Dolby Vision

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Dolby Vision
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Dolby Vision is a set of technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories for high dynamic range (HDR) video.[1][2][3] It covers content creation, distribution, and playback.[1][4][5][6] It includes dynamic metadata that are used to adjust and optimize each frame of the HDR video to the consumer display's capabilities in a way specified by the content creator.

Dolby Vision was introduced in 2014,[1][7][8] making it the first available consumer-oriented HDR format. HDR10+ is a competitor HDR format that also uses dynamic metadata.[9]

Dolby Vision IQ is an update designed to optimize Dolby Vision content according to the ambient light.[10]

Dolby Cinema uses Dolby Vision too; it uses 108 nits, compared to SDR cinemas' use of 48 nits and 2.6 gamma.[11][12]

Description

HDR videos can sometimes contain brightness and color values that cannot be rendered by the consumer's display. Dolby Vision's dynamic metadata defines how each frame of the original HDR video should be adjusted to match the display's capabilities (i.e. black level, peak brightness and color gamut). The dynamic metadata allow the image adjustments to be defined by the content creator. This allows the artistic intents to be preserved on all Dolby Vision compatible displays, even if the display is not capable of rendering the original video. Dolby Vision uses Dolby's proprietary dynamic metadata defined in SMPTE ST 2094-10,[13] while HDR10+ uses Samsung's dynamic metadata defined in SMPTE ST 2094-40.

Technically, Dolby Vision allows for a maximum resolution of 8K up to 12-bit color depth, maximum peak brightness of 10,000 nits and a color gamut up to Rec. 2020.[14][15] However, Dolby Vision content or profiles can have a lower resolution (FHD or 4K), 10-bit color depth and a peak brightness of 1,000 nits.[citation needed] Current displays cannot reproduce the full Dolby Vision brightness and gamut capability.[citation needed] In 2018, Dolby Vision required content to be graded for at least 4,000 nits.[16] Today, Dolby requires at least 1,000 nits.[17] There are no brightness and color gamut capability requirements for consumer displays. When the consumer display has lower color volume than the mastering display, the content is adjusted to the consumer display capability based on the dynamic metadata.[citation needed] Dolby Vision is considered to be future-proof.[18]

Technical details

Mastering display

Dolby Vision mastering display require:[17]

  • EOTF: PQ
  • Peak brightness: at least 1,000 cd/m2
  • Black level: at most 0.005 cd/m2
  • Contrast ratio: at least 200,000:1
  • Color gamut: at least 99% of P3

Metadata

There are two versions of Dolby Vision metadata namely, CMv2.9 and CMv4.0.[19]

CMv2.9 include:[19]

  • L0 (static): Mastering and target display characteristics
  • L1 (dynamic): Automatically generated
  • L2 trims (dynamic): Manually generated per frame or per scene
  • L5: Timeline aspect ratio description
  • L6 (static and optional): MaxCLL anLL (required for HDR10)

CMv4.0 (Dolby Vision 4.0) introduces new secondary trims for hue and saturation adjustment.[20][19]

  • L3 trims (dynamic): Manually generated per frame or per scene
  • L8 trims (dynamic): Manually generated per frame or per scene (equivalent of L2 trims)
  • L9 (dynamic): Mastering display color primaries

Profiles

Dolby Vision profiles[21][22]
Profile Codec of
BL and EL
BL:EL resolution Backward compatibility
4 10-bit HEVC 1:1/4 SDR
5 10-bit HEVC No enhancement layer None

(It uses proprietary IPTPQc2)

7 10-bit HEVC 1:1/4 for UHD

1:1 for FHD

Ultra HD Blu-ray
8.1 10-bit HEVC No enhancement layer HDR10
8.2 SDR
8.4 HLG
9 8-bit AVC No enhancement layer SDR
Profiles not supported for new applications[21][22]
Profile Codec of
BL and EL
BL:EL resolution Backward compatibility
0 AVC 1:1/4 SDR
1 AVC 1:1 None
2 8-bit HEVC 1:1/4 SDR
3 8-bit HEVC 1:1 None
6 10-bit HEVC 1:1/4 HDR10
8.3 10-bit HEVC No enhancement layer
8.5

Note: BL = base layer; EL = enhancement layer

Dual layer

Some Dolby Vision profiles are dual layer (for example: the profile 7 used for Ultra HD Blu-ray).[22] The base layer (BL) and the enhancement layer (EL) are combined to produce a 12-bit video signal.[4]

The enhancement layer can be full enhancement layer (FEL) or minimum enhancement layer (MEL).[22]

File formats

License

Dolby Vision is a proprietary solution by Dolby.[29]

In 2021, compatible color grading systems can create Dolby Vision automatic metadata with no additional cost for content creators.[29] A $2,500 annual license is required to activate the trims allowing content creators to manually adjust the video.[29] OEM and manufacturer of a grading, mastering, editorial, or other professional application or device need to apply for a license.[29]

Dolby SVP of Business Giles Baker has stated that the royalty cost for Dolby Vision is less than $3 per TV.[30][31][32]

Adoption

Hardware

Content distribution

Software

References

  1. ^ a b c Dolby. "Dolby Vision Whitepaper - An introduction to Dolby Vision" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-09-29. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  2. ^ "Understanding HDR10 and Dolby Vision". GSMArena.com. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  3. ^ "The state of HDR video mid-2017". FlatpanelsHD. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  4. ^ a b Dolby Laboratories. "Dolby Vision Whitepaper" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 May 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  5. ^ "Dolby Vision for Content Creators". professional.dolby.com. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  6. ^ a b "Create in Dolby Vision, now on the full iPhone 12 lineup". professional.dolby.com. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  7. ^ "CES 2014: Dolby Vision promises a brighter future for TV, Netflix and Xbox Video on board". Expert Reviews. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  8. ^ davidsusilouncensored (2014-01-12). "The Visionary Dolby Vision at #CES2014". David Susilo Uncensored. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  9. ^ "HDR terminology demystified". FlatpanelsHD. 2019-08-23. Archived from the original on 2020-04-06. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  10. ^ Roberts, Becky; February 2021, Tom Parsons 21. "Dolby Vision IQ: everything you need to know". whathifi. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  11. ^ "Dolby Vision cinema targets & trims FAQs". Retrieved 2022-01-26.
  12. ^ Ballestad, Anders; Boitard, Ronan; Damberg, Gerwin; Stojmenovik, Goran (September 2019). "Taking HDR Cinema Mainstream". Information Display. 35 (5): 9–13. doi:10.1002/msid.1059. ISSN 0362-0972. S2CID 204718686.
  13. ^ "SMPTE ST 2094 and Dynamic Metadata" (PDF). Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  14. ^ "Dolby Vision for Content Creators" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 January 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  15. ^ Pocket-lint (2020-10-13). "What is Dolby Vision? Dolby's own HDR tech explained". www.pocket-lint.com. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  16. ^ Dolby Laboratories. "Dolby Vision Whitepaper" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  17. ^ a b "Dolby Vision for Content Creators - Workflows". professional.dolby.com. Archived from the original on 2021-04-24. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  18. ^ Michael Bizzaco; Ryan Waniata; Simon Cohen (19 December 2020). "HDR TV: What it is and why your next TV should have it". Digital Trends. Designtechnica Corporation. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  19. ^ a b c Dolby (23 Jan 2021). "Dolby Vision Metadata Levels". Archived from the original on 2021-02-25. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  20. ^ "Dolby Vision and Independent Filmmaking". Mystery Box. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  21. ^ a b Dolby. "Dolby Vision Profiles and Levels Version 1.3.2 - Specification" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  22. ^ a b c d Dolby (2 November 2020). "What are Dolby Vision profiles?". Archived from the original on 2021-03-02. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  23. ^ Dolby Laboratories (12 December 2017). "Dolby Vision Streams Within the ISO Base Media File Format v2.0" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  24. ^ a b c d Dolby (16 Nov 2020). "How to signal Dolby Vision in ISOBMFF format (AKA mp4 container)?". Archived from the original on 2021-03-02. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  25. ^ Dolby Laboratories (13 November 2018). "Dolby Vision Streams within the HTTP Live Streaming format v2.0" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  26. ^ Dolby Laboratories. "Dolby Vision Streams Within the MPEG-2 Transport Stream Format v1.2" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  27. ^ Dolby Laboratories (13 November 2018). "Dolby Vision Streams within the MPEG-DASH format v2.0" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  28. ^ "Add AVC and HEVC codec mappings with BlockAdditionMapping 2 by JeromeMartinez · Pull Request #390 · ietf-wg-cellar/matroska-specification". GitHub. Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  29. ^ a b c d e "Dolby Vision for Content Creators - Solutions". professional.dolby.com. Archived from the original on 2020-12-05. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  30. ^ Tim Moynihan (20 January 2016). "What you need to know before buying an HDR TV". Wired. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  31. ^ Giles Baker (20 September 2016). "Dolby Vision and HDR10: What Format War?". LinkedIn. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  32. ^ Lee Neikirk (9 September 2016). "Dolby Says The "HDR Format War" Doesn't Exist". Reviewed.com. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  33. ^ "TV Database". FlatpanelsHD. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  34. ^ Cruz, Claudia. "LG G6 is the first phone to debut Dolby Vision HDR". CNET. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  35. ^ Wong, Raymond (22 September 2017). "The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus don't really support true HDR video playback". Mashable. Archived from the original on 2019-10-26. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  36. ^ "Xiaomi Mi 11 Ultra review". GSMArena.com. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
  37. ^ "Xiaomi Mi 11 Pro debuts with Snapdragon 888 and Samsung's GN2 50MP sensor". GSMArena.com. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
  38. ^ Tomkies, Pete (2022-07-08). "Xiaomi's 12S Ultra shoots beautiful HDR videos". Videomaker. Retrieved 2022-07-10.
  39. ^ "Xbox Support". support.xbox.com. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  40. ^ Sarkar, Samit (2021-09-28). "Dolby Vision gaming goes live on Xbox Series X". Polygon. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  41. ^ a b "Ultra HD Blu-ray: Everything you need to know". www.digitaltrends.com. 26 September 2019. Archived from the original on 2015-05-25. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  42. ^ "Bilibili supports the submission of Dolby Vision videos!Shooting clips and uploading with iPhone 12 are all done".
  43. ^ "Cinema-grade video for all: Vimeo supports Dolby Vision for Apple devices | Vimeo". Vimeo Blog. 2021-09-10. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  44. ^ "Release Notes — x265 documentation". x265.readthedocs.io. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
  45. ^ "Dolby Vision Encoding – FAQs". 2022-07-12. Retrieved 2022-07-13.
  46. ^ "How-To: Editing Dolby Vision with Apple Final Cut Pro for Vimeo". 2021-09-10. Retrieved 2022-07-13.
  47. ^ a b Dolby (16 Nov 2020). "Which open source players support Dolby Vision?". Archived from the original on 2021-03-02. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  48. ^ "colorspace: add support for Dolby Vision (!207) · Merge requests · VideoLAN / libplacebo". GitLab. Retrieved 2021-12-16.
  1. ^ iPhone 8/8 Plus, XR, 11, and SE (2nd generation) can play Dolby Vision content despite not having an HDR-ready display, done by down-converting the HDR content to fit the display while still having some enhancements to dynamic range, contrast, and wide color gamut compared to standard content.[35]