Theodosia Burr Goodman
July 29, 1885
Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
|Died||April 7, 1955 (aged 69)|
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Resting place||Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery|
|Alma mater||University of Cincinnati|
Bara was one of the more popular actresses of the silent era and one of cinema's early sex symbols. Her femme fatale roles earned her the nickname "The Vamp" (short for vampire, here meaning a seductive woman),[a] later fueling the rising popularity in "vamp" roles based in exoticism and sexual domination. The studios promoted a fictitious persona for Bara as an Egyptian-born woman interested in the occult. Bara made more than 40 films between 1914 and 1926, but most are now lost, having perished in the 1937 Fox vault fire. After her marriage to Charles Brabin in 1921, she made two more feature films and then retired from acting in 1926; she never appeared in a sound film.
Bara was born Theodosia Burr Goodman on July 29, 1885 in the Avondale section of Cincinnati, Ohio. She was named after the daughter of US Vice President Aaron Burr. Her father was Bernard Goodman (1853–1936), a prosperous Jewish tailor from Poland. Her mother, Pauline Louise Françoise (née de Coppett; 1861–1957), was born in Switzerland. Bernard and Pauline married in 1882. Theda had two younger siblings: Marque (1888–1954) and Esther (1897–1965), who also became a film actress, under the screen name, Lori Bara.
Bara attended Walnut Hills High School, graduating in 1903. After attending the University of Cincinnati for two years, she worked mainly in local theater productions, but did explore other projects. After moving to New York City in 1908, she made her Broadway debut the same year in The Devil.
Bara lived with her family in New York City during this time. The rise of Hollywood as the center of the American film industry forced her to relocate to Los Angeles to film the epic Cleopatra (1917), which became one of her biggest hits. No prints of Cleopatra are known to exist today, but numerous photographs of Bara in costume as the Queen of the Nile have survived.
Bara was the Fox studio's biggest star between 1915 and 1919, but tired of being typecast as a vamp, she allowed her five-year contract with the company to expire. Her final Fox film was The Lure of Ambition (1919). In 1920, she turned briefly to the stage, appearing on Broadway in The Blue Flame. Bara's fame drew large crowds to the theater, but her acting was savaged by critics.
Her career suffered without Fox Studios' support, and she did not make another film until The Unchastened Woman (1925) for Chadwick Pictures. She retired after making only one more film, the short comedy Madame Mystery (1926), directed by Stan Laurel for Hal Roach; in this, Bara parodied her vamp image.
At the height of her fame, Bara earned $4,000 per week (the equivalent of over $56,000 per week in 2017 adjusted dollars). Her better-known roles were as the "vamp", although she attempted to avoid typecasting by playing wholesome heroines in films such as Under Two Flags and Her Double Life. She appeared as Juliet in a version of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Although Bara took her craft seriously, she was too successful playing exotic wanton women to develop a more versatile career.
Image and name
The origin of Bara's stage name is disputed. The Guinness Book of Movie Facts and Feats says it came from director Frank Powell, who learned Theda had a relative named Baranger, and that Theda was a childhood nickname. In promoting the 1917 film Cleopatra, Fox Studio publicists noted that the name was an anagram of Arab death, and her press agents, to enhance her exotic appeal to moviegoers, falsely promoted the young Ohio native as "the daughter of an Arab sheik and a French woman, born in the Sahara". In 1917, the Goodman family legally changed its surname to Bara.
Bara was known for wearing very revealing costumes in her films. Such outfits were banned from Hollywood films after the Production Code (a.k.a. the Hays Code) started in 1930 under Will H. Hays and then rigorously enforced beginning in mid-1934 by Joseph Breen. It was popular at that time to promote an actress as mysterious, with an exotic background. The studios promoted Bara with a massive publicity campaign, billing her as the Egyptian-born daughter of a French actress and an Italian sculptor. They claimed she had spent her early years in the Sahara desert under the shadow of the Sphinx, then moved to France to become a stage actress. (In fact, Bara never had been to Egypt, and her time in France amounted to just a few months.)
Marriage and retirement
Bara married British-born American film director Charles Brabin in 1921. They honeymooned at The Pines Hotel in Digby, Nova Scotia, Canada, and later purchased a 400-hectare (990-acre) property down the coast from Digby at Harbourville, Nova Scotia, overlooking the Bay of Fundy, eventually building a summer home they called Baranook. They had no children. Bara resided in a villa-style home in Cincinnati, which served as the "honors villa" at Xavier University. Demolition of the home began in July 2011.
In 1936, she appeared on Lux Radio Theatre during a broadcast version of The Thin Man with William Powell and Myrna Loy. She did not appear in the play but instead announced her plans to make a movie comeback, which never materialized. She appeared on radio again in 1939 as a guest on Texaco Star Theatre.
On April 7, 1955, after a lengthy stay at California Lutheran Hospital in Los Angeles, Bara died of stomach cancer. She was survived by her husband, her mother, and her younger sister, Lori. She was interred as Theda Bara Brabin at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California.
Bara never appeared in a sound film, lost or otherwise. A 1937 fire at Fox's nitrate film storage vaults in New Jersey destroyed most of that studio's silent films. Bara made more than 40 films between 1914 and 1926, but complete prints of only six still exist: The Stain (1914), A Fool There Was (1915), East Lynne (1916), The Unchastened Woman (1925), and two short comedies for Hal Roach.
In addition to these, a few of her films remain in fragments, including Cleopatra (just a few seconds of footage), a clip thought to be from The Soul of Buddha, and a few other unidentified clips featured in the documentary Theda Bara et William Fox (2001). Most of the clips can be seen in the documentary The Woman with the Hungry Eyes (2006). As to vamping, critics stated that her portrayal of calculating, cold-hearted women was morally instructive to men. Bara responded by saying "I will continue doing vampires as long as people sin." Additional footage has been found which shows her behind the scenes on a picture. While the hairstyle has led some to theorize that this may be from The Lure of Ambition, this has not been confirmed. Small fragments from Salome were discovered in 2021 by an intern at Filmoteca Española.
In 1994, she was honored with her image on a U.S. postage stamp designed by caricaturist Al Hirschfeld. The Fort Lee Film Commission dedicated Main Street and Linwood Avenue in Fort Lee, New Jersey, as "Theda Bara Way" in May 2006 to honor Bara, who made many of her films at the Fox Studio on Linwood and Main.
Over a period of several years, filmmaker and film historian Phillip Dye reconstructed Cleopatra on video. Titled Lost Cleopatra, the full-length feature was created by editing together production-still picture montages combined with the surviving film clip. The script was based on the original scenario, with modifications derived from research into censorship reports, reviews of the film, and synopses from period magazines. Dye screened the film at the Hollywood Heritage Museum on February 8, 2017.
|1914||The Stain||Gang moll||Credited as Theodosia Goodman|
|1915||A Fool There Was||The Vampire|
|1915||The Kreutzer Sonata||Celia Friedlander||Lost film|
|1915||The Clemenceau Case||Iza||Lost film|
|1915||The Devil's Daughter||Gioconda Dianti||Lost film|
|1915||Lady Audley's Secret||Helen Talboys||Lost film|
|1915||The Two Orphans||Henriette||Lost film|
|1915||The Galley Slave||Francesca Brabaut||Lost film|
|1916||The Serpent||Vania Lazar||Lost film|
|1916||Gold and the Woman||Theresa Decordova||Lost film|
|1916||The Eternal Sapho||Laura Bruffins||Lost film|
|1916||East Lynne||Lady Isabel Carlisle|
|1916||Under Two Flags||Cigarette||Lost film|
|1916||Her Double Life||Mary Doone||Lost film|
|1916||Romeo and Juliet||Juliet||Lost film|
|1916||The Vixen||Elsie Drummond||Lost film|
|1917||The Darling of Paris||Esmeralda||Lost film|
|1917||The Tiger Woman||Princess Petrovitch||Lost film|
|1917||Her Greatest Love||Hazel||Lost film|
|1917||Heart and Soul||Jess||Lost film|
|1917||Camille||Marguerite Gauthier||Lost film|
|1917||Cleopatra||Cleopatra||Approximately 20 seconds exist|
|1917||The Rose of Blood||Lisza Tapenka||Lost film|
|1917||Madame Du Barry||Jeanne Vaubernier||Lost film|
|1918||The Forbidden Path||Mary Lynde||Lost film|
|1918||The Soul of Buddha||Priestess||Story, Lost film|
|1918||Under the Yoke||Maria Valverda||Lost film|
|1918||Salomé||Salome||About 2 minutes survive|
|1918||When a Woman Sins||Lilian Marchard / Poppea||Lost film|
|1918||The She-Devil||Lorette||Lost film|
|1919||The Light||Blanchette Dumond, aka Madame Lefresne||Lost film|
|1919||When Men Desire||Marie Lohr||Lost film|
|1919||The Siren's Song||Marie Bernais||Lost film|
|1919||A Woman There Was||Princess Zara||Lost film|
|1919||Kathleen Mavourneen||Kathleen Cavanagh||Lost film|
|1919||La Belle Russe||Fleurett Sackton/La Belle Russe||Lost film|
|1919||The Lure of Ambition||Olga Dolan||Lost film; 82-second outtake does exist|
|1925||The Unchastened Woman||Caroline Knollys|
|1926||Madame Mystery||Madame Mysterieux||Short film|
|1926||45 Minutes from Hollywood||Herself||Short film|
Bara was one of three actresses (Pola Negri and Mae Murray were the others) whose eyes were combined to form the Chicago International Film Festival's logo, a stark, black and white close up of the composite eyes set as repeated frames in a strip of film.
The International Times' logo is a black-and-white image of Theda Bara. The founders' intention had been to use an image of actress Clara Bow, 1920s "It girl", but a picture of Theda Bara was used by accident, and once deployed, not changed.
In June 1996, two biographies of Bara were released: Ron Genini's Theda Bara: A Biography (McFarland) and Eve Golden's Vamp (Emprise). In October 2005 TimeLine Films of Culver City premiered the film biography Theda Bara: The Woman with the Hungry Eyes.
Bara has been the subject of several works of fiction, including In Theda Bara's Tent by Diana Altman, The Director's Cut: A Theda Bara Mystery by Christopher DiGrazia, and the play Theda Bara and the Frontier Rabbi by Bob Johnston.
In season 2, episode 1 of The Lucy Show, Vivian Bagley and Lucy argue over who should play Cleopatra in an upcoming play; Lucy states "I've seen the movie twelve times!" and Vivian quips "She means the one with Theda Bara".
In May 2016, a memoir titled Theda Bara, My Mentor, Under the Wings of Hollywood's First Femme Fatale, by Joan Craig with Beverly Stout, was released. Young Joan, in the companionship of Bara during the 1940s and 1950s, includes tales of Bara's husband, Charles Brabin, friends Marion Davies, Clark Gable, Victor Fleming, and other stars of the past.
In season 2, episode 7 of the television series Downton Abbey, butler Carson describes the newly designed bathrooms at a nearby estate as "like something out of a film with Theda Bara".
In the book Queen of the Flowers, a Phryne Fisher mystery by Kerry Greenwood, a reference is made to "a reply straight from the last Theda Bara movie" (Constable Publishers, London, p. 236).
- Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Theda Bara Speaking 1936". YouTube. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- "Theda Bara, Screen Star, 68. 'Siren' of Silent Films Was Top Box-Office Attraction During the Twenties Denounced in Churches 'Cleopatra' 'The Vampire,' 'Salome' And 'Madame Du Barry' Among Her Hits Screen 'Vampire'". The New York Times. April 8, 1955.
- Golden, Eve (1996). Vamp: The Rise and Fall of Theda Bara. Vestal, NY: Emprise. ISBN 1-887322-00-0. OCLC 34575681.
- Weinstock, Jeffrey (2012). The Vampire Film: Undead Cinema. London: Wallflower Press. p. 25.
- Love, Claire; Pollack, Jen; Landsberg, Alison (April 6, 2017). "Silent Film Actresses and Their Most Popular Characters". National Women's History Museum. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- "The Dramatic Life and Mysterious Death of Theodosia Burr". Atlas Obscura. October 7, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- "Theda makes 'em all Baras" (PDF). The New York Times. November 17, 1917.
- Genini, Ronald (1996). Theda Bara: A Biography of the Silent Screen Vamp, with a Filmography. McFarland. ISBN 9780786491612.
- "Marque Bara". The Newport Daily News. Newport, RI. April 26, 1954. p. 2.
- "The Devil – Broadway Play – Original". www.ibdb.com.
- Fort Lee: Birthplace of the Motion Picture Industry. Arcadia Publishing. 2006. ISBN 978-0-7385-4501-1.
- Golden, Eve (1996). Vamp: The Rise and Fall of Theda Bara. Vestal, NY: Emprise. pp. 204–209. ISBN 1-887322-00-0. OCLC 34575681.
- Garza, Janiss (2008). "Cleopatra (1917)". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 8, 2008. Retrieved May 29, 2011. Film review.
- "Famous Silent Screen Vamp Theda Bara Dies Of Cancer". The Montreal Gazette. Associated Press. April 8, 1955. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- Craig, Joan; Stout, Beverly F. (2016). Theda Bara, My Mentor: Under the Wing of Hollywood's First Femme Fatale. McFarland and Company, Inc. ISBN 9781476662831. LCCN 2016009417.
- Innis, Lorna (February 26, 2012). "Hollywood's link with province long, varied". Chronicle Herald. Halifax. Archived from the original on May 17, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- "Early film star's Cincinnati mansion being torn down". The Columbus Post Dispatch. July 7, 2011. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- "The Thin Man". Lux Radio Theatre. Internet Archive. Retrieved December 1, 2015. Skip to 50m:50s.
- "The Lux Radio Theatre". RadioGOLDINdex. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
- Brady, Thomas F. (January 21, 1949). "De Sylva Working on Movie of Bara". The New York Times. p. 25.
- Brady, Thomas F. (December 2, 1949). "Betty Hutton Set for 2 Metro Films". The New York Times. p. 36.
- "Rites for Theda Bara Today". The New York Times. April 9, 1955. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- "Classic Images – Vol. 250 – April 1996 Issue". Classicimages.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2010.
- Adinolfi, Francesco (2008). Mondo Exotica: Sounds, Visions, Obsessions of the Cocktail Generation. Translated by Pinkus, Karen; Vivrette, Jason. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780822341321. OCLC 179838406.
- "Theda Bara". Hollywood Walk of Fame. Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
- Panati, Charles (1998). Sexy Origins and Intimate Things: The Rites and Rituals of Straights, Gays, Bi's, Drags, Trans, Virgins, and Others. Penguin Books. p. 295.
- Fads and Fashion of 1900 [& Other Newsreels] (film). Fun Film. 1905. 8 minutes in – via Ngā Taonga Sound & Vision.
- Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "REDISCOVERED: THEDA BARA IN "SALOME", 1918". YouTube.
- "Hirschfeld draws silent screen stars stamps". Stamps. 246 (13): 353. March 26, 1994. ProQuest 220978182.
- Page, Jeffery (July 9, 2015). "A Star in the Era Before Hollywood". The Record. Retrieved August 21, 2019 – via Gale Onefile:News.
- "Lost Cleopatra". Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- Ziemba, Christine N. (February 6, 2017). "Twenty Of The Coolest Events Happening in L.A. This Week in Arts & Entertainment". LAist. Archived from the original on May 1, 2017.
- "Theda Bara Makes 'Camille' Reality". Hartford Courant. October 30, 1917. Archived from the original on August 31, 2012. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
Heralded as one of the screen triumphs of the day, "Camille", adapted from the Dumas novel, and with Theda Bara the featured player, fulfills the promises of the management of Poli's Theater, where this film really heads the bill this half of the week. Vaudeville must...
- Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Lost Film segment – Theda Bara – 1919 (currently unknown film source)". YouTube. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- Performance of Silhouettes from the Screen by Steve Norquist
- "What's a Nice Jewish Girl Like You Doing in a Place Like This? – Arab Kitsch".
- Philip George Furia; Michael L. Lasser (2006). America's Songs: The Stories Behind the Songs of Broadway, Hollywood, and Tin Pan Alley. Taylor & Francis. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-0-415-97246-8.
- "The sheik of Avenue B". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on May 21, 2017.
- "About: Mission & History Our Logo". The Chicago International Film Festival. Our Logo. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- Miles, Barry (1998). Many Years From Now. Vintage – Random House. p. 232. ISBN 0-7493-8658-4.
- Shakespeare on Silent Film: An Excellent Dumb Discourse by Judith Buchanan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Chapter 6. ISBN 0-521-87199-9.
- Famous Juliets by Jerome Hart, in Motion Picture Classic, March 1923.
- A Million and One Nights by Terry Ramsaye. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1926.
- Fox, Susan (2006). William Fox: A Story of Early Hollywood 1915–1930. Midnight Marquee Press Inc. ISBN 1-887664-62-9.
- DiGrazia, Christopher (2011). The Director's Cut: A Theda Bara Mystery. 1921 PVG Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9827709-4-8.
- Johnston, Bob (2002). Theda Bara and the Frontier Rabbi. Dramatist's Play Service. ISBN 0-8222-1837-2.
- Altman, Diana (2010). In Theda Bara's Tent. Tapley Cove Press. ISBN 978-0-615-34327-3.
- Theda Bara at IMDb
- Theda Bara at AllMovie
- Theda Bara at the TCM Movie Database
- Theda Bara at the Internet Broadway Database
- Excerpt from Golden's biography Vamp
- Biography at monash.edu.au
- Theda Bara photo gallery NY Public Library Billy Rose collection
- "Theda Bara", entry in Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia
- The 1917 review of Tiger Woman starring Theda Bara from The Atlanta Georgian
- The Ex-Vampire by Theda Bara Vanity Fair Magazine, October, 1919