Marathon world record progression

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Kelvin Kiptum at the Chicago marathon 2023
Kelvin Kiptum during his world record run at the 2023 Chicago marathon with 2:00:35
Tigst Assefa during her women's world record run at the 2023 Berlin Marathon with 2:11:53
Mary Keitany during her women-only world record run at the 2017 London Marathon with 2:17:01

This list is a chronological progression of record times for the marathon. World records in the marathon are ratified by World Athletics, the international governing body for the sport of athletics.

Kenyan athlete Kelvin Kiptum set a men's world record time of 2:00:35 on October 8, 2023, at the 2023 Chicago Marathon.[1][2]

Ethiopian athlete Tigst Assefa broke the women's world record for a mixed-gender race with a time of 2:11:53 on September 24, 2023, at the 2023 Berlin Marathon.[3] In addition to the standard women's marathon world record, World Athletics also recognizes a second world record for women in the "Women Only" category, meaning that the marathon was run on a course without any male athletes in competition. The current "Women Only" record of 2:17:01 was set by Mary Keitany on April 23, 2017, at the London Marathon in the elite women's race.[4][5]

Criteria for record eligibility

For a performance to be ratified as a world record by World Athletics, the marathon course on which the performance occurred must be 42.195 km (26.219 mi) long,[6] measured in a defined manner using the calibrated bicycle method[7] (the distance in kilometers being the official distance, the distance in miles is an approximation) and meet other criteria that rule out artificially fast times produced on courses aided by downhill slope or tailwind.[8] The criteria include:

  • "The start and finish points of a course, measured along a theoretical straight line between them, shall not be further apart than 50% of the race distance."[6]
  • "The decrease in elevation between the start and finish shall not exceed an average of one in a thousand, i.e. 1m per km."[6]

In recognizing Kenyan Geoffrey Mutai's mark of 2:03:02 at the 2011 Boston Marathon as (at the time) "the fastest Marathon ever run", the IAAF said: "Due to the elevation drop and point-to-point measurements of the Boston course, performances [on that course] are not eligible for World record consideration."[9]

Road racing events like the marathon were specifically excepted from World Athletics rule 260 18(d) that rejected from consideration those track and field performances set in mixed competition.[6]

The Association of Road Racing Statisticians, an independent organization that compiles data from road running events, also maintains an alternate marathon world best progression but with standards they consider to be more stringent.[10][11]

Women's world record

The IAAF Congress at 2011 World Championships in Athletics passed a motion changing the record eligibility criteria effective October 6, 2007, so that women's world records must be set in all-women competitions.[12] The result of the change was that Radcliffe's 2:17:42 performance at the 2005 London Marathon would supplant her own existing women's mark as the "world record"; the earlier performance was to be referred to as a "world best".[12]

The decision was met with strong protest in Britain: in November 2011, an IAAF council member announced that Radcliffe's original mark would be allowed to stand, with the eventual decision that both marks would be recognized as world records: the faster one as a "Mixed Gender" mark, with the other as a "Women Only" mark.[13]

Per the 2021 IAAF Competition Rules, "a World Record for performance achieved in mixed gender ("Mixed") races and a World Record for performance achieved in single gender ("Women only") races" are tracked separately.[14]

Unofficial record attempts

In December 2016, Nike, Inc., announced that three top distance runners — Eliud Kipchoge, Zersenay Tadese and Lelisa Desisa — had agreed to forgo the spring marathon season to work with the company in an effort to run a sub-two-hour marathon, though a detailed plan to complete the marathon in 1:59:59 or faster was not released.[15][16][17][18]

The Breaking2 event took place in the early morning of May 6, 2017; Kipchoge crossed the finish line with a time of 2:00:25.[19] This time was more than two minutes faster than the world record. Among other factors, specialized pacers were used, entering the race midway to help Kipchoge maintain his pace.[20]

Kipchoge took part in a similar attempt to break the two-hour barrier in Vienna on October 12, 2019, as part of the Ineos 1:59 Challenge. He successfully ran the first sub two-hour marathon distance, with a time of 1:59:40.2.[21] The effort did not count as a new world record under IAAF rules due to the setup of the challenge. Specifically, it was not an open event, Kipchoge was handed fluids by his support team throughout, the run featured a pace car, and included rotating teams of other runners pacing Kipchoge in a formation designed to reduce wind resistance and maximize efficiency.[22][23] The achievement was recognized by Guinness World Records with the titles 'Fastest marathon distance (male)' and 'First marathon distance run under two hours'.[24][25]

History

Marathon races were first held in 1896, but the distance was not standardized by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF, now World Athletics) until 1921.[26][27]

The actual distance for pre-1921 races frequently varied slightly from the 1921 standard of 42.195 km (26 miles 385 yards). In qualifying races for the 1896 Summer Olympics, Greek runners Charilaos Vasilakos (3:18:00) and Ioannis Lavrentis (3:11:27) won the first two modern marathons.[28] On April 10, 1896, Spiridon Louis of Greece won the first Olympic marathon in Athens, Greece, in a time of 2:58:50;[29] however, the distance for the event was 40,000 meters.[30][nb 1] Three months later, British runner Len Hurst won the inaugural Paris to Conflans Marathon (also around 40 km) in a time of 2:31:30.[32] In 1900, Hurst would better his time on the same course with a 2:26:28 performance.[nb 2]

Later, Shizo Kanakuri of Japan was reported to have set a world record of 2:32:45 in a November 1911 domestic qualification race for the 1912 Summer Olympics, but this performance was also run over a distance of approximately 40 km.[36][nb 3]

The first marathon over the official distance was won by American Johnny Hayes at the 1908 Summer Olympics, with a time of 2:55:18.4.[38]

It is possible that Stamata Revithi, who ran the 1896 Olympic course a day after Louis, is the first woman to run the modern marathon; she is said to have finished in 5+12 hours.[39] World Athletics credits Violet Piercy's 1926 performance as the first woman to race the standard marathon distance; however, other sources report that the 1918 performance of Marie-Louise Ledru in the Tour de Paris set the initial mark for women.[10][40][41][42] Other "unofficial" performances have also been reported to be world bests or world records over time: although her performance is not recognized by World Athletics, Adrienne Beames from Australia is frequently credited as the first woman to break the three-hour barrier in the marathon.[43][nb 4]

In the 1953 Boston Marathon, the top three male finishers were thought to have broken the standing world record,[45] but Keizo Yamada's mark of 2:18:51 is considered to have been set on a short course of 25.54 miles (41.1 km).[46] The Boston Athletic Association also does not report Yamada's performance as a world best for this reason.[47]

On October 25, 1981, American Alberto Salazar and New Zealander Allison Roe set apparent world bests at the New York City Marathon (2:08:13 and 2:25:29), however, these marks were invalidated when the course was later found to have been 151 meters short.[48][49] Although World Athletics' progression notes three performances set on the same course in 1978, 1979, and 1980 by Norwegian Grete Waitz, the Association of Road Racing Statisticians considers the New York City course suspect for those performances, too.[50]

On April 18, 2011, the Boston Marathon produced what were at that time the two fastest marathon performances of all time. Winner Geoffrey Mutai of Kenya recorded a time of 2:03:02,[51] followed by countryman Moses Mosop in 2:03:06. However, since the Boston course does not meet the criteria for record attempts, these times were not ratified by the IAAF.

Eight IAAF world records were set at the Polytechnic Marathon (1909, 1913, 1952–54, 1963–65).[52] WA-recognized world records have been broken at all of the original five World Marathon Majors on numerous occasions (updated 09/2022); twelve times at the Berlin Marathon, three times at the Boston Marathon, five times at the Chicago Marathon, six times at the London Marathon, and five times at the New York City Marathon. However, the records established in the Boston event have been disputed on grounds of a downhill point-to-point course, while four of the five New York records have been disputed on grounds of a short course.

Men

Table key:
  Listed by World Athletics as a world best prior to official acceptance[53]
  Ratified by World Athletics as a world best (since January 1, 2003) or world record (since January 1, 2004)[53]
  Recognized by the Association of Road Racing Statisticians (ARRS)[10]

The edition of the marathon is linked on some of the dates.

Time Name Nationality Date Event/Place Source Notes
2:55:18.4 Johnny Hayes  United States July 24, 1908 London Olympics, England IAAF[53] Time was officially recorded as 2:55:18 2/5.[54] Italian Dorando Pietri finished in 2:54:46.4, but was disqualified for receiving assistance from race officials near the finish.[55] Note.[56]
2:52:45.4 Robert Fowler  United States January 1, 1909 Yonkers,[nb 5] United States IAAF[53] Note.[56]
2:46:52.8 James Clark  United States February 12, 1909 New York City, United States IAAF[53] Note.[56]
2:46:04.6 Albert Raines  United States May 8, 1909 New York City, United States IAAF[53] Note.[56]
2:42:31.0 Henry Barrett  United Kingdom May 8, 1909[nb 6] Polytechnic Marathon, London, England IAAF[53] Note.[56]
2:40:34.2 Thure Johansson  Sweden August 31, 1909 Stockholm, Sweden IAAF[53] Note.[56]
2:38:16.2 Harry Green  United Kingdom May 12, 1913 Polytechnic Marathon IAAF[53] Note.[61]
2:36:06.6 Alexis Ahlgren  Sweden May 31, 1913 Polytechnic Marathon IAAF[53] Report in The Times claiming world record.[62] Note.[61]
2:38:00.8 Umberto Blasi  Italy November 29, 1914 Legnano, Italy ARRS[10]
2:32:35.8 Hannes Kolehmainen  Finland August 22, 1920 Antwerp Olympics, Belgium IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] The course distance was officially reported to be 42,750 meters/26.56 miles,[63] however, the Association of Road Racing Statisticians estimated the course to be 40 km.[31]
2:29:01.8 Albert Michelsen  United States October 12, 1925 Port Chester Marathon, United States IAAF[53] Note.[64][65]
2:30:57.6 Harry Payne  United Kingdom July 5, 1929 AAA Championships, London, England ARRS[10]
2:26:14 Sohn Kee-chung Japanese Korea March 21, 1935 Tokyo, Japan ARRS[10] Also romanized as Kitei Son.
2:27:49.0 Fusashige Suzuki  Japan March 31, 1935 Tokyo, Japan IAAF[53] According to the Association of Road Racing Statisticians, Suzuki's 2:27:49 performance occurred in Tokyo on March 21, 1935, during a race in which he finished second to Sohn Kee-chung (sometimes referred to as Kee-Jung Sohn or Son Kitei) who ran a 2:26:14.[66]
2:26:44.0 Yasuo Ikenaka  Japan April 3, 1935 Tokyo, Japan IAAF[53] Note.[67]
2:26:42 Sohn Kee-chung Japanese Korea November 3, 1935 Meiji Shrine Games, Tokyo, Japan IAAF[53] Also romanized as Kitei Son. Note.[67]
2:25:39 Suh Yun-bok Korea April 19, 1947 Boston Marathon IAAF[53] Disputed (short course).[68] Disputed (point-to-point).[69] Note.[70]
2:20:42.2 Jim Peters  United Kingdom June 14, 1952 Polytechnic Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] MarathonGuide.com states the course was slightly long.[71] Report in The Times claiming world record.[72]
2:18:40.4 Jim Peters  United Kingdom June 13, 1953 Polytechnic Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] Report in The Times claiming world record.[72]
2:18:34.8 Jim Peters  United Kingdom October 4, 1953 Turku Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:17:39.4 Jim Peters  United Kingdom June 26, 1954 Polytechnic Marathon IAAF[53] Point-to-point course.[citation needed] Report in The Times claiming world record.[73]
2:18:04.8 Paavo Kotila  Finland August 12, 1956 Finnish Athletics Championships, Pieksämäki, Finland ARRS[10]
2:15:17.0 Sergei Popov  Soviet Union August 24, 1958 European Athletics Championships, Stockholm, Sweden IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] The ARRS notes Popov's extended time as 2:15:17.6[10]
2:15:16.2 Abebe Bikila  Ethiopia September 10, 1960 Rome Olympics, Italy IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] World record fastest marathon run in bare feet.[74]
2:15:15.8 Toru Terasawa  Japan February 17, 1963 Beppu-Ōita Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:14:28 Leonard Edelen  United States June 15, 1963 Polytechnic Marathon IAAF[53] Point-to-point course.[citation needed] Report in The Times claiming world record and stating that the course may have been long.[75]
2:14:43 Brian Kilby  United Kingdom July 6, 1963 Port Talbot, Wales ARRS[10]
2:13:55 Basil Heatley  United Kingdom June 13, 1964 Polytechnic Marathon IAAF[53] Point-to-point course.[citation needed] Report in The Times claiming world record.[76]
2:12:11.2 Abebe Bikila  Ethiopia October 21, 1964 Tokyo Olympics, Japan IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:12:00 Morio Shigematsu  Japan June 12, 1965 Polytechnic Marathon IAAF[53] Point-to-point course.[citation needed] Report in The Times claiming world record.[77]
2:09:36.4 Derek Clayton  Australia December 3, 1967 Fukuoka Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:08:33.6 Derek Clayton  Australia May 30, 1969 Antwerp, Belgium IAAF[53] Disputed (short course).[78]
2:09:28.8 Ron Hill  United Kingdom July 23, 1970 Edinburgh Commonwealth Games, Scotland ARRS[10]
2:09:12 Ian Thompson  United Kingdom January 31, 1974 Christchurch Commonwealth Games, New Zealand ARRS[10]
2:09:05.6 Shigeru So  Japan February 5, 1978 Beppu-Ōita Marathon ARRS[10]
2:09:01 Gerard Nijboer  Netherlands April 26, 1980 Amsterdam Marathon ARRS[10]
2:08:18 Robert De Castella  Australia December 6, 1981 Fukuoka Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:08:05 Steve Jones  United Kingdom October 21, 1984 Chicago Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:07:12 Carlos Lopes  Portugal April 20, 1985 Rotterdam Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:06:50 Belayneh Dinsamo  Ethiopia April 17, 1988 Rotterdam Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:06:05 Ronaldo da Costa  Brazil September 20, 1998 Berlin Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] First time the 40K mark was passed under two hours (1:59:55).[79]
2:05:42 Khalid Khannouchi  Morocco October 24, 1999 Chicago Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:05:38 Khalid Khannouchi  United States April 14, 2002 London Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] First "World's Best" recognized by the International Association of Athletics Federations.[80] The ARRS notes Khannouchi's extended time as 2:05:37.8[10]
2:04:55 Paul Tergat  Kenya September 28, 2003 Berlin Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] First world record for the men's marathon ratified by the International Association of Athletics Federations.[81]
2:04:26 Haile Gebrselassie  Ethiopia September 30, 2007 Berlin Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:03:59 Haile Gebrselassie  Ethiopia September 28, 2008 Berlin Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] The ARRS notes Gebrselassie's extended time as 2:03:58.2.[10] Video on YouTube
2:03:38 Patrick Makau  Kenya September 25, 2011 Berlin Marathon IAAF,[82][83] ARRS[84]
2:03:23 Wilson Kipsang  Kenya September 29, 2013 Berlin Marathon IAAF[85][86] ARRS[84] The ARRS notes Kipsang's extended time as 2:03:22.2[84]
2:02:57 Dennis Kimetto  Kenya September 28, 2014 Berlin Marathon IAAF[87][88] ARRS[84] The ARRS notes Kimetto's extended time as 2:02:56.4[84]
2:01:39 Eliud Kipchoge  Kenya September 16, 2018 Berlin Marathon IAAF[89]
2:01:09 Eliud Kipchoge  Kenya September 25, 2022 Berlin Marathon World Athletics[90]
2:00:35 Kelvin Kiptum  Kenya October 8, 2023 Chicago Marathon World Athletics[91] First man to break 2:01:00 in a record-eligible marathon.

Women

Table key:
  Listed by World Athletics as a world best prior to official acceptance[53]
  Ratified by World Athletics as a world best (since January 1, 2003) or world record (since January 1, 2004)[53]
  Recognized by the Association of Road Racing Statisticians (ARRS)[10]

Time Name Nationality Date Event/Place Source Notes
5:40:xx Marie-Louise Ledru France September 29, 1918 Tour de Paris Marathon ARRS[10]
3:40:22 Violet Piercy  United Kingdom October 3, 1926 London [nb 7] IAAF[53] The ARRS indicates that Piercy's 3:40:22 was set on August 2, 1926, during a time trial on a course that was only 35.4 km.[10]
3:37:07 Merry Lepper  United States December 16, 1963[nb 8] Culver City, United States IAAF[53] Disputed (short course).[95]
3:27:45 Dale Greig  United Kingdom May 23, 1964 Ryde IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
3:19:33 Mildred Sampson  New Zealand July 21, 1964[nb 9] Auckland, New Zealand IAAF[53] Disputed by ARRS as a time trial.[nb 9][98]
3:14:23 Maureen Wilton  Canada May 6, 1967 Toronto, Canada IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] The ARRS notes Wilton's extended time as 3:14:22.8[10]
3:07:27.2 Anni Pede-Erdkamp  West Germany September 16, 1967 Waldniel, West Germany IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] The ARRS notes Pede-Erdkamp's extended time as 3:07:26.2[10]
3:02:53 Caroline Walker  United States February 28, 1970 Seaside, OR IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
3:01:42 Elizabeth Bonner  United States May 9, 1971 Philadelphia, United States IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:55:22 Elizabeth Bonner  United States September 19, 1971 New York City Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:49:40 Cheryl Bridges  United States December 5, 1971 Culver City, United States IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:46:36 Michiko Gorman  United States December 2, 1973 Culver City, United States IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] The ARRS notes Gorman's extended time as 2:46:37[10]
2:46:24 Chantal Langlacé  France October 27, 1974 Neuf-Brisach, France IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:43:54.5 Jacqueline Hansen  United States December 1, 1974 Culver City, United States IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] The ARRS notes Hansen's extended time as 2:43:54.6[10]
2:42:24 Liane Winter  West Germany April 21, 1975 Boston Marathon IAAF[53] Disputed (point-to-point).[69]
2:40:15.8 Christa Vahlensieck  West Germany May 3, 1975 Dülmen IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:38:19 Jacqueline Hansen  United States October 12, 1975 Nike OTC Marathon, Eugene, United States IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:35:15.4 Chantal Langlacé  France May 1, 1977 Oiartzun, Spain IAAF[53]
2:34:47.5 Christa Vahlensieck  West Germany September 10, 1977 Berlin Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:32:29.8 Grete Waitz  Norway October 22, 1978 New York City Marathon IAAF[53] Disputed (short course).[50][101]
2:27:32.6 Grete Waitz  Norway October 21, 1979 New York City Marathon IAAF[53] Disputed (short course).[50][102]
2:31:23 Joan Benoit  United States February 3, 1980 Auckland, New Zealand ARRS[10]
2:30:57.1 Patti Catalano  United States September 6, 1980 Montreal, Canada ARRS[10]
2:25:41.3 Grete Waitz  Norway October 26, 1980 New York City Marathon IAAF[53] Disputed (short course).[50][103]
2:30:27 Joyce Smith  United Kingdom November 16, 1980 Tokyo, Japan ARRS[10]
2:29:57 Joyce Smith  United Kingdom March 29, 1981 London Marathon ARRS[10]
2:25:28 Allison Roe  New Zealand October 25, 1981 New York City Marathon IAAF[53] Disputed (short course).[50][104]
2:29:01.6 Charlotte Teske  West Germany January 16, 1982 Miami, United States ARRS[10]
2:26:12 Joan Benoit  United States September 12, 1982 Nike OTC Marathon, Eugene, United States ARRS[10]
2:25:28.7 Grete Waitz  Norway April 17, 1983 London Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:22:43 Joan Benoit  United States April 18, 1983 Boston Marathon IAAF[53] Disputed (point-to-point).[69]
2:24:26 Ingrid Kristiansen  Norway May 13, 1984 London Marathon ARRS[10]
2:21:06 Ingrid Kristiansen  Norway April 21, 1985 London Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:20:47 Tegla Loroupe  Kenya April 19, 1998 Rotterdam Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:20:43 Tegla Loroupe  Kenya September 26, 1999 Berlin Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:19:46 Naoko Takahashi  Japan September 30, 2001 Berlin Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:18:47 Catherine Ndereba  Kenya October 7, 2001 Chicago Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10]
2:17:18 Paula Radcliffe  United Kingdom October 13, 2002 Chicago Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] First "World's Best" recognized by the International Association of Athletics Federations.[80] The ARRS notes Radcliffe's extended time as 2:17:17.7[10]
2:15:25 Mx Paula Radcliffe  United Kingdom April 13, 2003 London Marathon IAAF,[53] ARRS[10] First world record for the women's marathon ratified by the International Association of Athletics Federations.[105] The ARRS notes Radcliffe's extended time as 2:15:24.6[10]
2:17:42 Wo Paula Radcliffe  Great Britain April 17, 2005 London Marathon IAAF[106]
2:17:01 Wo Mary Jepkosgei Keitany  Kenya April 23, 2017 London Marathon IAAF[107]
2:14:04 Mx Brigid Kosgei  Kenya October 13, 2019 Chicago Marathon IAAF[108]
2:11:53 Mx Tigst Assefa  Ethiopia September 24, 2023 Berlin Marathon World Athletics[109] First woman to break the 2:12:00 barrier in the marathon.[110]

Gallery of world record holders

See also

Men's Masters Records

Women's Masters Records

Notes

  1. ^ The Association of Road Racing Statisticians has estimated the course distance to be 37–38 km.[31]
  2. ^ According to the "Sporting Records" section of The Canadian Year Book for 1905: "Len Hurst won the Marathon race, 40 kilometres (24 miles, 1505 yards), over roads, Conflans to Paris, Fr., in the record time of 2.26:27 3–5, July 8, 1900."[33] Other sources confirm that the direction of the 1900 race was reversed, but note Hurst's finishing time as 2:26:47.4.[34] or 2:26:48.[35]
  3. ^ Road running historian Andy Milroy writing for the Association of Road Racing Statisticians has indicated that 25 miles (40.234 km) was the distance of the first Japanese marathon held in 1911. Predating Kanakuri's performance, Milroy also indicated that a "professional world record" at the 25-mile distance of 2:32:42 was set by British runner Len Hurst on August 27, 1903.[37]
  4. ^ According to the Association of Road Racing Statisticians, Beames' performance of 2:46:30 on August 31, 1971, in Werribee, Australia is regarded as a time trial.[44]
  5. ^ Many references incorrectly refer to this race as the Yonkers Marathon. The Yonkers Marathon, which during the early 1900s was traditionally run during late November, was won over a month earlier by Jim Crowley.[57][58]
  6. ^ According to the progression of world bests listed by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), James Clark set a world best of 2:46:52.8 in New York on February 12, 1909, Albert Raines broke Clark's mark with a 2:46:04.6 in New York on May 8, 1909, and Henry Barrett broke Raines' mark with a 2:42:31.0 in London on May 26, 1909.[59] Ian Ridpath, a former director of the Polytechnic marathon, has indicated on his website that some sources have wrongly listed the date of Barrett performance as May 26, 1909, and has confirmed the true date as May 8, 1909.[52] An article in The Times dated May 10, 1909, provides strong evidence that Ridpath is correct.[60] Given that Barrett's marathon in London most likely concluded before Raines' marathon held on the same date in New York, it is also likely that Barrett rather than Raines broke the world best set by Clark three months earlier.
  7. ^ Piercy's mark was set on the Polytechnic Marathon course between Windsor and London.[92] A number of sources, including Kathrine Switzer, have reported that the venue for Piercy's mark was the actual Polytechnic Marathon,[93] however, records from the Association of Road Racing Statisticians confirm that the 1926 Polytechnic Marathon was held on May 18.[94]
  8. ^ The Association of Road Racing Statisticians notes the date of the race as December 14, 1963.[95][96]
  9. ^ a b Peter Heidenstrom, a statistician for Athletics New Zealand, has been reported as providing a date of December 1964,[97] however, the Association of Road Racing Statisticians notes the date of Sampson's performance was August 16, 1964.[98] Other sources from August to October 1964 support the August date.[99][100] The ARRS also notes that Sampson's mark was set during a time trial and does not recognize it in their progression of marathon world bests.[10][95]

References

  1. ^ "Kelvin Kiptum nearly breaks two-hour barrier with world marathon record". Washington Post. October 8, 2023. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  2. ^ "Chicago Marathon 2023: Kelvin Kiptum smashes Eliud Kipchoge's world record". International Olympic Committee. October 8, 2023. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved October 8, 2023.
  3. ^ "Tigist Assefa shatters women's marathon record in new £400 shoes". The Guardian. September 24, 2023. Archived from the original on September 26, 2023. Retrieved September 25, 2023.
  4. ^ "Women's outdoor Marathon - Records - iaaf.org". iaaf.org. Archived from the original on August 9, 2017. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  5. ^ "Interactive: A look at how three marathoners could break the sub-2hr barrier on May 6". The Straits Times. May 5, 2017. Archived from the original on September 18, 2018. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d "IAAF Competition Rules 2016–2017" (PDF). 2015. p. 275. Archived from the original on March 18, 2016. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  7. ^ "IAAF Publication, "The Measurement of Road Race Courses", Second Edition, 2004, Updated 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 12, 2010. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
  8. ^ May, Peter (April 18, 2011). "Kenya's Mutai Wins Boston in 2:03:02". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
  9. ^ Monti, David (April 18, 2011). "Strong winds and ideal conditions propel Mutai to fastest Marathon ever – Boston Marathon report". iaaf.org. International Association of Athletics Federations. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt ARRS World Best Progressions – Road 2015.
  11. ^ "Association of Road Racing Statisticians". ARRS. January 1, 2003. Archived from the original on April 22, 2023. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  12. ^ a b Baldwin, Alan (September 20, 2011). "Argument erupts over Radcliffe's marathon record". Reuters.com. Reuters. Archived from the original on April 25, 2017. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
  13. ^ "Paula Radcliffe keeps her marathon world record in IAAF about-turn". The Guardian. London. November 10, 2011. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  14. ^ IAAF Book of Rules. Vol. Book C – C1.1. IAAF. 2021. p. 32. Archived from the original on October 8, 2022. Retrieved October 8, 2022.
  15. ^ Ed Caesar (December 12, 2016). "Inside Nike's Quest for the Impossible: a Two-Hour Marathon". Wired. Archived from the original on October 2, 2018. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
  16. ^ Alex Hutchinson (December 12, 2016). "Nike's Audacious Plan: Break the 2-Hour Marathon Barrier in 2017". Runner's World. Archived from the original on January 13, 2018. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  17. ^ Ross Tucker, PhD (December 13, 2016). "The sub-2 hour marathon in 2017? Thoughts on concept". The Science of Sport. Archived from the original on October 2, 2018. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  18. ^ "Interactive: A look at how three marathoners could break the sub-2hr barrier on May 6". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on September 18, 2018. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  19. ^ Jon Mulkeen (May 6, 2017). "Kipchoge a 'happy man' in Monza". IAAF. Archived from the original on May 6, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
  20. ^ Eliud Kipchoge falls 26 seconds short of first sub two-hour marathon Archived September 22, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 7-May-2017
  21. ^ INEOS. "INEOS 1:59 Challenge". ineos159challenge.com. Archived from the original on August 23, 2019. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
  22. ^ Derek Hawkins (October 12, 2019). "Kenya's Eliud Kipchoge Just Became the First Person to Break the 2-Hour Barrier". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 12, 2019. Retrieved October 12, 2019.
  23. ^ Agnew, Mark (October 12, 2019). "Eliud Kipchoge runs sub two-hour marathon in 1:59:40, making history with first four-minute mile equivalent". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on October 12, 2019. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
  24. ^ "Fastest marathon distance (male)". Guinness World Records. October 12, 2019. Archived from the original on August 10, 2020. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
  25. ^ "First marathon distance run under two hours". Guinness World Records. October 12, 2019. Archived from the original on May 9, 2021. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
  26. ^ "The Marathon journey to reach 42.195km". european-athletics.org. April 25, 2008. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
  27. ^ Martin, David E.; Roger W. H. Gynn (May 2000). The Olympic Marathon. Human Kinetics Publishers. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-88011-969-6.
  28. ^ Martin, Dr. David (2000). "Marathon running as a social and athletic phenomenon: historical and current trends". In Pedoe, Dan Tunstall (ed.). Marathon Medicine. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press. p. 31. ISBN 9781853154607.
  29. ^ De Coubertin, Pierre; Timoleon J. Philemon; N. G. Politis; Charalambos Anninos (1897). "The Olympic Games, B.C. 776 – A.D. 1896, Second Part, The Olympic Games in 1896" (PDF). Charles Beck (Athens), H. Grevel and Co. (London). Archived (PDF) from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved October 16, 2008.
  30. ^ "Athletes | Olympic Medalist | Olympians | Gold Medalists | Medal Count". International Olympic Committee. July 19, 1996. Archived from the original on April 14, 2009. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
  31. ^ a b "untitled". Archived from the original on September 17, 2018. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  32. ^ Milroy, Andy. "The origins of the marathon". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on August 25, 2021. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
  33. ^ "Sporting Records". The Canadian Year Book for 1905. Toronto Canada: Alfred Hewitt. 8: 147. 1905.
  34. ^ Martin, David E.; Roger W. H. Gynn (May 2000). The Olympic Marathon. Human Kinetics Publishers. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-88011-969-6.
  35. ^ Noakes, Tim (2003). The Lore of Running (Fourth ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-87322-959-2.
  36. ^ "Running Training Blog Entry | Lydiard Foundation Members". Lydiardfoundation.org. July 15, 1912. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
  37. ^ "ARRS – Association of Road Racing Statisticians". Archived from the original on August 25, 2021. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  38. ^ "Profiles – Johnny Hayes". Running Past. Archived from the original on May 4, 2021. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
  39. ^ Tarasouleas, Athanasios (October–November 1997). "Stamata Revithi, "Alias Melpomeni"" (PDF). Olympic Review. 26 (17): 53–55. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 14, 2018. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
  40. ^ "Tour de Paris Marathon". ARRS. May 28, 2011. Archived from the original on June 15, 2018. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
  41. ^ Fast Tracks: The History of Distance Running Since 884 B.C. by Raymond Krise, Bill Squires. (1982).
  42. ^ Endurance by Albert C. Gross. (1986)
  43. ^ Howe, Charles. "Out of the bushes, ahead of the ambulance, and into the spotlight: milestones in the history of women's (mostly distance) running, Part I" (PDF). Rundynamics. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 22, 2015. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
  44. ^ "World Marathon Rankings for 1971". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved July 29, 2009. Unverified (probably a time trial)
  45. ^ "Boston Marathon history". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on April 17, 2009. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
  46. ^ "World Marathon Rankings for 1953". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on July 2, 2018. Retrieved November 2, 2009. Short Course (41.1 km)
  47. ^ 114th B.A.A Boston Marathon Official Program. April 19, 2010.
  48. ^ "World Marathon Major Event Records" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 9, 2011.
  49. ^ "World Marathon Rankings for 1981". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on September 16, 2018. Retrieved July 29, 2009. Short Course (150 m short on remeasurement)
  50. ^ a b c d e "New York City Marathon". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on November 12, 2018. Retrieved July 29, 2009. The course used for the 1981 race was remeasured at 42.044 km or 151 meters short of the full marathon distance. Since a major part of the shortness was within the Central Park portion of the course, all "five borough" races prior to 1981 must also be considered suspect (1976–1980) and are not considered acceptable for statistical purposes.
  51. ^ "Mutai wins Boston in world-record time: Kilel edges American in women's race". Boston Herald. Associated Press. April 18, 2011. Archived from the original on April 21, 2011. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
  52. ^ a b "The Polytechnic Marathon 1909–1996". Ianridpath.com. Archived from the original on October 7, 2010. Retrieved June 2, 2010.
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt IAAF Statistics Handbook – Daegu 2011.
  54. ^ Cook, Theodore Andrea (1909). "The Fourth Olympiad being The Official Report The Olympic Games of 1908" (PDF). The British Olympic Association, London. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2007. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  55. ^ "Athletes | Olympic Medalist | Olympians | Gold Medalists | Medal Count". International Olympic Committee. July 19, 1996. Archived from the original on September 13, 2008. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
  56. ^ a b c d e f "Men's World Record Times – 1905 to 1911". Marathonguide.com. Archived from the original on January 27, 2016. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
  57. ^ Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Yonkers Marathon Archived January 10, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  58. ^ "J.F. CROWLEY WINS YONKERS MARATHON; Irish-American Runner Leads Big Field Over Westchester County Roads". The New York Times. November 27, 1908. p. 7. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  59. ^ "12th IAAF World Championships In Athletics: IAAF Statistics Handbook. Berlin 2009" (PDF). Monte Carlo: IAAF Media & Public Relations Department. 2009. p. 565. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 6, 2009. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  60. ^ "Image: 1909Timesreport.jpg, (550 × 1188 px)". ianridpath.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
  61. ^ a b "Men's World Record Times – 1910 to 1916". Marathonguide.com. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
  62. ^ "Image: 1913Timesreport.jpg, (434 × 452 px)". ianridpath.com. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
  63. ^ "Olympic Games Official Report 1920" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 8, 2008. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
  64. ^ "Whitey Michelsen". Archived from the original on October 5, 2013.
  65. ^ "Men's World Record Times – 1922 to 1928". Marathonguide.com. October 12, 1925. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
  66. ^ "World Marathon Rankings for 1935". ARRS. Archived from the original on September 17, 2018. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
  67. ^ a b "Men's World Record Times – 1932 to 1938". Marathonguide.com. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
  68. ^ "World Marathon Rankings for 1947". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on May 18, 2021. Retrieved July 29, 2009. Short Course (25.54 mi. = 41.1 km)
  69. ^ a b c The Association of Road Racing Statisticians does not consider performances on the Boston Marathon course to qualify for world record status due to the possibility that they could be aided by slope and/or tailwinds. (See [1] Archived January 9, 2019, at the Wayback Machine.) This mirrors the IAAF's current criteria regarding record eligible courses.
  70. ^ "Men's World Record Times – 1944 to 1950". Marathonguide.com. April 19, 1947. Archived from the original on January 27, 2016. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
  71. ^ "Men's World Record Times – 1949 to 1955". Marathonguide.com. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
  72. ^ a b "Image: 1952Timesreport.jpg, (359 × 1700 px)". ianridpath.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
  73. ^ "Image: 1954Timesreport.jpg, (339 × 1244 px)". ianridpath.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
  74. ^ "Guinness World Records fastest marathon run in bare feet". guinnessworldrecords.com. September 10, 1960. Archived from the original on May 6, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  75. ^ "Image: 1963Timesreport.jpg, (1733 × 1242 px)". ianridpath.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
  76. ^ "Image: 1964Timesreport.jpg, (1362 × 1353 px)". ianridpath.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
  77. ^ "Image: 1965Timesreport.jpg, (704 × 1260 px)". ianridpath.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
  78. ^ "World Marathon Rankings for 1969". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on September 17, 2018. Retrieved July 29, 2009. Short Course (ca 500 m short)
  79. ^ "2021 New York Marathon Statistical Information" (PDF). germanroadraces.de. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 23, 2022. Retrieved August 26, 2022.
  80. ^ a b "Stat Corner: First World Road Records," Track and Field News, Volume 56, No. 2, February 2003, Page 50
  81. ^ "Del's Athletics Almanac Olympics Commonweath European World Championship Results [Event Information]". Athletics.hitsites.de. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  82. ^ "Makau stuns with 2:03:38 marathon world record in Berlin". World Athletics. September 25, 2011. Archived from the original on September 27, 2022. Retrieved September 9, 2023.
  83. ^ "World records ratified". World Athletics. December 20, 2011. Archived from the original on October 8, 2023. Retrieved September 9, 2023.
  84. ^ a b c d e "World Best Progression- Road". ARRS. May 3, 2016. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  85. ^ "Kipsang sets world record of 2:03:23 at Berlin Marathon | iaaf.org". IAAF. September 29, 2013. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  86. ^ "World Record Ratified | iaaf.org". IAAF. November 12, 2013. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  87. ^ "Kimetto breaks marathon world record in Berlin with 2:02:57 | iaaf.org". IAAF. September 28, 2014. Archived from the original on October 1, 2014. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  88. ^ "World Record Ratified | iaaf.org". IAAF. November 24, 2014. Archived from the original on November 27, 2014. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  89. ^ "Kipchoge breaks world record in Berlin with 2:01:09". IAAF. October 26, 2018. Archived from the original on September 25, 2022. Retrieved September 25, 2022.
  90. ^ "Kipchoge breaks world record in Berlin with 2:01:09 | REPORT | World Athletics". worldathletics.org. Archived from the original on September 25, 2022. Retrieved September 25, 2022.
  91. ^ "Kiptum smashes world marathon record with 2:00:35, Hassan runs 2:13:44 in Chicago". World Athletics. October 8, 2023. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  92. ^ Noakes, Tim (2003). The Lore of Running (Fourth ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 675. ISBN 0-87322-959-2.
  93. ^ "Washington Running Report – Feature Article". Runwashington.com. February 23, 1981. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
  94. ^ "untitled". Archived from the original on May 9, 2019. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  95. ^ a b c "Western Hemisphere Marathon". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on January 7, 2019. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  96. ^ "World Marathon Rankings for 1963". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on January 7, 2019. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  97. ^ Jutel, Anne-Marie (2007). "Forgetting Millie Sampson: Collective Frameworks for Historical Memory". New Zealand Journal of Media Studies. 10 (1): 31–36. doi:10.11157/medianz-vol10iss1id74.
  98. ^ a b "World Marathon Rankings for 1964". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on December 16, 2019. Retrieved July 29, 2009. Note: Mildred Sampson (NZL) ran 3:19:33 in a time trial on 16 Aug 1964 at Auckland NZL.
  99. ^ "Housewife's Marathon Record Run". The Age. Melbourne. August 18, 1964. p. 22. Archived from the original on September 28, 2022. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
  100. ^ Rogin, Gilbert (October 5, 1964). "The Fastest Is Faster". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on March 5, 2010. Retrieved May 21, 2010. One Saturday last August, a Mrs. Millie Sampson, a 31-year-old mother of two who lives in the Auckland suburb of Manurewa, went dancing until 1 am The next day she cooked dinner for 11 visitors. In between, she ran the marathon in 3:19.33, presumably a record.
  101. ^ "World Marathon Rankings for 1978". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on September 17, 2018. Retrieved July 29, 2009. Short Course (measurements on subsequent course were 150 m short, this course probably short as well)
  102. ^ "World Marathon Rankings for 1979". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on April 18, 2023. Retrieved July 29, 2009. Short Course (measurements on subsequent course were 150 m short, this course probably short as well)
  103. ^ "World Marathon Rankings for 1980". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on September 16, 2018. Retrieved July 29, 2009. Short Course (remeasurements of a nearly identical course in 1981 was 150 m short, this course probably short as well)
  104. ^ "World Marathon Rankings for 1980". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on September 16, 2018. Retrieved July 29, 2009. Short Course (remeasurements of a nearly identical course in 1981 was 150 m short, this course probably short as well)
  105. ^ "Del's Athletics Almanac Olympics Commonweath European World Championship Results [Event Information]". Athletics.hitsites.de. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  106. ^ "IAAF Statistic Handbook Beijing 2015". IAAF. 2015. Archived from the original on October 18, 2015. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  107. ^ "Keitany breaks women's-only world record at London Marathon". IAAF. April 23, 2017. Archived from the original on April 24, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  108. ^ "World Record Progression of Marathon". iaaf.org. IAAF. Archived from the original on July 26, 2019. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
  109. ^ "Assefa smashes world marathon record in Berlin with 2:11:53, Kipchoge achieves record fifth win". World Athletics. September 24, 2023. Archived from the original on September 26, 2023. Retrieved September 24, 2023.
  110. ^ "Tigst Assefa Sets Womens Marathon Record in 2023 Berlin Marathon". letsrun.com. September 24, 2023. Archived from the original on September 26, 2023. Retrieved September 26, 2023.

Sources

External links