtian An unusual longirostrine plioplatecarpine mosasaur.
Prognathodon P. currii Maastrichtian A large mosasaurine mosasaur.
P. giganteus Maastrichtian
Thalassotitan[11] T. atrox Maastrichtian A large-bodied mosasaurine with powerful jaws, similar to P. currii.
Pluridens[12] P. serpentis Maastrichtian A large halisaurine mosasaur, also known from Niger and Nigeria.
Xenodens[13] X. calminechari Maastrichtian A small mosasaurine mosasaur with unusual, shark-like teeth.
Pachyvaranus P. crassispondylus Maastrichtian A pachyvaranid
Palaeophis[14] P. maghrebianus Ypresian A palaeophiid marine snake.

Plesiosaurs

Plesiosaurs from the Khouribga Phosphates
Genus Species Location Time Material Notes Images
Zarafasaura Z. oceanis Maastrichtian An elasmosaurid plesiosaur with an unusually short skull.

Turtles

Turtles from the Khouribga Phosphates
Genus Species Location Time Material Notes Images
Alienochelys[15] A. selloumi Maastrichtian A sea turtle with crushing jaws.
Araiochelys[16] A. hirayamai
Argillochelys[17] A. africana Ypresian A pancheloniid sea turtle.
Bothremys[16] B. kellyi Danian-Thanetian
B. maghrebiana
Brachyopsemys B. tingitana Danian A sandownid sea turtle
Euclastes E. wielandi Danian
Labrostochelys[16] L. galkini Danian
Ocepechelon[18] O. bouyai Maastrichtian A giant protostegid sea turtle with an unusual pipette-like snout.
Puppigerus P. camperi Ypresian
Rhothonemys[16] R. brinkmani Danian
Tasbacka T. ouledabdounensis Danian
Taphrosphys T. ippolitoi Danian
Ummulisani U. rutgersensis Ypresian

Pterosaurs

Pterosaurs from the Khouribga Phosphates
Genus Species Location Time Material Notes Images
Alcione[19] A. elainus Maastrichtian A nyctosaurid which shows possible adaptations towards diving behaviour.
Barbaridactylus B. grandis Maastrichtian A nyctosaurid.
Simurghia S. robusta Maastrichtian A nyctosaurid related to Alcione.
Phosphatodraco P. mauritanicus Maastrichtian An azhdarchid.
cf Arambourgiania A. sp? Maastrichtian A giant azhdarchid, may belong to the Jordanian taxon Arambourgiania.
Azhdarchidae Indet. Maastrichtian A new taxon, currently unnamed.
Tethydraco T. regalis Maastrichtian A pterosaur of debated affinity; may be an azhdarchid or a pteranodontid.

Dinosaurs

Bird fossils are common in the Basin, which includes the oldest birds in Africa.[4] At least three orders and several families of sea birds are represented, including Procellariiformes (albatrosses and petrels, fossils assignable to Diomedeidae and Procellariidae), Pelecaniformes (pelicans and allies, fossils assignable to Phaethontidae, Prophaethontidae, Fregatidae and Pelagornithidae), and Anseriformes (waterfowl, including fossil Presbyornithidae).[4]

Dinosaurs from the Khouribga Phosphates
Genus Species Location Time Material Notes Images
Ajnabia[20] A. odysseus Maastrichtian A small lambeosaurine hadrosaur; the first known from Africa.
Chenanisaurus[21] C. barbaricus Maastrichtian A large abelisaurid theropod.
Titanosauria Indet. Maastrichtian A new taxon, currently unnamed.
Dasornis D. tolapica Selandian A pelagornithid, or pseudotooth bird.
D. emuinus Ypresian
Lithoptila[22] L. abdounensis Thanetian A seabird related to modern tropicbirds.

Mammals

Mammals from the Khouribga Phosphates
Genus Species Location Time Material Notes Images
Abdounodus[23] A. hamdii Thanetian-Ypresian
Daouitherium[24] D. rebouli Ypresian An early proboscidean.
Eritherium[25] E. azzouzorum Thanetian An early proboscidean.
Ocepeia[23] O. daouiensis Selandian
O. grandis Thanetian
Phosphatherium P. escuilliei Selandian An early proboscidean.
Boualitomus B. marocanensis Selandian A hyaenodont.
Lahimia[26] L. selloumi Selandian A hyaenodont.
Stylolophus[27] S. minor Ypresian An embrithopod.
S. major Ypresian

See also

References

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External links