Universal coronavirus vaccine

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

A universal coronavirus vaccine, also known as a pan coronavirus vaccine, is a theoretical coronavirus vaccine that would be effective against all coronavirus strains. A universal vaccine would provide protection against coronavirus strains that have caused disease in humans, such as SARS-CoV-2 (including all its variants), while also providing protection against future coronavirus strains. Such a vaccine has been proposed to prevent or mitigate future coronavirus epidemics and pandemics.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Efforts to develop a universal coronavirus vaccine began in early 2020.[3] In December 2021, NIAID director Anthony Fauci, virologist Jeffery K. Taubenberger, and David M. Morens endorsed the development of durable universal coronavirus vaccines and advocated in favor of "an international collaborative effort to extensively sample coronaviruses from bats as well as wild and farmed animals to help understand the full 'universe' of existing and emerging coronaviruses", including already identified animal coronaviruses with pandemic potential.[6][7][8] In March 2022, the White House released the "National COVID-19 Preparedness Plan", which, in part, discusses plans to "accelerate research and development toward a single COVID vaccine that protects against SARS-CoV-2 and all its variants, as well as previous SARS-origin viruses".[9]

Strategies

One strategy for developing such vaccines was developed at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR). It uses a spike ferritin-based nanoparticle (SpFN). This vaccine began a Phase I clinical trial in April 2022.[10]

Another is to hang vaccine fragments from multiple strains on a nanoparticle scaffold. Universality is enhanced by targeting the receptor-binding domain rather than the spike protein.[11]

Projects

Pan-coronavirus vaccine candidates include variant-proof vaccines such as SpFN, developed by the US Army. It uses a ferritin nanoparticle with prefusion-stabilized spike antigens from the Wuhan strain. Another candidates is RBD–scNP, which is a sortase A-conjugated ferritin nanoparticle with RBD antigens. |GRT-R910 is a self-amplifying mRNA delivering spike and T cell epitopes. hAd5-S+N delivers spike and nucleocapsid antigens via human adenovirus serotype 5 vector. MigVax-101 is an adjuvanted oral subunit vaccine with RBD and nucleocapsid domains.[12]

Among the pan-sarbecovirus vaccines are GBP511, a mosaic nanoparticle containing RBDs from SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and 1–2 bat coronaviruses. Another vaccine candidate, which is entering clinical development,[13] is Mosaic-8b, a mosaic nanoparticle containing RBDs from SARS-CoV-2 and 7 animal coronaviruses.[14] VBI-2901 uses virus-like particles expressing prefusion spike of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV.[12]

Pan-betacoronavirus vaccines include DIOS-CoVax, a needle-free antigen injection.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ Mullin E (2021-06-09). "A 'Universal' Coronavirus Vaccine to Prevent the Next Pandemic". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 2021-12-20. Retrieved 2021-12-20.
  2. ^ Kirkendoll SM (2021-07-07). "New universal coronavirus vaccine could prevent future pandemics". University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Archived from the original on 2021-12-20. Retrieved 2021-12-20.
  3. ^ a b Joi P (2021-07-13). "Could a universal coronavirus vaccine soon be a reality?". GAVI. Archived from the original on 2021-12-20. Retrieved 2021-12-20.
  4. ^ Le Page M (2021-11-10). "Covid-resistant people point way to universal coronavirus vaccine". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 2021-12-20. Retrieved 2021-12-20.
  5. ^ Kwon D (2021-06-29). "The Quest for a Universal Coronavirus Vaccine". The Scientist. Archived from the original on 2021-12-20. Retrieved 2021-12-20.
  6. ^ a b Morens DM, Taubenberger JK, Fauci AS (January 2022). "Universal Coronavirus Vaccines - An Urgent Need". The New England Journal of Medicine. 386 (4): 297–299. doi:10.1056/NEJMp2118468. PMID 34910863. S2CID 245219817. Archived from the original on 2022-02-06. Retrieved 2021-12-20.
  7. ^ a b "NIH scientists urge pursuit of universal coronavirus vaccine". National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2021-12-16. Archived from the original on 2021-12-19. Retrieved 2021-12-20.
  8. ^ a b Bush E (2021-12-15). "Fauci pushes for universal coronavirus vaccine". NBC News. Archived from the original on 2021-12-20. Retrieved 2021-12-20.
  9. ^ "National COVID-19 Preparedness Plan" (PDF). The White House. March 2022. pp. 9, 21, 29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2022-03-26. Retrieved 2022-03-29.
  10. ^ "Phase 1 Clinical Trial of WRAIR-developed COVID-19 Vaccine Begins". April 5, 2022.
  11. ^ Haridy R (2022-07-07). "Another universal coronavirus vaccine readies for human trials". New Atlas. Retrieved 2022-07-11.
  12. ^ a b c Dolgin E (May 2022). "Pan-coronavirus vaccine pipeline takes form". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 21 (5): 324–326. doi:10.1038/d41573-022-00074-6. PMID 35440811. S2CID 248264237.
  13. ^ "CEPI funds consortium led by CPI to advance Caltech's new all-in-one coronavirus vaccine". CEPI. 2022-05-07.
  14. ^ Cohen AA, Gnanapragasam PN, Lee YE, Hoffman PR, Ou S, Kakutani LM, et al. (February 2021). "Mosaic nanoparticles elicit cross-reactive immune responses to zoonotic coronaviruses in mice". Science. 371 (6530): 735–741. Bibcode:2021Sci...371..735C. doi:10.1126/science.abf6840. PMC 7928838. PMID 33436524.