|Highest governing body||World Netball|
|First played||1890England, United Kingdom,|
|Registered players||561,000+[n 1]|
|Team members||Seven on-court players per team|
- All-female teams
- All-male teams
- Mixed teams
|Type||- team sport|
- ball sport
|Olympic||IOC-recognised federation, 1995 |
Netball is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players, usually on an indoor court, and is predominantly played by women. It is among a rare number of sports which have been created exclusively for the female sex, although efforts to expand the game to mixed and men's teams now exist. Originating in England, UK, in the late 19th century, the sport is played specifically in schools and is most popularly played in Commonwealth nations. The sport also uses outdoor netball courts. The sport, originally described as 'women's basketball', but distinct from the related sport of basketball as played by women, is distinguished from its 'sister' sport by the bar on dribbling, bouncing or running in possession of the ball, and the rules defining positions which detail in which court areas specific players can compete. Netball, therefore, is even more focussed on accurate passing and positioning than its sister sport, and physical player contact more controlled.
According to the sport's international governing body, World Netball, the sport is played by more than 20 million people in more than 80 countries. Major domestic leagues in the sport include the Netball Superleague in Great Britain, Suncorp Super Netball in Australia and the ANZ Premiership in New Zealand. Four major competitions take place internationally: the quadrennial World Netball Championships, the Commonwealth Games, and the yearly Quad Series and Fast5 Series. In 1995, netball became an International Olympic Committee recognised sport federation, but it has not been played at the Olympics because the IOC Charter in part requires the sport have more men's teams than women's.
Games are played on a rectangular court with raised goal rings at each end. Each team attempts to score goals by passing a ball down the court and shooting it through its goal ring. Players are assigned specific positions, which define their roles within the team and restrict their movement to certain areas of the court. During general play, a player with the ball can hold on to it for only three seconds before shooting for a goal or passing to another player. The winning team is the one that scores the most goals. Netball games are 60 minutes long. Variations have been developed to increase the game's pace and appeal to a wider audience.
Its development, derived from early versions of basketball, began in England in the 1890s. By 1960, international playing rules had been standardised for the game, and the International Federation of Netball and Women's Basketball, later renamed World Netball, was formed. World Netball comprises more than 70 national teams organized into five global regions.
Netball's early development emerged from Clara Baer's misinterpretation of the early rules of James Naismith's new sport of basketball and eventually evolved into its own sport. Basketball was invented in 1891 by Naismith in the United States. The game was initially played indoors between two teams of nine players, using an association football that was thrown into closed-end peach baskets. Naismith's game spread quickly across the United States and variations of the rules soon emerged. At the same time, physical education instructor Senda Berenson developed modified rules for women in 1892; these eventually gave rise to women's basketball. Around this time separate intercollegiate rules for basketball were developed for men and women. The various basketball rules eventually converged into a universal rules set in the United States.
Clara Baer was a sports teacher living in New Orleans when she wrote to Naismith asking for a copy of the rules for his game of basketball. Once she received them, they included a diagram of the court with lines across it which were meant to show the areas various players could best patrol. However, Baer misinterpreted the lines and believed they marked out restricted areas of play which players could not leave. Her mistake marks the beginning of netball. Baer's version for the rules of women’s basketball defined these areas as restricted zones, an error which then became ratified into the rules for women’s basketball in 1899 and proliferated.
Martina Bergman-Österberg introduced a version of basketball in 1893 to her female students at the Physical Training College in Hampstead, London. The rules of the game were modified at the college over several years: the game moved outdoors and was played on grass; the baskets were replaced by rings that had nets; and in 1897 and 1899, rules from women's basketball in the United States were incorporated. Österberg's new sport acquired the name "net ball". The first codified rules of netball were published in 1901 by the Ling Association, later the Physical Education Association of the United Kingdom. From England, netball spread to other countries in the British Empire. Variations of the rules and even names for the sport arose in different areas: "women's (outdoor) basketball" arrived in Australia around 1900 and in New Zealand from 1906, while "netball" was being played in Jamaican schools by 1909.
From the start, it was considered socially appropriate for women to play netball; netball's restricted movement appealed to contemporary notions of women's participation in sports, and the sport was distinct from potential rival male sports. Netball became a popular women's sport in countries where it was introduced and spread rapidly through school systems. School leagues and domestic competitions emerged during the first half of the 20th century, and in 1924 the first national governing body was established in New Zealand. International competition was initially hampered by a lack of funds and varying rules in different countries. Australia hosted New Zealand in the first international game of netball in Melbourne on 20 August 1938; Australia won 40–11. Efforts began in 1957 to standardise netball rules globally: by 1960 international playing rules had been standardised, and the International Federation of Netball and Women's Basketball, later the International Netball Federation (INF), was formed to administer the sport worldwide.
Representatives from England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and the West Indies were part of a 1960 meeting in Sri Lanka that standardised the rules for the game. The game spread to other African countries in the 1970s. South Africa was prohibited from competing internationally from 1969 to 1994 due to apartheid. In the United States, Netball's popularity also increased during the 1970s, particularly in the New York area, and the United States of America Netball Association was created in 1992. The game also became popular in the Pacific Island nations of the Cook Islands, Fiji and Samoa during the 1970s. Netball Singapore was created in 1962, and the Malaysian Netball Association was created in 1978.
In Australia, the term women's basketball was used to refer to both netball and basketball. During the 1950s and 1960s, a movement arose to change the Australian name of the game from women's basketball to netball in order to avoid confusion between the two sports. The Australian Basketball Union offered to pay the costs involved to alter the name, but the netball organisation rejected the change. In 1970, the Council of the All Australia Netball Association officially changed the name to "netball" in Australia.
In 1963, the first international tournament was held in Eastbourne, England. Originally called the World Tournament, it later became known as the World Netball Championships. Following the first tournament, one of the organisers, Miss R. Harris, declared,
England could learn from the mistakes in the past from the empty stands at Eastbourne. To get the right publicity and the right status desired, the game must emerge from the school playground. Netball should be part of a sports centre where social events could also be held.
The World Netball Championships have been held every four years since then. The World Youth Netball Championships started in Canberra in 1988, and have been held roughly every four years since. In 1995, the International Olympic Committee recognized the International Federation of Netball Associations. Three years later netball debuted at the 1998 Commonwealth Games in Kuala Lumpur. Other international competitions also emerged in the late 20th century, including the Nations Cup and the Asian Netball Championship.
The sport was created for girls and women and remains most popular among this demographic, with women's netball at elite and national levels receiving outside funding. Though male netball teams exist in some areas, men's and mixed-sex teams are largely self-funded.
Women's and girls' netball
Men's and boys' netball
Men's netball started to grow in Australia during the 1980s, with the first men's championship being held in 1985. Other countries with men's national teams include Canada, Fiji, Jamaica, Kenya, Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates.
In 2004, New Zealand and Fiji sent teams to compete in the Australian Mixed and Men's National Championships. By 2006, mixed netball teams in Australia had as many male participants as rugby union.
At the Gay Games VI in Sydney in 2000, netball and volleyball were the two sports with the highest rates of transgender athletes participating. There were eight teams of indigenous players, with seven identifying as transgender. They came from places like Palm Island in northern Queensland, Samoa, Tonga and Papua New Guinea. Teams with transgender players were allowed to participate in several divisions including men's, mixed and transgender; they were not allowed to compete against women's teams.
Description and rules
The objective of a game is to score more goals than the opposition. Goals are scored when a team member positioned in the attacking shooting circle shoots the ball through the goal ring. The goal rings are 380 millimetres (15 in) in diameter and sit atop 3.05-metre (10.0 ft)-high goal posts that have no backboards. A 4.9-metre (16 ft)-radius semi-circular "shooting circle" is an area at each end of the court. The goal posts are located within the shooting circle. Each team defends one shooting circle and attacks the other. The netball court is 30.5 metres (100 ft) long, 15.25 metres (50.0 ft) wide, and divided lengthwise into thirds. The ball is usually made of leather or rubber, measures 680 to 710 millimetres (27 to 28 in) in circumference (~22 centimetres (8.7 in) in diameter), and weighs 397 to 454 grams (14.0 to 16.0 oz). A normal game consists of four 15-minute quarters and can be played outdoors or in a covered stadium.
Each team is allowed seven players on the court. Each player is assigned a specific position, which limits their movement to a certain area of the court. A "bib" worn by each player contains a one- or two-letter abbreviation indicating this position. Only two positions are permitted in the attacking shooting circle, and can therefore shoot for a goal. Similarly, only two positions are permitted in the defensive shooting circle; they try to prevent the opposition from shooting goals. Other players are restricted to two-thirds of the court, with the exception of the centre, who may move anywhere on the court except for a shooting circle.
At the beginning of every quarter and after a goal has been scored, play starts with a player in the centre position passing the ball from the centre of the court. These "centre passes" alternate between the teams, regardless of which team scored the last goal. When the umpire blows the whistle to restart play, four players from each team can move into the centre third to receive the pass. The centre pass must be caught or touched in the centre third. The ball is then moved up and down the court through passing and must be touched by a player in each adjacent third of the court. Players can hold the ball for only three seconds at any time. It must be released before the foot they were standing on when they caught it touches the ground again. Contact between players is only permitted if it does not impede an opponent or the general play. When defending a pass or shot players must be at least 90 centimetres (35 in) away from the player with the ball. If illegal contact is made, the player who contacted cannot participate in play until the player taking the penalty has passed or shot the ball. If the ball is held in two hands and either dropped or a shot at goal is missed, the same player cannot be the first to touch it unless it first rebounds off the goal.
Indoor netball is a variation of netball, played exclusively indoors, in which the playing court is often surrounded on each side and overhead by a net. The net prevents the ball from leaving the court, permitting faster play by reducing playing stoppages.
Different forms of indoor netball exist. In a seven-per-side version called "action netball", seven players per team play with rules similar to netball. However, a game is split into 15-minute halves with a three-minute break in between. This version is played in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and England.
A six-per-side version of the sport is also played in New Zealand. Two Centres per team can play in the whole court except the shooting circles; the remaining attacking and defending players are each restricted to one half of the court, including the shooting circles. The attacking and Centre players may shoot from outside the shooting circle for a two-point goal.
A five-per-side game is also common in indoor netball. Players can move throughout the court, with the exception of the shooting circles, which are restricted to certain attacking or defending players.
Fast5 (originally called Fastnet) is a variation on the rules of netball designed to make games faster and more television-friendly. The World Netball Series promotes it to raise the sport's profile and attract more spectators and greater sponsorship. The game is much shorter, with each quarter lasting only six minutes and only a two-minute break between quarters. The coaches can give instructions from the sideline during play, and unlimited substitutions are allowed. Like six-per-side indoor netball, attacking players may shoot two-point goals from outside the shooting circle. Each team can separately nominate one "power play" quarter, in which each goal scored by that team is worth double points and the centre pass is taken by the team that conceded the goal.
Netball has been adapted in several ways to meet children's needs. The rules for children are similar to those for adults, but various aspects of the game (such as the length of each quarter, goal height, and ball size) are modified.
Fun Net is a version of netball developed by Netball Australia for five- to seven-year-olds. It aims to improve basic netball skills using games and activities. The Fun Net program runs for 8–16 weeks. There are no winners or losers. The goal posts are 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in) high, and a smaller ball is used.
Netball Australia also runs a modified game called Netta aimed at 8- to 11-year-olds. The goal height and ball size are the same as for adults, but players rotate positions during the game, permitting each player to play each position. Netta was created to develop passing and catching skills. Its rules permit six seconds between catching and passing the ball, instead of the three seconds permitted in the adult game. Most players under 11 play this version at netball clubs.
A version called High Five Netball is promoted by the All England Netball Association. It is aimed at 9- to 11-year-old girls and includes only five positions. The players swap positions during the game. When a player is not on the court, she is expected to help the game in some other way, such as being the timekeeper or scorekeeper. High Five Netball has four six-minute quarters.
The recognised international governing body of netball is World Netball, based in Manchester, England. Founded in 1960, the organisation was initially called the International Federation of Netball and Women's Basketball. The INF is responsible for compiling world rankings for national teams, maintaining the rules for netball and organising several major international competitions.
|INF region||Regional federation|
|Africa||Confederation of African Netball Associations|
|Americas||Americas Federation of Netball Associations|
|Oceania||Oceania Netball Federation|
The INF is affiliated with the General Association of International Sports Federations, the International World Games Association and the Association of IOC Recognised International Sports Federations. It is also a signatory to the World Anti-Doping Code.
Netball is a popular participant sport in countries of the Commonwealth of Nations. Non-Commonwealth entities with full IFNA membership include Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Argentina, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands and the United States, along with former Commonwealth members Zimbabwe, Ireland and Hong Kong. According to the IFNA, over 20 million people play netball in more than 80 countries. International tournaments are held among countries in each of the five IFNA regions, either annually or every four years. School leagues and national club competitions have been organised in England, Australia, New Zealand and Jamaica since the early twentieth century. Franchise-based netball leagues did not emerge until the late 1990s. These competitions sought to increase the profile of the sport in their respective countries. Despite widespread local interest, participation was largely amateur.
The Confederation of African Netball Associations organises a major African tournament, which invites teams from Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, Malawi, South Africa, Kenya, Lesotho, Eswatini, Zimbabwe and the Seychelles to take part. The tournament is hosted by a country within the region; senior and under 21 teams compete. The tournament has served as a qualifier for the World Championships. South Africa launched a new domestic competition in 2011 called Netball Grand Series. It features eight regional teams from South Africa and is aimed at increasing the amount of playing time for players. It runs for 17 weeks and replaces the National Netball League, which was played over only two weeks. According to Proteas captain Elsje Jordaan, it was hoped that the competition would create an opportunity for players to become professional.
The Americas Federation of Netball Associations (AFNA) hosts two tournaments each year: the Caribbean Netball Association (CNA) Under 16 Championship and the AFNA Senior Championship. The CNA championship involves two divisions of teams from the Caribbean islands. In 2010 five teams competed in two rounds of round robin matches in the Championship Division, while four teams competed in the Developmental Division. Jamaica, which has lost only once in the tournament, decided not to play the 2011 tournament. The AFNA Senior Championship includes Canada and the US along with the Caribbean nations. The tournament serves as a qualifier for the World Championship. Jamaica, with its high ranking, does not have to qualify; this leaves two spots to the other teams in the tournament.
The Asian Netball Championship is held every four years. The seventh Asian games were held in 2009 and featured Singapore, Thailand, Maldives, Taiwan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, India and Pakistan. There is also an Asian Youth Netball Championship for girls under 21 years of age, the seventh of which was held in 2010.
The major netball competition in Europe is the Netball Superleague, which features teams from England, Wales and Scotland. The league was created in 2005. Matches are broadcast on Sky Sports.
Netball has been featured at the Pacific Games, a multi-sport event with participation from 22 countries from around the South Pacific. The event is held every four years and has 12 required sports; the host country chooses the other four. Netball is not a required sport and has missed selection, particularly when former French or American territories host the games.
The ANZ Championship was a Trans-Tasman competition held between 2008 and 2016 that was broadcast on television in both New Zealand and Australia. It was contested among ten teams from Australia and New Zealand. It began in April 2008, succeeding Australia's Commonwealth Bank Trophy and New Zealand's National Bank Cup as the pre-eminent netball league in those countries. The competition was held annually between April and July, consisting of 69 matches played over 17 weeks. The ANZ Championship saw netball become a semi-professional sport in both countries, with increased media coverage and player salaries. The competition was replaced by new leagues in 2017, the Suncorp Super Netball (Australia) and ANZ Premiership (New Zealand).
There are four major international netball competitions; the Netball World Cup, Netball at the Commonwealth Games, Netball Quad Series and Fast5 Netball World Series. Netball is also played at large regional multi-sport events such as the Southeast Asian Games.
Netball's important competition is the World Netball Championships (also known as the Netball World Cup), held every four years. It was first held in 1963 at the Chelsea College of Physical Education at Eastbourne, England, with eleven nations competing. Since its inception the competition has been dominated primarily by the Australian and New Zealand teams, which hold ten and four titles, respectively. Trinidad and Tobago is the only other team to win a championship title. That title, won in 1979, was shared with New Zealand and Australia; all three teams finished with equal points at the end of the round robin, and there were no finals.
The Fast5 Series is a competition among the top six national netball teams, as ranked by the INF World Rankings. It is organised by the INF in conjunction with the national governing bodies of the six competing nations, UK Sport, and the host city's local council. The All England Netball Association covers air travel, accommodation, food and local travel expenses for all teams, while the respective netball governing bodies cover player allowances. It is held over three days, with each team playing each other once during the first two days in a round-robin format. The four highest-scoring teams advance to the semi-finals; the winners face each other in the Grand Final. The competition features modified fastnet rules and has been likened to Twenty20 cricket and rugby sevens. A new format featuring shorter matches with modified rules was designed to make the game more appealing to spectators and television audiences. The World Netball Series was held annually in England from 2009 to 2011.
Netball's governing federation gained Olympic recognition in 1995 after 20 years of lobbying. Although it has never been played at the Summer Olympics, politicians and administrators have been campaigning unsuccessfully to have it included. Its absence from the Olympics has been seen by the netball community as a hindrance in the global growth of the game by limiting access to media attention and funding sources. Some funding sources became available with recognition in 1995, including the International Olympic Committee, national Olympic committees, national sport organisations, and state and federal governments.
One study found that over 14 weeks of play about 5% of people develop an injury. The most common injury is of the ankle (usually lateral ligament ankle strain and less often an ankle fracture). Knee injuries were less common and included anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The main cause of these injuries is believed to be due to incorrect landing. One study found not warming up as a risk factor. Hypermobility (having a range of motion beyond normal limits) has been associated with injuries in one small study. Higher grade players, in both senior and junior competitions, are more susceptible to injuries than lower grade players, due to the high intensity and rapid pace of the game.
In October 2005, Australian captain Liz Ellis tore her ACL in a match against New Zealand. This injury ruled her out of the chance to play at the 2006 Melbourne Commonwealth games. In October 2014, Casey Kopua ruptured the patellar tendon in her left knee, resulting in her missing up to six months of netball.
- Numbers are taken where available from the 48 member nations of the International Federation of Netball Associations. (Cook Islands 1,000, Fiji 5,000, New Zealand 135,000, Papua New Guinea 10,000, Samoa 2,000, England 75,000, Scotland 1,800, Australia 330,000, Hong Kong 1,200,). No current numbers are available for Vanuatu, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Gibraltar, Malta, Northern Ireland, Ireland, Wales, Switzerland, China, India, Malaysia, Republic of the Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Argentina, Antigua & Barbuda, Barbados, Bermuda, Canada, Cayman Islands, Grenada, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, St. Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines and the United States.
- "Member Associations". International Federation of Netball Associations. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "About Us". Cook Island Netball Association. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Members: Fiji". International Federation of Netball Associations. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Netball New Zealand Organisation and Staff". Netball New Zealand. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Netball PNG Profile". Papua New Guinea Netball Association. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Netball History". Samoa Netball Association. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Membership Statistics". England Netball. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "About Us". Netball Scotland. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Netball Australia joins forces with DealsDirect.com.au". Netball Australia. 9 March 2010. Archived from the original on 10 March 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "About the association". Hong Kong Netball Association. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Netball" (PDF). www.interagencygames.org. Inter Agency Games. 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
- International Federation of Netball Associations. "About IFNA". Archived from the original on 8 March 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- Thompson 2002, p. 258
- Grundy & Shackelford 2007, p. 13
- Jobling, Ian; Barham, Pamela (November 1991). "The Development of Netball and the All-Australia Women's Basketball Association (AAWBBA): 1891–1939" (PDF). Sporting Traditions, Journal of the Australian Society for Sports History. 8 (1): 30–48.
- "History of netball". netball.sport. World Netball. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
- McIntosh 1968, p. 292
- All England Netball Association 1976, p. 13
- England Netball. "History of England Netball (1891–2008)". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
- Taylor, Tracy (November 2001). "Gendering Sport: The Development of Netball in Australia" (PDF). Sporting Traditions, Journal of the Australian Society for Sports History. 18 (1): 57–74. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
- Summers 2007, p. 165
- Netball New Zealand (3 August 2009). "History". Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- Jamaica Netball Association. "The History of Netball". Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- McCrone 1988, pp. 148–9
- School Sport Australia (2011). "Netball". Archived from the original on 9 March 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- International Federation of Netball Associations (10 December 2010e). "Netball Weekly Roundup". Archived from the original on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- International Federation of Netball Associations (15 June 2008). "History of Netball". Archived from the original on 6 March 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- Massoa & Fasting 2002, p. 120
- BNSC (11 May 2011). "Botswana Netball Association". BNSC. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
- Keim 2003, p. 33
- Booth 1998, p. 99
- United States of America Netball Association (USANA), Inc. (2010). "History of the USANA". United States of America Netball Association. Archived from the original on 16 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- Lal & Fortune 2000, p. 458
- Netball Singapore (2011). "About Us". Archived from the original on 1 March 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- Netball Asia (2011). "Malaysia". Netball Asia. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- Pollard 1968, p. 59
- All England Netball Association 1976, p. 19
- "Norminshah Sabirin". Olympic Council of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 22 October 2011.
- "Singapore victorious in 4 Nations Netball Cu". International Federation of Netball Associations. 23 December 2006. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
- Turk, Peter. "History of Men's Netball". International Mens and Mixed Netball Challenge Cup. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- Tagg 2008, p. 409
- Tagg 2008, p. 411
- Davis & Davis 2006, p. 4
- Craig Francis (9 October 2003). "Humble start spawns global giant". CNN.
- Altman 2001, p. 100
- Symons & Hemphill 2006, p. 122
- Netball Australia. "Court & venue specifications". Netball Australia. Archived from the original on 27 February 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- Murrary 2008, p. 186
- Davis & Davis 2006, p. 6
- Davis & Davis 2006, p. 5
- International Netball (September 2006). "netball rules". International Netball. Archived from the original on 27 February 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- Davis & Davis 2006, p. 7
- Hickey & Navin 2007, p. 34
- Shakespear & Caldow 2009, p. xiii
- Slade 2009, p. 98
- Hickey & Navin 2007, p. 31
- Shakespear & Caldow 2009, pp. 15–19
- Alswang 2003, p. 2
- Indoor Netball Australia (2003). "Indoor Netball Australia Rule Book" (PDF). Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- New Zealand Indoor Netball (January 2008). "7-a-side Indoor Netball Official Rule Book" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Alswang 2003
- Action Indoor Sports (England). "Action Netball: 7 A-Side". Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- New Zealand Indoor Netball (October 2009). "Indoor Netball Official Rule Book (6-a-side)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Planet Sport. "Indoor Netball at Planet Sports". Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- The Jamaica Star (12 January 2009). "Rhone excited about World Netball Series". The Jamaica Star (online). Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- Irvine, Mairi (12 January 2009). "New Style Netball to be Held in the UK". UK Sport. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
- World Netball Series (2010). "Rules". Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- International Federation of Netball Associations (27 July 2009e). "Fastnet: Official Rules of the International Federation". Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- McGrath & Ozanne-Smith 1998, p. 50
- NSW Department of Sport & Recreation (1997). "Netball". Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- McGrath & Ozanne-Smith 1998, p. 51
- Plaisted, Val (1989). "A comparison of the effectiveness of the modified with the traditional approach to junior netball" (PDF). Victoria University. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
- BBC Sport Academy (11 April 2003). "Get playing high five netball!". BBC Sport Academy. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- East Grinstead High Fives Netball (17 November 2010). "Hi-5 Information". Archived from the original on 7 March 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
- "Regions & Members". International Netball Federation. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
- "IFNA Regional Federations". International Federation of Netball Associations. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- International Federation of Netball Associations. "IFNA: Anti-doping". Archived from the original on 16 March 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- Summers 2007, p. 162
- Richard V. Mcgehee and Shirley H.M. Reekie (1999). "Using Sport Studies and Physical Activities to Internationalize the K-12 Curriculum". The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 70.
- "Full Members". International Federation of Netball Associations. Archived from the original on 2 June 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
- Western Argus (24 October 1922). "GAMES FOR GIRLS". Western Argus (1916–1938). Kalgoorlie, Western Australia: National Library of Australia. p. 1. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- BBC Sport (6 November 2008). "Campaign for netball at Olympics". BBC Sport. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
- Commonwealth Games Federation (2014). "Spotlight on sport – netball". Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- Clara Sinkala (6–14 September 2001). "Seychelles invited for netball tourney". Times of Zambia. Archived from the original on 12 November 2005.
- Ellina Mhlanga (1 October 2009). "Zimbabwe: Mighty Warriors". The Herald.
- "Netball moves towards professionalism". Supersport. 16 April 2011.
- International Federation of Netball Associations (2010). "Regional Federations – Americas". Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Enver Pemberton (15 April 2011). "St. Lucia Poised to Win Caribbean Netball Association U 16 Title". The St. Kitts-Nevis Observe. Archived from the original on 4 February 2013.
- "Young Netballers March On". Jamaican Gleaner. 10 April 2008. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012.
- "St Lucia to host AFNA championships in July". 27 May 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Darren Ng (12 June 2009). "Singapore to defend Asian Netball Championship title in Kuala Lumpur". Red Sports.
- "Netball popularity on the rise in India: Federation president". Daily News and Analysis. 2 July 2010.
- Vitality Netball Superleague. "Superleague home page".
- England Netball (2010). "The FIAT Netball Superleague". Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- International Federation of Netball Associations (25 October 2006). "Sky Sports to show Netball Superleague". Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- McKinnon 2009, p. 51
- "Netball misses selection for 2011 South Pacific Games". ABC Radio Australia. 15 September 2010.
- Netball Australia (11 March 2007). "New look trans-Tasman netball competition". Netball Australia. Archived from the original on 1 September 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2008.
- "New netball venture steps forward". Sportal. 21 December 2007. Archived from the original on 17 May 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- Johannsen, Dana (29 March 2008). "Glitz and hype turn netball into money game". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- World Netball Championships 2011 Singapore (2011). "History". Archived from the original on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- "Samoa prepares for World netball series". Samoa Observer. 18 December 2008. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
- International Federation of Netball Associations (14 January 2009c). "Netball as never seen before". International Federation of Netball Associations. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
- Kaminjolo, Singayazi (12 November 2010). "Queens leave for Liverpool on Sunday". The Nation (Malawi). Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- International Federation of Netball Associations (3 April 2009d). "Calling All Netball Fans!". International Federation of Netball Associations. Archived from the original on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
- Newstalk ZB (2 December 2008). "Innovative World Series planned for next year". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
- Marshall, Jane (5 February 2009). "Kiwis keen on novel netball variant". The Press. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
- Smartt, Pam; Chalmers, David (29 January 2009). "Obstructing the goal? Hospitalisation for netball injury in New Zealand 2000–2005". The New Zealand Medical Journal. 122 (1288): 62–75. PMID 19182843. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011.
- Emily Benammar (13 October 2009). "'Fast' version of netball introduced in an effort to secure Olympic Games inclusion". The Telegraph. London.
- "Inclusion of Netball in the Olympic Games". Parliament of New South Wales. 21 September 2004. Archived from the original on 29 August 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
- Jones, Diane (February 2004). "Half the Story? Olympic Women on the ABC News Online" (PDF). Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy. 110 (110): 132–146. doi:10.1177/1329878X0411000114. S2CID 54039376. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- Crocombe 1992, p. 156
- Shooting for Success (July 2004). "IFNA Recognition Confirmed" (PDF). International Federation of Netball Associations. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- Australian Sport Commission & Office of the Status of Women 1985, p. 92
- Hopper, D; Elliott, B; Lalor, J (1 December 1995). "A descriptive epidemiology of netball injuries during competition: a five-year study". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 29 (4): 223–228. doi:10.1136/bjsm.29.4.223. ISSN 0306-3674. PMC 1332230. PMID 8808533.
- McManus, A.; Stevenson, M.R.; Finch, C.F. (1 January 2006). "Incidence and risk factors for injury in non-elite netball". Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 9 (1–2): 119–24. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2006.03.005. hdl:20.500.11937/45869. PMID 16621712.
- Smith, R.; Damodaran, A. K.; Swaminathan, S.; Campbell, R.; Barnsley, L. (1 September 2005). "Hypermobility and sports injuries in junior netball players". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 39 (9): 628–631. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2004.015271. ISSN 1473-0480. PMC 1725309. PMID 16118300.
- "Knee injury puts Ellis's Games Hopes under cloud". The Sydney Morning Herald. 31 October 2005. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Kopua's injury blow for Magic". Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- All England Netball Association (1976). Golden Jubilee: 1926–1976. All England Netball Association. OCLC 39500756.
- Alswang, Joel (2003). The South African dictionary of sport. Spearhead. ISBN 0-86486-535-X. OCLC 249075345.
- Altman, Dennis (2001). "Global Gaze / Global Gays". In Blasius, Mark (ed.). Sexual identities, queer politics. University Press. pp. 96–117. ISBN 0-691-05866-0. OCLC 439890293.
- Australian Sport Commission; Office of the Status of Women (1985). Women, Sport and the Media. Australian Government Publishing Services. ISBN 0-644-04155-2. OCLC 221598253.
- Booth, Douglas (1998). The Race Game: Sport and Politics in South Africa. Sport in the Global Society. Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-4799-3. OCLC 361505975.
- Crocombe, R G (1992). Pacific neighbours : New Zealand's relations with other Pacific Islands : Aotearoa me Nga Moutere o te Moana Nui a Kiwa. Centre for Pacific Studies, University of Canterbury : Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. ISBN 982-02-0078-4. OCLC 28814021.
- Davis, Luke; Davis, Damien (2006). Netball. Getting into. Macmillan Education. ISBN 0-7329-9987-1. OCLC 156762948.
- Dix, Noleen (1984). Australian Netball Skills. Hawthorn, Victoria: Five Mile Press. ISBN 0-86788-066-X. OCLC 27589776.
- Grundy, Pamela; Shackelford, Susan (2007). Shattering the Glass: The Remarkable History of Women's Basketball. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-5829-5. OCLC 58431871.
- Hickey, Julia; Navin, Anita (2007). Understanding netball. Coachwise. ISBN 978-1-905540-12-9. OCLC 174094782.
- Keim, Marion (2003). Nation building at play : sport as a tool for social integration in post-apartheid South Africa. Meyer and Meyer Sport. ISBN 1-84126-099-1. OCLC 249142681.
- Lal, Brij Vilash; Fortune, Kate (2000). The Pacific islands : an encyclopedia. University of Hawai'i press. ISBN 0-8248-2265-X. OCLC 468583962.
- Massoa, Prisca; Fasting, Kari (December 2002). "Women and sport in Tanzania". In Pfister, Gertrud; Hartmann-Tews, Ilse (eds.). Sport and Women: Social Issues in International Perspective. International Society for Comparative Physical Education & Sport. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24628-8. OCLC 50204306.
- McCrone, Kathleen E. (1988). Sport and the Physical Emancipation of English Women. London: Routledge. pp. 148–9. ISBN 0-415-00358-X. OCLC 16804385.
- McGrath, Alicia C.; Ozanne-Smith, Joan (May 1998). Attacking the Goal of Netball Injury Prevention: A Review of Literature. Report No. 130. Monash University Accident Research Centre. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.129.6986. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- McIntosh, Peter C. (1968). Physical Education in England Since 1800. London: Bell. ISBN 0-7135-0689-X. OCLC 41636.
- McKinnon, Rowan (2009). South Pacific [the only guide to the entire South Pacific]. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-786-8. OCLC 610105853.
- Murrary, Peter (2008). Netball, The International Sport. Bath, England: Murray Books (Australia). ISBN 978-1-4075-2962-2. OCLC 700886957.
- Pollard, Jack (1968). AMPOL book of Australian Sporting Records. Sydney: The Pollard Publishing Co. OCLC 71140.
- Scully, Deidre; Clarke, Jackie (July 1997). "Gender Issues in Sports Participation". In Kremer, John; Ogle, Saun; Trew, Karen (eds.). Young people's involvement in sport. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16650-8. OCLC 36225511.
- Shakespear, Wilma; Caldow, Margaret (2009). Netball : steps to success. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-7984-6. OCLC 251227987.
- Slade, Dennis (2009). Transforming Play: Teaching Tactics and Game Sense. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-7518-3. OCLC 423215335.
- Summers, David (2007). The Sports Book. New York: DK Publishing. pp. 162–165. ISBN 978-0-7566-3195-6.
- Symons, Carol; Hemphill, Dennis (November 2006). "Netball and transgender participation". In Caudwell, Jayne (ed.). Sport, sexualities and queer/theory. Routledge Critical Studies in Sport. London: Routledge. pp. 122–124. ISBN 0-415-36761-1. OCLC 66392801.
- Tagg, Brendon (December 2008). "'Imagine, a Man Playing Netball!' : Masculinities and Sport in New Zealand". International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 43: 409–430. doi:10.1177/1012690208099875. S2CID 145493659.
- Thompson, Shona M. (December 2002). "Women and sport in New Zealand". In Pfister, Gertrud; Hartmann-Tews, Ilse (eds.). Sport and Women: Social Issues in International Perspective. International Society for Comparative Physical Education & Sport. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24628-8. OCLC 50204306.