Tesla Model S
|Tesla Model S|
|Designer||Franz von Holzhausen|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Executive car/Full-size car/Mid-size luxury car (E)|
|Body style||5-door liftback|
|Related||Tesla Model X|
|Electric motor||Front and rear motor combined output up to 615 kW (825 bhp), 1,300 N⋅m (960 lb⋅ft), 3-phase AC induction motor|
|Transmission||1-speed fixed gear ratio (9.734:1 or 9.325:1); direct-drive|
|Battery||100 kWh lithium ion|
Discontinued: 60 (40), 70, 75, 85 and 90 kWh lithium ion
|Wheelbase||116.5 in (2,960 mm)|
|Length||195.9 in (4,980 mm)|
|Height||56.5 in (1,440 mm)|
|Curb weight||4,323–4,960 lb (1,961–2,250 kg)|
The Tesla Model S is a battery-powered liftback car serving as the flagship model of Tesla, Inc.. The Model S features a dual-motor, all-wheel drive layout, although earlier versions of the Model S featured a rear-motor and rear-wheel drive layout.
Development of the Model S began prior to 2007, under the codename "WhiteStar". The Model S was officially announced on June 30, 2008, and a prototype vehicle was unveiled in March 2009. The Model S debuted on June 22, 2012. A revised, dual-motor, all-wheel-drive version, known as the 60D, debuted on October 9, 2014. The 60D was followed by the 70D, which made dual-motor and all-wheel drive the standard, followed by the 85D, P85D, and P90D. In February 2017, the Tesla Model S was updated with the P100D, which included a revised motor and was the first electric vehicle to have an EPA estimated range exceeding 300 miles (483 km). A refresh of the Tesla Model S, codenamed "Palladium", was introduced in June 2021, offering a new "Plaid" performance model, along with a revised interior, powertrain, and suspension.
The Model S became the first electric car to top the monthly new-car-sales ranking in any country, leading twice in Norway, in September and December 2013 and in Denmark in December 2015. Sales passed 250,000 units in September 2018. The Model S was the top-selling plug-in electric car worldwide in 2015 and 2016, although it was later surpassed by the Model 3. Upon its release, the Model S received positive reviews, with praise for its acceleration and range, although initial models received criticism for their high cost and braking issues.
The Model S was developed by a team led by Franz von Holzhausen, who previously worked for Mazda North American Operations. Holzhausen drew upon the design of the CLS series of cars. Codenamed "WhiteStar" prior to its official unveiling, the Model S was designed with an electric powertrain in mind, unlike other electric vehicles where the manufacturer swaps out an internal combustion engine with an electric motor. As a result, the Model S offers features such as a front trunk ("frunk") in addition to a rear trunk and an enlarged crumple zone.
In January 2007, Tesla announced plans to build consumer-level sedans starting in 2009; production was later delayed to 2011.  The Model S was officially announced on June 30, 2008, and a prototype vehicle was displayed on March 26, 2009. In May 2010, Tesla announced it would produce the Model S at the former NUMMI plant in Fremont, California.
The Model S officially launched on June 22, 2012. Production grew from 15–20 cars completed per week in August 2012 to about 1,000 cars per week in 2015. Upon its release, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rated the range for the base model at 208 mi (335 km) while the longer range model was estimated to have a range of 265 miles (426 km). Musk claimed that the Model S battery offered twice the energy density of the Nissan Leaf's, with more than double the range, increased by a low drag coefficient, motor efficiency and rolling resistance. The original battery was similar to the Panasonic NCR18650B cell that offered an energy density of 265 Wh/kg. Analysts estimated battery costs to be around 21–22% of the car cost. The 60 kWh battery was guaranteed for eight years or 125,000 miles (200,000 km), while the 85 kWh was guaranteed for eight years and unlimited miles. Throughout 2012, Tesla began building a network of 480-volt charging stations, called Tesla Superchargers, to facilitate long-distance travel.
On October 9, 2014, Tesla introduced all-wheel drive (AWD) versions of the Model S 60, 85, and P85 models, designated by a D at the end of the model number (the P represents performance). Deliveries of the P85D started in December 2014, with the 85D models following in February 2015, and the 70D models in April 2015.
In September 2014, the Model S began to be equipped with cameras, forward looking radar and ultrasonic acoustic location sensors that provided a 360-degree view, to be used with Tesla Autopilot. Autopilot later arrived in October 2015, as part of a software update.
In June 2015, Tesla stated that the Model S had traveled over 1 billion miles (1.6 billion km), the first all-electric car to reach that total. Globally, Model S sales passed 100,000 units that year, and 150,000 in November 2016. The 200,000 milestone was achieved by early in the fourth quarter of 2017.
Throughout 2015, Tesla would make various changes to the Model S, including an enhanced powertrain that would last for one million miles. An update that year introduced electromechanical brakes. That same year, Tesla introduced a 70 kWh battery to replace the existing 60 kWh batteries and base 60 kWh Model S vehicles. Tesla also introduced a 90 kWh battery as a "range upgrade" and explained that the 6% energy increase was due to "improved cell chemistry" and the introduction of silicon into the cell's graphite anode. After being discontinued the year prior, the 60 and 60D returned in 2016 with a software-limited, upgradeable 75 kWH battery and a new air filter, dubbed "Bioweapon Defense Mode".
In April 2016, Tesla removed the black nose cone and added a body colored fascia. The front fascia has a similar design as the Model X, adding adaptive LED headlights. A HEPA cabin air filtration system was added. The standard charger increased from 40 to 48 amps, speeding charging at higher-amperage outlets. Two ash wood interior options were added. In August of that year, Tesla announced the P100D with a "Ludicrous" mode option, a 100 kWh battery with 315 miles (507 km) of range, weighing 625 kg in a 0.40 m³ volume, a density of 160 Wh/kg.
A year later, in April 2017, Tesla discontinued the 60 kWh software-limited battery option. The lowest-capacity option subsequently became the 75 kWh battery. Additionally, Tesla significantly reduced the software upgrade options for the facelifted 60 and 70 models to be upgraded over-the-air to 75 (and rebadged at their next visit to a Tesla service center). In August 2017, Tesla announced that HW2.5 included a secondary processor node to provide more computing power and additional wiring redundancy to improve reliability; it also enabled dashcam and sentry mode capabilities.
In March 2018, the Media Control Unit (MCU) was updated, improving the performance of the center screen and adding games to the MCU such as Cuphead and streaming services such as Netflix to the MCU. In May of that year, in collaboration with the Software Freedom Conservancy, Tesla released some of the internal source code of Model S on a GitHub repository as part of their software license compliance process.
In May 2019, as part of an engineering refresh, the range of the Model S was increased to 370 mi (600 km) and smart air suspension was added. The range would be increased further in February 2020 to 390 mi (630 km) of range.
As of March 2020[update], Tesla operates 16,103 superchargers in 1,826 stations worldwide; these include 908 stations in the U.S., 98 in Canada, 16 in Mexico, 520 in Europe, and 398 in the Asia/Pacific region. In August 2020, the EPA updated the results of their range test of the Model S to 402 miles (647 km).
In early 2021, with the introduction of an entirely new interior, now with landscape orientation of the MCU, more rear seat room, and a lightly modified exterior, Tesla changed the "Performance" and "Long Range" Model S branding in favor of "Plaid" and "Long Range," respectively. On June 10, 2021, the Model S Plaid was released at a delivery event at the factory with nearly 30 new owners taking delivery that evening; the Plaid version notably featured a return of the third-row seating, allowing a total of seven passengers, although third-row seating is not present within the consumer version of the car. The Long Range version was EPA-rated to a new high of 405 mi (652 km) when equipped with the standard, 19" wheels, making it the longest range EV in the world; the Plaid was listed at 396 mi (637 km) of range.
In the United States, the Model S is manufactured at the Tesla Factory in Fremont, California. For the European market, the battery pack and electric motor are removed, and the remaining parts are shipped and assembled at Tesla's European Distribution Center in Tilburg.
As of 2020, the Model S is one of the top cars for domestic parts content.
The Model S is classified as a full-size luxury car in the United States, although the EPA refers to the Model S as a "Large Car" (greater than or equal to 120 cu ft or 3.4 m3) or "Luxury Sedan". The Euro Car Segment classifies the Model S as a S-segment (sports car); in Germany, the Model S is classified as "Oberklasse" (F-segment).
All versions of the Model S have the same body and normally seat five passengers. Other configurations were once available so as to allow for a third-row seat with two additional seats, for a total of seven passengers.
The Model S powertrain has gone through several iterations since its first release, increasing in efficiency, power, and durability. In 2014, Tesla claimed that the Model S recovered the energy that went into producing it in fewer than 10,000 miles (16,000 km). The powertrain provides regenerative braking power of more than 60 kW, which both reduces energy consumption and greatly reduces brake wear.
The rear axle has a traditional open differential. Models with Dual Drive dual motors also have an open differential on the front axles. The front and rear axles have no mechanical linkage—with dual motors, the power distribution among them is controlled electronically. With the introduction of the tri-motor Plaid version in mid-2021, new performance levels were achieved, making the Model S Plaid the fastest accelerating production car in the world.
The battery pack includes thousands of identical cylindrical 18650 battery cells 18 mm in diameter and 65 mm in height. These cells use a graphite/silicon anode and a nickel-cobalt-aluminum cathode with an aqueous electrolyte and lithium ions as charge carriers. The battery capacity within the Model S has changed numerous times since its debut, ranging from 60–100 kWH. The batteries are the heaviest component within the Model S; the 85 kWh battery pack weighed 1,200 lb (540 kg).[better source needed]
Cell, group, module, pack
The P85 pack contains 7,104 lithium-ion battery cells in 16 modules wired in series (14 in the flat section and two stacked on the front). Each module contains 6 groups of 74 cells wired in parallel; the 6 groups are then wired in series within the module.
The motor, controller and battery temperatures are controlled by a liquid cooling/heating circuit, and the battery is uninsulated. Waste heat from the motor heats the battery in cold conditions, battery performance is reduced until heated by motor generated heat until a suitable battery temperature is reached, in contrast to using an electric battery heater. The battery can be pre-heated by a 6 kW internal heater, either from itself using battery power, or from a charger.
- The center of gravity height is 18 inches (460 mm) (about the same as a Lotus Elise), helping it to achieve a lateral acceleration of 0.9 g and rollover protection.
- The bulk of the mass is between the axles, which lowers rotational inertia and allows it to turn more quickly for its weight.
- The battery cage increases the rigidity of the passenger compartment, improving passive safety.
Under its five-cycle testing protocol, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rated the 90 kWh version at a combined fuel economy equivalent of 104 MPGe (2.26 L/100 km or 125 mpg‑imp), with an equivalent 102 mpg‑US (2.3 L/100 km; 122 mpg‑imp) in city driving and 107 mpg‑US (2.2 L/100 km; 129 mpg‑imp) on highways.
|Speed-dependent power consumption|
|Speed-dependent ranges of various Model S|
|Speed-dependent mileage, Model S & Roadster|
Vehicle energy consumption is highly dependent on speed; the Model S requires 10 kW (14 hp) at 70 mph (110 km/h), and 31 kW (42 hp) at 100 mph (160 km/h). Ancillary equipment (climate control, battery conditioning, etc.) may consume 15–25%, depending on outside temperature.
The charge port is located behind a door in the left taillight. During charging, the charge port pulses green. The pulse frequency slows as the charge level approaches full. When charging is complete, the light turns solid green. The Model S comes equipped with a different charger and connector in North America versus other markets.
In North America, adapters for 120 volt NEMA 5-15 outlets, as well as an adapter for SAE J1772 charging stations, are included. Other adapters including the popular NEMA 14–50 250V adapter can be purchased from Tesla for use with the Mobile Connector.
Charging times depend on the battery pack's state-of-charge, its capacity, the available voltage, and the available amperage. From a 120 volt/15 amp household outlet, the range increases by 3.75 miles (6 km) for every hour of charging. From a 10 kW, NEMA 14–50 240 V/50 A outlet (like those used by RVs or stoves), the charge rate is 28.75 miles (46 km) per hour. Using Tesla's 20 kW, 240 V High Power Wall Connector increases the rate to 57 miles (92 km) per hour if the car is configured with dual chargers (20 kW).
In Europe and the Asia-Pacific region, the Model S uses a Type 2 charger.
While some Model S's were built with a base, steel spring, suspension, the vast majority have a self-leveling, height-adjustable air suspension. This is accomplished via adjustable Bilstein shock absorbers controlled by the driver. The car lowers itself at highway speeds and can be set to a higher level to traverse steep driveways and rough terrain, mitigating the default 6 in (150 mm) ground clearance and relatively long 116 in (2,900 mm) wheelbase.
The suspension system has evolved via "over-the-air" software updates. The height adjustment feature remembers locations where the driver has requested higher clearance and automatically adjusts each time the car returns to that location.
In early 2019, as part of the "Raven" update, the Model S was upgraded to feature an enhanced "Smart Air Suspension" with automatic, dynamic suspension adjustments.
Autopilot uses cameras, radar and ultrasound to detect road signs, lane markings, obstacles, pedestrians, cyclists, traffic lights, and other vehicles. Additionally, Autopilot includes adaptive cruise control and lane centering and supports semi-autonomous drive and parking capabilities.
The instrument panel is located directly in front of the driver. It includes a 12.3-inch (310 mm) liquid-crystal display electronic instrument cluster that indicates speed, charge level, estimated range and active gear, as well as navigation directions. The Model S's touchscreen display was originally powered by a Nvidia Tegra 3 3D Visual Computing Module (VCM), while the instrument cluster was driven by a separate Nvidia Tegra 2 VCM. The Tegra system on a chip (SoC) integrated eight specialized processors, including a multi-core ARM CPU, a GPU, and dedicated audio, video and image processors.
The original touchscreen was a 17-inch (430 mm) multi-touch panel. divided into four areas. A top line displayed status symbols and provided shortcuts for charging, HomeLink, driver profiles, vehicle information and Bluetooth. The second line provided access to apps including Media, Nav (driven by Google Maps, which was separate from the navigation on instrument panel), Energy, Web, Camera and Phone. The main viewing area displayed the (two) active apps, subdivided into upper and lower areas. (Most apps can be expanded to take up the entire area). At the bottom was access to various controls and settings for the vehicle such as doors, locks and lights as well as temperature controls and a secondary volume control. In June 2021, as part of the refresh of the Model S, the touchscreen was shifted to be in landscape mode, rather than a portrait mode.
The map display requires a constant Internet connection, limiting navigation in areas without service. Automatic navigation to charging stations is included. The operating system powering the touchscreen runs Linux.
Introduced in mid-2021, the Plaid and Long Range versions of the Model S feature no steering column-mounted shift stalk; instead, the Model S uses cameras to infer whether to shift into forward or reverse. Earlier versions controlled transmission selection via a shift stalk on the right side of the steering column.
As of 2017, the materials used within the seats are animal-free, made of synthetic fiber, with the steering wheel covers shifting to an animal-free material in late 2019 as well. The original impetus for this years-long transition to animal-free interiors may have been two shareholder proposals presented at an annual Tesla shareholders meeting in 2015, in which the substantial environmental damage caused by animal agriculture was highlighted, along with the obvious conflict with Tesla's stated mission.
The Model S exists in several versions, differing in energy capacity, motor size and power, and equipment.
A custom Model S was designed for the Oceanic Preservation Society in collaboration with Obscura Digital, and was used to project images of endangered animals to help educate the public about ongoing Holocene mass extinction, as featured in the 2015 documentary Racing Extinction.
The base Model S 60 was released with 60 kWh battery capacity and used a 270 kW (362 hp) 441 N⋅m (325 ft⋅lb) motor.
Dual motor, AWD variations (60D) became available in 2014.
In January 2019, Tesla made the 100D the base version and discontinued the 75D version.
The 85D replaced the rear drive unit with a smaller motor, while a second motor of similar size was added to the front wheels. The resulting AWD car offered comparable power and acceleration to the rear wheel drive. The 85D offered a 2% (5-mile) range increase and 11% increase in top speed over the 85.
The P85D was a dual-motor, all-wheel-drive vehicle. It had a governed top speed of 155 mph (249 km/h) and it accelerated from 0 to 60 miles per hour (0 to 97 km/h) in 3.2 seconds (tested to 3.1 seconds), under "Insane Mode", with 1g of acceleration. Total output reached 345 kW (463 hp) despite the two motors because they did not give their maximum power at the same time.
The high-power rear-drive unit was retained, while the additional front-drive motor increased power by about 50%, increasing acceleration and top speed.
The P90D had a top speed of 155 mph (249 km/h) and it could accelerate from 0 to 60 miles per hour (0 to 97 km/h) in 2.8 seconds, despite the lower total motor power, in part due to the improved traction of the all-wheel drive powertrain. An optional "Ludicrous Mode" hardware package improved the 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) time to 2.8 seconds at 1.1g.
The P90D combined a front axle power of 259 horsepower (193 kW) and rear axle power of 503 horsepower (375 kW) for a 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) time of 2.8 seconds. The acceleration of the P90D can reach 1.1g, described by Tesla as "faster than falling".
In June 2017, Tesla discontinued selling the 90 kWh battery pack option.
As of March 2017, P100D was the world's quickest production vehicle with a NHRA rolling start to 60 mph (97 km/h) in Motor Trend tests in 2.28 seconds (acceleration clock started after 0.26 seconds at 5.9 mph (9.5 km/h)) in Ludicrous mode.
Owing to overheating issues (the radiator has no blower), multiple uses of Ludicrous mode required rest periods to protect the battery. According to Motor Trend, selecting the "Yes, bring it on!" option for maximum acceleration "initiates a process of battery and motor conditioning, wherein the battery temperature is raised slightly and the motors are cooled using the air-conditioning system. It usually takes just a few minutes, longer in extreme ambient temperatures or after repeated runs. You should expect to wait a minimum of 10 minutes in-between runs."
In 2019, the Performance and Long Range Plus variants offered the "Raven" powertrain. It included the permanent magnet synchronous reluctance motor from the Tesla Model 3 as the front motor. The motor was more powerful and more efficient than its predecessor. The Raven powertrain included a new adaptive air suspension.
The Palladium refresh was announced in January 2021 with initial deliveries in June 2021. The refresh included a new interior, new powertrain, suspension and thermal management amongst other improvements. The refresh originally consisted of three models, the Long Range (LR), the Plaid, and the Plaid+, although the Plaid+ was cancelled shortly before deliveries began. The "Plaid" name is applied to the performance model and is a reference to the only speed faster than "Ludicrous" in the movie Spaceballs.
The Plaid model includes one motor for the front axle and two motors for the rear axle; its starting price was $131,100. At the core of the Plaid's performance are innovative new motors featuring a carbon-wrapped rotor to allow much higher motor RPM. Musk said that this presented challenges, because carbon and copper (the rotor material) have different thermal expansion rates. The Long Range model includes the front motor and a single rear motor; its starting price was $80k, but it was raised to $85k soon after deliveries began. "Track Mode" allows for adjustment from 100% FWD to 100% RWD in 5% increments, traction control strength in 21 stages and regenerative braking strength from 0% to 100% in 5% increments.
At its debut, the Palladium models had the lowest drag coefficient of any production car, with Cd=0.208. The new HVAC system uses a heat pump that Tesla says provides 30% longer range and requires 50% less energy in cold weather conditions than the previous Model S. Charging was said to increase by 187 miles (301 km) in 15 minutes (on a 250 kW Supercharger). The interior features a non-circular "yoke" steering wheel, a landscape-oriented center screen, a screen for the rear passengers, increased headroom and legroom, particularly in the rear seat area, lower noise via acoustic glass, a new, customizable user interface, and improved gaming (via the AMD RDNA 2 GPU). The company estimated that deliveries will reach 1000/week in Q3 of 2021.
The Plaid has 1,020 horsepower (760 kW) and 1,050 pound-feet (1,420 N⋅m) of torque. It was independently tested by Motor Trend to go 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 2.07 seconds (1.98 on a prepped drag strip, ex. with PJ1 TrackBite) and cover a quarter-mile (400 m) in 9.34 seconds at 152.2 mph (244.9 km/h). Tesla said it will reach a 200 mph (320 km/h) top speed.
Tesla recommends overnight charging at home as the primary method of charging. In general, the convenience of plugging in overnight outweighs the far longer charging interval.
For charging outside the home, Tesla has partnered with businesses to install Tesla Wall Connectors to provide a charging network called Tesla Destination. The units are provided to the businesses by Tesla for free or at a discounted price. The business is responsible for the cost of electricity. Not all destination chargers are available to the public, as some businesses limit them to customers, employees, or residents only.
Tesla operates a global network of 480-volt charging stations. The Tesla network is usable only by Tesla vehicles apart from select countries in Europe where Tesla is currently running their Non-Tesla Supercharging Pilot. Supercharging hardware is standard on all new vehicles and most earlier editions. The Supercharger is a DC rapid-charging station that provides up to 250 kW of power, adding up to 15 mi (24 km) per minute.
Tesla originally designed the Model S to allow fast battery swapping, which also facilitated vehicle assembly. In 2013, Tesla demonstrated a battery swap operation taking around 90 seconds, about half the time it takes to refill an empty gas tank. Tesla originally planned to support widespread battery swapping, but supposedly abandoned the plan due to perceived lack of interest by customers. Tesla has been accused of gaming the California Air Resources Board system for zero-emission vehicle credits by launching the "battery swap" program that was never made available to the public. Tesla announced in 2020 that it would integrate the batteries into the body to increase strength and reduce weight and cost.
Sales and markets
U.S. deliveries began June 2012. Tesla reported 520 reservations for the Model S during the first week they were available and by December 2012, a total 15,000 net reservations (after deliveries and cancellations) had been received by year-end.
The special edition Model S Signature model was sold out before deliveries began in June 2012, and according to Tesla all models were sold out for that year shortly after. A total of 2,650 cars were delivered in North America in 2012.
Tesla delivered 50,658 Model S/X units in 2015. Tesla sold more than 50,000 Model S cars globally in 2016, making it the world's top selling plug-in electric that year. In 2017, it became only the second EV to sell more than 200,000 units behind the Nissan Leaf.
The Model S was released in Europe in early August 2013, and the first deliveries took place in Norway, Switzerland and the Netherlands. By November 2013, the Model S was on sale in 20 countries. By the end of 2013, Norway and Switzerland became the company's largest per capita sales markets.
Retail deliveries in China began in April 2014. The right-hand-drive model was released in the UK in June 2014, followed by Hong Kong in July 2014 and Japan in September 2014. Deliveries in Australia began in December 2014.
The Model S ranked as the world's second best selling plug-in electric vehicle after the Nissan Leaf. About 55% of deliveries went to North America, 30% to Europe, and 15% to the Asia-Pacific market.
The Model S was the world's top selling plug-in car for the second year running. As of 2018, the Model S rank fell to second place after the BAIC EC-Series city car, which sold over 78,000 units in China.
The Model S continued to rank as the second most-sold electric car in history after the Nissan Leaf. As of December 2018[update], cumulative global sales totaled about 263,504 units.
Sales by country
|% of global
The first nine Australian units were delivered in Sydney on December 9, 2014. Tesla opened its first store and service centre in St Leonards, and its first Supercharger station at Pyrmont in December 2014.
The Model S was the top selling all-electric car in the country for the first quarter of 2015.
The first Chinese deliveries took place on April 22, 2014. The standard equipment was the same as the European version, with larger back seats because the car was expected to be driven by a chauffeur.
By mid-2018, China ranked as Tesla’s second largest market.
Sales began in Hong Kong in July 2014.
European retail deliveries began in August 2013, in Norway, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Sales rose most rapidly in Norway. The Model S topped the European luxury car segment in 2015, ahead of the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (14,990), the traditional leader.
Sales in 2015 totaled 1,805 units, and declined to 1,693 in 2016. As of October 2016[update], combined registrations of the Model S (5,681) and the Model X (250) represented 48.6% of the 12,196 all-electric cars on Dutch roads at the end of that month. The Model S was the all-time top selling all-electric car in the Netherlands with 12,394 cars registered at the end of March 2021, however it has since been overtaken by the Tesla Model 3, with 38,745 cars registered in March 2021.
The world's first delivery took place on June 1, 2012 in California, to a Tesla board member, while formal deliveries to the public began at a large ceremony on June 22, 2013. 
The first Model S sedans were delivered in Canada in December 2012.
Retail sales model
Tesla sells its cars directly to consumers without a dealer network, as other manufacturers have done and as many states require by legislation. In support of its approach, the company fought legal and legislative battles in Ohio, New Jersey, New York and other states. The Tesla direct sales model was permitted in 22 states as of March 2015. In other states the Tesla salesperson is not allowed to discuss prices, and the ultimate sale must be made online.
Tesla has made many claims about the safety of its vehicles, encompassing vehicle structure and driver assist software.
In 2014, the Model S had a 5-star safety rating from both Euro NCAP and the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). At that time, only two other cars had earned the same recognition since 2011 (when the NHTSA introduced its latest rating scheme).
|Frontal, driver||Adult occupant||31 pts / 82%||Moderate overlap frontal offset||Good|
|Frontal, passenger||Child occupant||38 pts / 77%||Side impact||Good|
|Side, driver||Pedestrian||24 pts / 66%||Roof strength||Good|
|Side, passenger||Driver assist||9 pts / 71%||Roof strength (P100D)||Acceptable|
|Side pole, driver||Headlights||Poor|
Initial battery fire incidents
The first widely reported fire occurred several minutes after the vehicle hit metal debris on the Washington State Route 167 highway on October 1, 2013. The driver "was able to exit the highway as instructed by the onboard alert system, bring the car to a stop and depart the vehicle without injury". He then contacted authorities and, while awaiting their arrival, smoke began coming out the front of the vehicle. The driver stated that he hit something while exiting the HOV lane. Tesla stated that the fire was caused by the "direct impact of a large metallic object to one of the 16 battery modules", and that by design, the modules were separated by firewalls, limiting the fire to "a small section in the front of the vehicle".
The module was evidently punctured by a "curved section" that fell off a truck and was recovered near the accident. Tesla stated that the debris punched a 3-inch (76 mm) diameter hole through the .25-inch (6.4 mm) armor plate under the vehicle, applying force of some 25 tons. Built-in vents directed the flames away from the vehicle so that the fire did not enter the passenger compartment. According to Tesla, the firefighters followed standard procedure; using water to extinguish the fire was correct, however, puncturing the metal firewall to gain access to the fire also allowed the flames to spread to the front trunk. Tesla also stated that because the battery pack contains "only about 10% of the energy contained in a gasoline tank", the effective combustion potential of a single module is only about 1% that of a conventional vehicle.
NHTSA reported, "After reviewing all available data, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has not found evidence at this time that would indicate the recent battery fire involving a Tesla Model S was the result of a vehicle safety defect or noncompliance with federal safety standards." The following month, the NHTSA opened a preliminary evaluation to determine "the potential risks associated with undercarriage strikes on model year 2013 Tesla Model S vehicles". On March 28, 2014, NHTSA closed its investigation, claiming that the (new) titanium underbody shield and aluminum deflector plates, along with increased ground clearance, "should reduce both the frequency of underbody strikes and the resultant fire risk".
On November 6, 2013, a fire broke out after a Model S struck a tow hitch on the roadway, causing damage beneath the vehicle. The incidents led Tesla to extend its warranty to cover fire damage and to apply a software update to increase ground clearance when operating at highway speed.
Another fire took place in Toronto, Canada, in February 2014. The Model S was parked in a garage and was not charging when the fire started. The origin of the fire is undetermined. According to Tesla "in this particular case, we don't yet know the precise cause, but have definitively determined that it did not originate in the battery, the charging system, the adapter or the electrical receptacle, as these components were untouched by the fire".
Starting with vehicle bodies manufactured as of 6 March 2014[update], all units were outfitted with a triple underbody shield. Existing cars were retrofitted upon request or as part of routine service.
On January 1, 2016, a 2014 Model S caught fire while supercharging unsupervised in Brokelandsheia, Norway. The vehicle was destroyed but nobody was injured. The fire was slow, and the owner had time to unplug the car and retrieve possessions. An investigation by the Norwegian Accident Investigation Board (AIBN) indicated that the fire originated in the car, but was otherwise inconclusive. In March 2016, Tesla stated that their own investigation into the incident concluded that the fire was caused by a short circuit in the vehicle's distribution box, but that the amount of damage prevented them from determining the exact cause. Tesla stated that the Supercharger detected the short circuit and deactivated, and a future Model S software update would stop the vehicle from charging if a short circuit is detected.
NTSB stated that Teslas are not more prone to fires than other vehicles.
- On June 14, 2013, Tesla recalled Model S vehicles manufactured between May 10, 2013, and June 8, 2013, due to improper methods for aligning the left hand seat back striker to the bracket, which could weaken the weld between the bracket and frame.
- On January 13, 2014, Tesla recalled Model S vehicles manufactured in 2013, because the adapter, cord, or wall outlet could overheat during charging.
- On November 20, 2015, Tesla announced a voluntary recall of all of its 90,000 Model S vehicles, in order to check for a possible defect in the cars' front seat belt assemblies. The problem was raised by one customer in Europe. Tesla's resulting investigation was unable to identify a root cause for the failure, and the company decided to examine every car. Tesla reported that no accidents or injuries were related to the problem.
- On January 20, 2017, Tesla recalled Model S made from 2012 in January 2017 due to defective Takata airbags. Cars manufactured later (until 2017) had smaller risk.
- On April 20, 2017, Tesla issued a worldwide recall of 53,000 of the 76,000 Model S and Model X vehicles sold in 2016 due to faulty parking brakes.
- On March 30, 2018, all 123,000 Model S cars manufactured before April 2016 were recalled due to excessive corrosion of the bolts which secure the power steering, particularly those cars used in cold countries where roads are salted.
- In December 2021 119,009 Model S vehicles were recalled because of the possibility of latch failure allowing front hoods to open unexpectedly.
The first known fatal accident when Autopilot was active occurred in Williston, Florida on May 7, 2016. In June 2016, the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) opened a formal investigation into the accident, working with the Florida Highway Patrol. According to NHTSA, preliminary reports indicate the crash occurred when a tractor-trailer made a left turn in front of the Tesla at an intersection on a non-controlled access highway, and the driver and the car failed to apply the brakes. NHTSA's preliminary evaluation examined the design and performance of automated driving systems, which involved an estimated 25,000 cars.
According to Tesla, "neither autopilot nor the driver noticed the white side of the tractor-trailer against a brightly lit sky, so the brake was not applied." The car attempted to drive full speed under the trailer, "with the bottom of the trailer impacting the windshield of the Model S." Tesla also stated that this was Tesla's first known Autopilot-related death in over 130 million mi (209 million km) driven by its customers while Autopilot was activated. According to Tesla a fatality occurred every 94 million mi (150 million km) among all type of vehicles in the U.S. In January 2017, NTSB concluded Tesla was not at fault since the driver in the crash had seven seconds to see the truck and take action; the investigation revealed that the Tesla car crash rate dropped by 40 percent under autopilot.
On August 19, 2013, based on NHTSA safety ratings, a Tesla press release claimed that the Model S had achieved the best safety rating of any car ever tested. Tesla stated, "NHTSA does not publish a star rating above 5, however safety levels better than 5 stars are captured in the overall Vehicle Safety Score (VSS) provided to manufacturers, where the Model S achieved a new combined record of 5.4 stars." However, a few days later NHTSA rebutted Tesla's claim, explaining that the rating for the Model S was equal to any other car receiving 5-stars, and claiming that the carmaker did not follow its advertising guidelines.
In July 2017, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) found that during front crash tests, the Model S safety belts let the driver's torso move too far forward, resulting in the head striking the steering wheel hard through the airbag. This problem was already pointed out in one of the IIHS's earliers tests, to which Tesla responded they would improve their safety belt design, which, according to the IIHS's latest tests, has not been done. The IIHS also gave the Model S the worst possible rating for its headlights. The report caused Tesla to lose 6.4% of its stock value.
Issues and criticism
On February 8, 2013, The New York Times published a review by John M. Broder about a trip between Washington, D.C., and Boston using Tesla's Supercharger network. At the time it included only two stations on the East Coast. Broder made a variety of critical claims about the battery's performance in cold weather and the distance between charging stations. The trip ended with the Model S carried on a flatbed truck to the Milford, Connecticut, station.
Tesla responded by publishing logs of the vehicle's charge levels and driving speed that contradicted Broder's account. Tesla implied that Broder's behavior forced the car to fail. Broder replied to the criticism, suggesting that the speed discrepancies may have been because the car had been equipped with 19-inch wheels rather than the specified 21-inch wheels. In the midst of the controversy, a CNN reporter recreated Broder's trip without exhausting the battery. However, two differences distinguished the journeys. The weather was about 10 °F (6 °C) warmer and CNN completed the trip in one day; the Times let the car sit overnight while not plugged in. A reporter from CNBC also recreated the trip in one day without incidents. One week later, a group of Tesla owners recreated Broder's trip without problems.
On February 18, 2013, The New York Times Public Editor Margaret Sullivan published an editorial stating that Broder took "casual and imprecise notes" and used poor judgment, but she maintained that the article was written in good faith. She admitted that Broder's vehicle logs were "sometimes quite misleading."
In July and September 2014 tests performed by an independent German car magazine in cooperation with the TÜV (German Association for Technical Inspection) and Tesla owners seemed to reveal issues with the battery's performance. According to the magazine, Tesla did not take up the invitation to repeat the test, and seemed to refuse to offer vehicles for a second test. A test performed by another German publication ("Die Welt") supported the findings.
Power dissipation when not in use
Older versions of the system software suffered from power drain issues when the car wasn't being used, with the batteries losing 4.5 kWh overnight (known commonly as "vampire drain"). System software v5.8 (v1.49.30), released December 12, 2013, reduced overnight energy loss substantially, to 1.1 kWh per night, or around 3 miles.
Consumer Reports' recommendation
In October 2015, two months after naming the Tesla 'the best car ever tested,' Consumer Reports declined to give the Tesla Model S a "recommended" designation, citing too many complaints from owners. Complaints ranged from misaligned doors and squeaky body, to total drive train failure and inoperable door handles. Tesla's shares dropped 15%, both because of the magazine's cut and because of concerns over the Tesla Model X luxury SUV. Similarly, Edmunds.com found quality and safety issues in their long-term road test and "amassed quite the repair résumé during the last 17 months." Both Edmunds and Consumer Reports reported the vehicle stalling while driving.[better source needed]
In their 2016 Annual Auto Reliability Survey, Consumer Reports improved the Model S rating to average reliability. The magazine raised "serious concerns about how some automakers, including Tesla, have designed, deployed, and marketed semi-autonomous technology."
By 2017, in the Consumer Reports Car Reliability Survey, Tesla's position on the list moved up four spots; and the predicted reliability rating for Model S reached "above average" for the first time.
In 2018 the annual Consumer Reports reliability survey found Tesla cars amongst the worst with the brand falling 6 spots from 2017 and third worst amongst the brands surveyed. The Model S dropped "below average" in reliability with suspension problems and other issues that included the extending door handle.
In 2019 the model S achieved a Consumer Reports "recommended" designation due to improved reliability, with the Model S as the second-most reliable out of four ultra-luxury cars tested.
The P85D "insane mode" was widely reported to have 691 horsepower, but some owners reported 20% less power on the dynamometer in various circumstances. As of November 2015[update], Tesla website showed battery-limited combined 345 kilowatts (463 hp) for P85D (397 kilowatts (532 hp) for "Ludicrous"). A lawsuit by 126 owners in Norway was settled in December 2016.
In early March 2016, a report by Stuff magazine revealed that a test performed by VICOM, Ltd on behalf of Singapore's Land Transport Authority had found a 2014 Tesla Model S to be consuming 444 Wh/km (0.715 kW⋅h/mi), which was greater than the 240 Wh/km (0.38 kW⋅h/mi) reported by EPA and the 181 Wh/km (0.291 kW⋅h/mi) reported by Tesla. As a result, a carbon surcharge was imposed on the Model S, making Singapore the only country in the world to impose an environmental surcharge on a fully electric car. The Land Transport Authority justified this by stating that it had to "account for CO2 emissions during the electricity generation process" and therefore "a grid emission factor of 0.5 g/watt-hour was also applied to the electric energy consumption". Tesla countered that when the energy used to extract, refine, and distribute gasoline was taken into account, the Model S produced approximately one-third the CO2 of an equivalent gasoline-powered vehicle.
Later that month, the Land Transport Authority released a statement stating that they and the VICOM Emission Test Laboratory would work with Tesla engineers to determine whether the test was flawed, and a Tesla statement indicated that the discussions were "positive" and that they were confident of a quick resolution.
Plaid+ reservation issues
After it was announced that Plaid+ was canceled, some reservation holders discovered their reservations had been converted into a full order for the regular Plaid version and with no refund included for their Plaid+ deposit.
The Model S has received numerous awards, including:
- 2013 AutoGuide.com Reader's Choice Car of the Year
- 2013 World Green Car of the Year.
- Automobile Magazine's 2013 Car of the Year, a unanimous decision.
- CNET Tech Car of the Year for 2012
- Consumer Reports gave the Model S a score of 103 out of 100, its highest ever. The Model S broke the rating scale of Consumer Reports during its most recent test.
- Consumer Reports' 2013 survey of owner satisfaction produced a score of 99 out of 100, "the highest the magazine has seen in years." In 2014 the Model S topped for the second year in a row Consumer Reports survey of owner satisfaction. This time the Model S had a score of 98 out of 100.
- Consumer Reports found the Model S to be 'Best Overall' for 2014 across all 10 categories of cars, light trucks and SUVs, chosen from more than 260 vehicles the organization has recently tested. The magazine considers the Model S a "technological tour de force, while pricey, is brimming with innovation." In 2015 they rated the Model S at 103 (breaking the scale).
- Green Car Reports' Best Car To Buy 2013
- Hagerty Greatest Car of the Decade (2010s)
- Motor Trend 2013 Car of the Year, also a unanimous decision and the first winner in the award's history to not be powered by an internal combustion engine.
- Natural Resources Canada 2013 EcoENERGY for Vehicles Awards in the full-size category
- Popular Science's Auto Grand Award Winner Best of What's New list 2012.
- The Telegraph included the Model S in its list of the top 10 cars that changed the world published in December 2014, and also named the electric sedan the most important car of the last 20 years.
- Time Magazine Best 25 Inventions of the Year 2012 award. In 2019, the model S was included in the Time Magazine list of best gadgets of the 2010s.
- Yahoo! Autos 2013 Car of the Year.
- American Automobile Association Green Car Guide 2015, top spot (P85D). The Model S also won the 2014 AAA Green Car Guide.
- 2019 Green Car Reports Car of the Decade.
All of these records used hypermiling techniques such as front motor only, low speed 24 mph (39 km/h), no air conditioning and minimal use of the brakes. These attempts were inspired by a blog written by Elon Musk about the planned range and efficiency of the Tesla Model S, offering a prize for anyone exceeding 400 miles (640 km) on a single charge, where it was estimated the 85 kWh model could do it by driving at a constant 36 mph (58 km/h) under ideal conditions.
In early September 2019, a prototype ("plaid" tri motor) Tesla Model S went faster than the official record for the fastest "four-door electric sports car" at the Laguna Seca Raceway, beating a previous time held by the Tesla Model 3 Performance.
|P100D||670 mi (1,080 km)||August 5, 2017||Italian drivers||First production electric car to exceed 620 mi (1,000 km) on a single charge.|
|P100D||560 miles (901.2 km)||June 20, 2017||Belgian drivers.|
|85 kWh||423.5 miles (681.6 km)||November 2012||David and Adam Metcalf|
- Electric car use by country
- Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles
- List of electric cars currently available
- List of fastest production cars by acceleration
- List of production cars by power output
- List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles
- List of production battery electric vehicles
- List of Easter eggs in Tesla products
- Dorian, Drew (October 13, 2020). "2021 Tesla Model S Review, Pricing, and Specs". Car and Driver.
- "2020 Tesla Model S Specs & Features". Edmunds.
- "Model S Optionen und Preis" [Model S options and Price] (in German). Germany: Tesla Motors. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- "Tesla Model S Dual 80 A Charger (second onboard 40 A Charger)". Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on December 4, 2016.
- Sabatini, Jeff (November 2014). "2014 Tesla Model S 60 Full Test – Review". Car and Driver. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- Cantle, Chriss (October 9, 2014). "Tesla Model S P85D: Dual motors, AWD, 691 hp, 3.2 to 60". Road & Track. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Sherman, Don (May 2015). "2015 Tesla Model S 70D". Car and Driver. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Boudreau, John (June 22, 2012). "In a Silicon Valley milestone, Tesla Motors begins delivering Model S electric cars". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
- "Norges mest solgte bil i september er en elbil" [Norway's best selling car in September is an electric vehicle] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. October 1, 2013. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- Gasnier, Mat (October 2, 2013). "Norway September 2013: Tesla Model S in pole position!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- Voelcker, John (October 1, 2013). "Tesla Model S Was Best-Selling Car in Norway For September". Green Car Reports. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- Kane, Mark (January 4, 2014). "Tesla Model S Again No. 1 in Overall Sales in Norway in December!". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
- Christensen, Thomas Bo (January 4, 2016). "Tesla blev Danmarks mest solgte bil i december" [Tesla was Denmark's best selling car in December]. Energi Watch (in Danish). Retrieved January 7, 2016.
- Cobb, Jeff (January 22, 2018). "Tesla Quietly Sold 200,000th Model S Last Year". HybridCars.com. Retrieved January 23, 2018. "Tesla sold its 200,000 Model S in the fourth quarter of 2017, in October or early November, becoming the second plug-in car to cross this sales threshold after the Nissan Leaf (300,000 units by early 2017). As of December 2017[update], Tesla reported global sales of 212,874 Model S cars."
- "Tesla Q1 2018 Vehicle Production and Deliveries". Palo Alto: Tesla. April 3, 2018. Retrieved September 2, 2018.
- "Tesla Second Quarter 2018 Delivery". Palo Alto: Tesla. July 2, 2018. Retrieved September 2, 2018.
- "Tesla Q3 2018 Vehicle Production and Deliveries". Palo Alto: Tesla. October 2, 2018. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
- Cobb, Jeff (January 11, 2017). "America's Plug-in Car Sales Were Their Best Ever in 2016". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved January 12, 2017. Plug-in electric car sales in the U.S. totaled 157,181 units, up 37.6% from 2015 (114,248). The plug-in car segment achieved an all-time high market share of 0.90% of new car sales in 2016. December sales totaled a record monthly volume of 23,288 units and also achieved a record monthly market share of 1.39% of new car sales. The top selling model for the second year in a row was the Tesla Model S with 29,156 units sold in 2016, followed by the Chevrolet Volt (24,739), Tesla Model X (18,028), Ford Energi Fusion (15,938), and the Nissan Leaf (14,006). As of December 2016[update], cumulative sales totaled 570,187 plug-in cars since 2008, with the Chevrolet Volt as the all-time best selling plug-in car with 113,489 units. The Tesla Model S ranks third with an estimated 92,317 units since its inception in 2012.
- Cobb, Jeff (January 26, 2017). "Tesla Model S Is World's Best-Selling Plug-in Car For Second Year In A Row". HybridCars.com. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- Sharan, Zachary (February 4, 2017). "Tesla Model S & Nissan LEAF Clocked As World's Best-Selling Electric Cars In 2016". CleanTechnica. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Wert, Ray (February 20, 2007). "Darryl Siry responds to rumor on Jalopnik forum". Jalopnik.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Vance, Ashlee (January 24, 2017). Elon Musk : Tesla, SpaceX, and the quest for a fantastic future (First Ecco paperback ed.). New York, NY. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-06-230125-3. OCLC 933272365.
- "Audi A3 Sportback e-tron (2017)". Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- Perlo, Pietro (May 27, 2018). "Optimised and Systematic Energy Management in Electric Vehicles". European Union. pp. 9, 11, 21, 23.
- Evannex, Chevrolet Bolt EV Nissan. "Report: Tesla's Design Is Light Years Ahead of BMW, GM, And Nissan Because Of "Ground-Up" Design". InsideEVs. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
- "Tesla Model S P100D". www.deeptread.com. Deep Tread. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- LaPedus, Mark (January 8, 2007). "EETimes – Tesla tips new electric sports car –". EETimes. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
- "Tesla Model S Homepage". Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- Richard, Michael Graham (June 30, 2008). "Tesla's Next Electric Car to be Called "Model S", New Factory to Open in North California". TreeHugger.com. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- Monticello, Mike (October 23, 2008). "Tesla Builds a 4-Door – New and Future Cars". Road & Track (Hachette Filipacchi Media, U.S., Inc.). Archived from the original on June 4, 2010. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- "Tesla debuts electric car for the masses". CBC News. March 27, 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
- "Tesla Wants NUMMI Operational By 2012". Ktvu.com. May 20, 2010. Archived from the original on May 23, 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Gordon-Bloomfield, Nikki (May 6, 2015). "Tesla Motors Posts Q1 2015 Losses, Due to Strong Dollar, High Capital Expenditures. Hits 1,000 Car/Week Model S Production". Transport Evolved. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
- Voelcker, John (December 7, 2012). "Tesla Model S 60-kWh Version: EPA Range Rated At 208 Miles". Green Car Reports. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- "Compare Side-by-Side". fueleconomy.gov. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- Ingram, Antony (January 2, 2013). "Tesla Model S Owner Drives Coast To Coast Electrically (Again)". Green Car Reports. Retrieved January 9, 2013.
- Fowler, Steve (July 21, 2014). "Elon Musk: Tesla boss on EVs with 500-mile range and colonies on Mars". Auto Express. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- Carlson, Randy (March 2, 2015). "Tesla: Gigafactory Tipping Point". Seeking Alpha. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- Edelstein, Stephen (September 24, 2015). "Tesla Model 3 Will Benefit From Lowest Battery Costs of Any Maker: Jefferies". Green Car Reports. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- "Tesla launches first six Supercharger locations; 100 kW charging, with 120 kW in future". Green Car Congress. September 25, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- Alspach, Kyle (October 9, 2014). "New Tesla Is Way More Robotic and Also One of the Fastest Sedans on the Planet". BostInno.
- Davies, Alex (October 10, 2014). "The Model D Is Tesla's Most Powerful Car Ever, Plus Autopilot". Wired. Retrieved October 11, 2014.
- "Tesla Model D: Elon Musk's new electric car is company's most powerful yet". The Independent. October 10, 2014.
- Isidore, Chris (July 18, 2016). "Elon Musk says Autopilot upgrade could be coming". US: CNN. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- Elon Musk [@elonmusk] (July 17, 2016). "Promising call today with @BoschGlobal, maker of our radar sensor. Looks like significant improvements possible via OTA software update" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Nelson, Gabe (October 14, 2015). "Tesla beams down 'autopilot' mode to Model S". Automotive News. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- "Tesla Model S one billion miles". Western Morning News. June 23, 2015. Archived from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- Cobb, Jeff (June 23, 2015). "Happy 3rd Birthday Tesla Model S: Fleet Is First To Travel One Billion Miles". HybridCars.com. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- Cobb, Jeff (December 15, 2015). "Tesla Model S Crossed 100,000 Sales Milestone This Month". HybridCars.com. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
- Cobb, Jeff (December 5, 2016). "Tesla Model S Is Second Plug-in Car To Cross 150,000 Sales Milestone". HybridCars.com. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
- Blanco, Sebastian (July 17, 2015). "Tesla announces Model S Ludicrous upgrade, 90-kWh battery". Autoblog. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- Cantle, Chris (October 9, 2014). "Tesla Model S P85D: Dual motors, AWD, 691 hp, 3.2 to 60". Road & Track. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- "Tesla Motors (TSLA) Earnings Report: Q1 2015 Conference Call Transcript". TheStreet. May 7, 2015. p. 8. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- "Tesla Motors (TSLA) Earnings Report: Q1 2015 Conference Call Transcript". TheStreet. May 7, 2015. p. 9. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- LeVine, Steve (July 21, 2015). "Why did Elon Musk pass up a chance to boast about a scientific coup?". Quartz. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
- O'Kane, Sean (June 9, 2016). "Tesla just released two cheaper versions of the Model S". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
- "Tesla Model S finally gets a facelift". Autoblog. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- Korosec, Kirsten (April 12, 2016). "Tesla's Model S Will Look Different Starting Today". Fortune. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
- Golson, Jordan (August 23, 2016). "Tesla's new 100kWh battery makes Ludicrous Mode even more ludicrous". The Verge. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
- "Request for issuance of a new certificate of Conformity". February 22, 2017. p. 36.
- "Discover Software Version 9.0". www.tesla.com. October 5, 2018. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
Dashcam is only available for Model S and Model X cars manufactured after August 2017...
- Lambert, Frederic (August 9, 2017). "Tesla has a new Autopilot '2.5' hardware suite with more computing power for autonomous driving". electrek.co. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
- Alvarez, Simon (March 14, 2018). "Tesla Model S/X gets updated MCU for faster, more responsive touchscreen display". TESLARATI. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- "Tesla MCU1 and MCU2: main differences". tesletter.com. Retrieved December 17, 2019.
- Lambert, Fred (May 19, 2018). "Tesla releases some of its software to comply with open source licences". Electrek. US. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
- Kuhn, Bradley M.; Sandler, Karen M. (May 18, 2018). "Congratulations to Tesla on Their First Public Step Toward GPL Compliance". Software Freedom Conservancy. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
- "Understanding The Recent Changes Made To Tesla's Model S & X". CleanTechnica. May 8, 2019. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
- Dow, Jameson (February 15, 2020). "Tesla releases 'Long Range Plus' Model S/X with 390/351 mile range, new wheels". Electrek. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
- "supercharge.info". supercharge.info. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- Crider, Johnna (June 16, 2020). "Tesla Model S Long Range Plus Exceeds 400 Miles Of Range, EPA Confirms". cleantechnica.com. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
- "Tesla Model S Long Range Plus Now Starts At $69,420 In U.S." InsideEVs. Retrieved October 17, 2020.
- Nivedita, C.; Bellon, Tina (October 15, 2020). "Tesla's back-to-back price cuts bring sticker on U.S. Model S below $70,000". Reuters.
- Elon Musk [@elonmusk] (October 14, 2020). "The gauntlet has been thrown down! The prophecy will be fulfilled. Model S price changes to $69,420 tonight!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Tesla Model S Plaid with 'practically alien' tech unleashed: 1000 hp, lowest drag coefficient, and PS5-level gaming".
- King, Danny (December 13, 2012). "Tesla will assemble, distribute vehicles in Holland for European market". Autoblog Green. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- Willebrands, Michiel (August 22, 2013). "Tesla opent assemblagecentrum in Tilburg" [Tesla opens assembly center in Tilburg] (in Dutch). Auto Week Netherlands. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
- Mays, Kelsey (June 23, 2021). "2021 Cars.com American-Made Index: Which Cars Are the Most American?".
- "2016 Tesla Model S (70 kW-hr battery pack) [click "Specs"]". U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- "Fuel Economy of 2016 Luxury Sedans with MPG >= 45". U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Thiel, Christian; Krause, Jette; Dilara, Panagiota (2015). "Electric vehicles in the EU from 2010 to 2014 – is full scale commercialisation near?" (PDF). European Commission Joint Research Centre. pp. 9, 15–16. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
- Fergusson, Malcolm (2015). "How clean are Europe's cars?" (PDF). European Federation for Transport and Environment. p. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 10, 2015. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
- "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Segmenten und Modellreihen im Dezember 2015" [New registrations of passenger cars by segments and models in December 2015] (PDF) (in German). Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA). January 2016. Retrieved January 18, 2016. A total of 1,582 Model S cars were registered in Germany in 2015.
- "Model S Specs and Standards". Tesla Motors. Retrieved June 4, 2012.
- Yoney, Domenick (August 7, 2018). "Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Tesla Batteries". InsideEVs. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
- Roper, L. David. "Tesla Model S Data". Retrieved April 5, 2015.
- Dillard, Ted (September 23, 2014). "Rare Look Inside A Tesla Model S Battery Pack". InsideEVs. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- Cunningham, Wayne (October 6, 2010). "Tesla Model S: The battery pack". C|Net. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- US patent 8286743, Rawlinson, Peter Dore, "Vehicle Battery Pack Ballistic Shield", issued 2012-10-16
- US patent 2007009787, "Method and Apparatus for Mounting, Cooling, Connecting, and Protecting Batteries", issued 2007-1-11
- Beltran, Balbino A.; Dunlap, Michael L.; Richardson, Frank D. (August 7, 2013). REPORT NUMBER: NCAP305I-KAR-13-054 NEW CAR ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (NCAP) FMVSS NO. 305 INDICANT TEST TESLA MOTORS, INC. 2013 TESLA MODEL S 5-DOOR HATCHBACK NHTSA NUMBER: MD5001 (Report). U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Safety Adminitstration. p. A-13. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- Garthaite, Josie (June 23, 2012). "Leaving Baggage on the Dock, a Flagship Departs From California". The New York Times. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- Blankenship, George (November 28, 2016). "Tesla Patent Outlines Sensible Approach to Cabin Heating". InsideEVs. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Bower, George (2016). "Tesla Model S Recycles Waste Heat to Warm the Battery". insideevs.com. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
Once you start driving, heat generated by the motor is used to heat up the battery. .. it might take several minutes before the battery is warm enough to provide full acceleration.
- Biello, David. "How Tesla Motors Builds One of the World's Safest Cars [Video]". Scientific American.
- "Suspension". February 4, 2014. Archived from the original on June 25, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
The Lotus Elise has a kinematic roll center height of 30mm above the ground and a center of gravity height of 470mm. The Lotus Elise RCH is 6% the height of the CG, meaning 6% of lateral force is transferred through the suspension arms and 94% is transferred through the springs and dampers.
- 2015 Dodge Charger SRT Hellcat vs. 2015 Tesla Model S P85D! – Head 2 Head Ep. 65 at 14m. Motor Trend Channel, April 29, 2015
- Read, Richard (August 20, 2013). "Tesla Model S: So Safe, It Broke NHTSA's Testing Equipment". TheCarConnection.com. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
NHTSA's normal tests couldn't induce the car to flip, so the agency had to resort to "special means". Tesla credits the sedan's battery pack for that, which gives the Model S a very low center of gravity
- Ingram, Antony. "Tesla Models S Gets Highest Safety-Test Score Ever Awarded By NHTSA". Green Car Reports.
- "Compare Side-by-Side". fueleconomy.gov. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- Sherman, Don (June 2014). "Drag Queens: Aerodynamics Compared – Comparison Test". Car and Driver. Archived from the original on November 7, 2018. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "Tesla Model S Owner's Manual" (PDF). Tesla Motors. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- "Should you go with a 48 amp or a 72 amp Charger for your next Tesla?". InsideEVs. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
- "Charge your Model S – Adapter Guide, High Power Charging, and Supercharge". Tesla Motors. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
- Edmunds, Dan (September 26, 2012). "2012 Tesla Model S Signature Performance Suspension Walkaround". Edmunds.com. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- Korosec, Kirsten (September 19, 2014). "Potholes and Tesla's Model S: Never the twain shall meet". Fortunes. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- "Tesla Adaptive Suspension (Raven) Explained". February 20, 2021.
- "Riding shotgun in Tesla's fastest car ever". Engadget. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- "Tesla D is, as expected, an AWD Model S but new autopilot features surprise". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- White, Joseph B. (October 10, 2014). "Tesla Aims to Leapfrog Rivals". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- "NVIDIA Powers Digital Dashboard in New Tesla Motors Electric Sedan" (Press release). NVidia. June 21, 2012. Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
- Hesseldahl, Arik (October 14, 2014). "What's Inside the Tesla Model S Dashboard". Re/code.
- Olsen, Stein Jarle (March 19, 2015). "Tesla Model S – Slik vil Tesla gjøre slutt på rekkeviddeangsten" [Tesla Model S – How will end the Tesla range anxiety]. Teknisk Ukeblad (in Norwegian). Retrieved April 6, 2015.
- "Tesla Eliminates Leather Seating Options On Model S And Model X". InsideEVs. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
- Smith, John (January 27, 2016). "First hybrid taxi arrives in Gibraltar". EuroWeekly News. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Ingram, Antony (June 4, 2012). "Want A 2013 Tesla Model S Signature Edition? Too Late, They're All Gone". Green Cars Reports. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
- Garthwaite, Josie (May 6, 2011). "Tesla Prepares for a Gap as Roadster Winds Down". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2011.
- "Model S Specifications". Tesla Motors. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- "Tesla Model S first drive". CNET. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
- Berman, Bradley (September 28, 2012). "One Big Step for Tesla, One Giant Leap for E.V.'s". The New York Times. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
- Noland, David (November 11, 2014). "2014 Tesla Model S: 2014 Tesla Model S: Killing 3 Versions, 2 Colors, Some Options". Green Car Reports. Retrieved November 27, 2014.
- Bruce, Chris (April 8, 2015). "Tesla adds Model S 70D with all-wheel drive to lineup for $75k". AutoBlog. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- Capparella, Joey (January 10, 2019). "Tesla Is Getting Rid of the Base 75D Model S and Model X". Car and Driver. Retrieved October 17, 2020.
- "Model S Design Studio". my.teslamotors.com. Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on July 5, 2015. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Tingwall, Eric (June 2015). "2015 Tesla Model S P85D – Driving 40,000 miles, 250 miles at a time". Car and Driver. Archived from the original on September 28, 2015.
- Shahan, Zachary (September 23, 2015). "JB Straubel Answers (Trolls?) Tesla Horsepower Critics". Clean Technica.
- Tingwall, Eric (May 20, 2016). "2015 Tesla Model S P85D – Not quite weatherproof". Car and Driver. US. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- "Tesla Model S Performance – Battery". Tesla Motors. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
- Davies, Alex (July 17, 2015). "Tesla's New 'Ludicrous Mode' Makes the Model S a Supercar". Wired. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
- Eisenstein, Paul A. (July 17, 2015). "When 'Insane Mode' Isn't Enough – Tesla Adds "Luuudicrous Mode"". The Detroit Bureau.
- "Acceleration chart".
- Lambert, Fred (June 2, 2017). "Tesla will discontinue the 90 kWh battery pack next week". Electrek. Retrieved December 29, 2019.
- Sorokanich, Bob (February 21, 2017). "World's First Tesla Model S P100D Dyno Run: 920 Lb-Ft of Torque at the Wheels". Road & Track.
- Markus, Frank (February 7, 2017). "2017 Tesla Model S P100D First Test: A New Record – 0–60 MPH in 2.28 Seconds!". Motor Trend. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
- Yvkoff, Liane (January 11, 2017). "Tesla May Reduce Vehicle Power After Too Many Ludicrous Mode Engagements". The Drive. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- "Porsche Manager Reportedly Calls Tesla's Ludicrous Mode a "Facade"". Road & Track. June 16, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- Lambert, Fred (August 24, 2016). "Tesla's new Model S P100D is not only quick, it's the first all-electric car with over 300 miles of range". Eleckrek. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
- "What Is the Tesla Raven Powertrain?". MotorTrend. February 19, 2020. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
- Hilliard, Justin (January 28, 2021). "2022 Tesla Model S and Model X pricing and specs detailed: Facelifts for electric car and SUV headlined by ludicrous Plaid power". CarsGuide. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
- Alonzo, Isaiah (September 22, 2020). "Tesla Model S 'Plaid' With Spaceball-Inspired 'Ludicrous Speed' Set for 2021 For $134,000+". Tech Times. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
- Ewing, Steven (June 10, 2021). "Tesla Model S Plaid arrives with $131,100 price tag, 390-mile range". Roadshow. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
- Schmidt, Bridie (June 11, 2021). "Tesla launches "crazy fast" tri-motor Model S Plaid, raises price". The Driven. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
- "Tesla Equips Model S Plaid with Innovative New Electric Motor with Carbon-Wrapped Rotor". TESMANIAN. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
- Lambert, Fred (June 11, 2021). "Tesla launches Model S Plaid with new motor tech, faster charging, and new entertainment features". Electrek. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
- Morris, James (June 12, 2021). "Is The Tesla Model S Plaid The Best Car On The Planet?". Forbes. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
- Ewing, Steven (June 10, 2021). "Tesla Model S Plaid offers repeatable 0-to-60 times, better cold weather range, Musk says". Roadshow. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
- Hollister, Sean (June 1, 2021). "AMD confirms it's powering the gaming rig inside Tesla's Model S and Model X". The Verge. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
- "Tesla Model S Plaid First Test: 0–60 MPH in 1.98 Seconds*!". MotorTrend. June 17, 2021.
- Field, Kyle (April 29, 2016). "Tesla Makes Full-Court Press With Destination Charging". Clean Technica. Sustainable Enterprises Media. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Cobb, Jeff (October 12, 2012). "First Tesla Superchargers Open October 19". HybridCars.com. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- Motavalli, Jim (December 21, 2012). "Tesla Begins East Coast Fast-Charging Corridor". The New York Times. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- Blanco, Sebastian (September 27, 2009). "Report: Tesla Model S was designed with battery swaps in mind". Autoblog Green. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Rogowsky, Mark (June 21, 2013). "Tesla 90-Second Battery Swap Tech Coming This Year". Forbes. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- "Tesla Motors demonstrates battery swap in the Model S". Green Car Congress. June 21, 2013. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Sorokanich, Bob (June 10, 2015). "Musk: Tesla "unlikely" to pursue battery swapping stations". Road & Track. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
- ""It Is Literally Everything": Desperate, Vulnerable Elon-Musk-Believers Beg Neuralink For Disease Help – Finanz.dk". Retrieved September 12, 2020.
- Voelcker, John. "Is Tesla's new battery-swap station just a ploy to gain zero-emission vehicle credits?". Business Insider. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- Etherington, Darrell (September 22, 2020). "Future Teslas will have batteries that double as structure, making them extra stiff while improving efficiency, safety and cost". TechCrunch. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
- "520 Model S Reserved in the First Week". Business Wire. April 1, 2009. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Lienert, Paul (February 20, 2013). "UPDATE 2-Tesla Motors expects first profit in Q1". Reuters. Retrieved February 20, 2013. A total of about 2,650 Model S sedans were sold during 2012
- Lienert, Anita (June 4, 2012). "2013 Tesla Model S Signature Series Is Sold Out". Edmunds Inside Line. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Motavalli, Jim (May 12, 2012). "In White Plains, Tesla Motors Sells the Sizzle and Maybe a Car or Two". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Yoney, Domenick (February 20, 2013). "Tesla delivered 2,650 Model S EVs last year, Musk confident of profit in Q1 and beyond". Autoblog Green. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
- "Tesla Motors – Third Quarter 2015 Shareholder Letter" (PDF) (Press release). Palo Alto, California: Tesla Motors. November 3, 2015. Retrieved November 3, 2015. Tesla global electric car sales totaled 11,603 units during the third quarter of 2015, including six Model X units.
- "Tesla Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2015 Update" (PDF). Tesla Motors. February 10, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2016. A total of 17,478 units were delivered globaly during the fourth quarter of 2015, including 206 Model X vehicles. Model S sales in the United States totaled 16,689 units in 2014 and 25,202 in 2015.
- "Tesla Model S & Nissan LEAF Clocked As World's Best-Selling Electric Cars In 2016". February 4, 2017. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
- "Tesla Motors, Inc. – Second Quarter 2013 Shareholder Letter" (PDF). Tesla Motors. August 7, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 22, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2013.
- "Tesla Motors, Inc. – Third Quarter 2013 Shareholder Letter" (PDF). Tesla Motors. November 5, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 4, 2014. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
- Hull, Dana (February 14, 2013). "Elon Musk vs The New York Times: battle escalates Thursday with dueling blog posts". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Makinen, Julie (April 22, 2014). "Tesla delivers its first electric cars in China; delays upset some". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
- Loveday, Eric (June 7, 2014). "First Right Hand Drive Tesla Model S EVs Get Delivered in UK". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved June 8, 2014.
- Loveday, Eric (July 30, 2014). "Tesla Celebrates First Model S Deliveries in Hong Kong – Video". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Mochizuki, Takashi (September 8, 2014). "Tesla's Musk, in Tokyo, Says 'Heart' of Model S Is Japanese". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Crowe, Philippe (December 9, 2014). "Tesla Officially Open For Business in Australia". HybridCars.com. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
- Cobb, Jeff (February 11, 2015). "2014's Top-10 Global Best-Selling Plug-in Cars". HybridCars.com. Retrieved February 11, 2015. A total of 31,655 units were sold worldwide in 2014. Global cumulative sales since June 2012 totaled 56,782 Model S cars by the end of 2014.
- "Tesla Motors – Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2014 Shareholder Letter" (PDF). Tesla Motors. February 11, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2014. Global sales during 4Q 2014 totaled 9,834 units.
- "Tesla Motors – Second Quarter 2015 Shareholder Letter" (PDF). Tesla Motors. August 5, 2015. Retrieved August 5, 2015. A total of 11,532 units were delivered globally during the second quarter of 2015. The Model S was the best-selling electric vehicle in the U.S for the first half of 2015.
- Cobb, Jeff (January 12, 2016). "Tesla Model S Was World's Best-Selling Plug-in Car in 2015". HybridCars.com. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
- "Tesla Fourth Quarter 2018 Delivery". Palo Alto: Tesla. January 5, 2019. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
- Kane, Mark (January 3, 2019). "U.S. Tesla Sales In December 2018 Up By 249%". Inside EVs. Retrieved January 28, 2019. Cumulative sales in the U.S. of the three Tesla models available in 2018 totaled 351,298 vehicles, consisting of 143,892 Model S cars, 141,546 Model 3 cars, and 65,852 Model X SUVs, all, since inception.
- "Tesla Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2015 Update" (PDF). Tesla Motors. February 10, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2016. A total of 17,478 units were delivered globally during the fourth quarter of 2015, including 206 Model X vehicles. Model S sales in the United States totaled 16,689 units in 2014 and 25,202 in 2015.
- Cobb, Jeff (January 6, 2014). "December 2013 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved July 6, 2015. An estimated 18,650 Model S sedans were sold in the U.S. in 2013, and about 2,620 in 2012. See section "December 2013 Plug-in Electric Car Sales Numbers"
- Cobb, Jeff (January 4, 2018). "December 2017 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
- "TESLA MODEL S SALES FIGURES". Retrieved June 27, 2021.
- Spring, Jake (October 23, 2015). "CORRECTED-(OFFICIAL)-UPDATE 2-Tesla CEO says negotiating with China on local production". Reuters. Retrieved October 24, 2015. Tesla sold sold 3,025 Model S cars in China from January to September 2015.
- "Tesla cutting 30% of staff in China". Want China Times. March 7, 2015. Archived from the original on March 8, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2015. Tesla imported 4,800 Model S cars in 2014, but only 2,499 of those vehicles were registered for road use in China.
- Schmitt, Bertel (March 4, 2017). "Tesla's Sudden Chinese Billion, Where Are The Cars Behind It?". Forbes. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- "Bilsalget i desember og hele 2013" [Car sales in December and during 2013] (in Norwegian). Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV, Norwegian Road Federation). January 2014. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- "Bilsalget i 2014" [Car sales in 2014] (in Norwegian). Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV, Norwegian Road Federation). January 2015. Archived from the original on September 30, 2016. Retrieved February 12, 2015. Click on "Modellfordelt" to display the top 20 selling new cars in Norway: A total of 4,040 Model S cars were sold in 2014, representing a 2.8% market share of new car sales in the country.
- "Bilsalget i desember" [Car sales in December] (in Norwegian). Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV, Norwegian Road Federation). January 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2016. A total of 4,039 new Model S cars were registered in Norway in 2015.
- "Bilsalget i 2016" [Car sales in 2016] (in Norwegian). Norwegian Road Federation (OFV). January 2017. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2017. Tesla Model S registrations in Norway totaled 2,051 new units in 2016.
- "Bilsalget i 2017" [Car sales in 2017] (in Norwegian). Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV). Retrieved January 23, 2018.
- "Bilsalget i 2018" [Car sales in 2018] (in Norwegian). Norwegian Road Federation (OFV). January 2, 2019. Retrieved January 9, 2019 – via OFV.
- "Verkoopstatistieken – Meer marktinformatie" [Sales Statistics – More Market Information] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. January 24, 2014. Archived from the original on June 25, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2014. Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2013 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201312").
- "Verkoopstatistieken" [Sales Statistics] (PDF) (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. January 27, 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 9, 2015. Retrieved January 31, 2015. Download the pdf file for detailed sales by model during 2014: "nieuwverkoop personenautos 201412 Archived 2015-02-01 at the Wayback Machine".
- "Nieuwverkoop Personenautos Per Merk/Model" [New passenger cars sales by brand/model] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. January 2016. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2016. A total of 1,805 Model S cars were sold in the Netherlands in 2015".
- "RAI BOVAG Persbericht Verkopen Personenauto's" [RAI BOVAG Press Release car sales] (PDF) (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. January 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017. A total of 1,693 Model S cars were sold in the Netherlands in 2016."
- "Maandelijkse verkoopcijfers" [Monthly sales figures] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. January 22, 2018. Retrieved January 28, 2018. Download the XLS file "Personenauto's maandrapportage nieuwverkopen 2017" – A total of 2,051 Model S cars were sold in the Netherlands in 2017."
- "Maandelijkse verkoopcijfers" [Monthly sales figures] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. January 7, 2019. Retrieved January 14, 2019. Download the XLS file "Personenauto's maandrapportage nieuwverkopen 2018" – A total of 1,613 i3 cars were sold in the Netherlands in 2018."
- Klippenstein, Matthew (January 2018). "Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales". Green Car Reports. Retrieved January 31, 2018.Tesla Model S sales figures from IHS data.
- "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen 2013 nach Herstellern, Handelsnamen und ausgewählten Merkmalen" [New registrations of passenger cars 2013 by manufacturers, trade names and selected characteristics] (PDF). Statistische Mitteilungen des Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes FZ 4, Jahr 2013 (in German). Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA). May 2014. Retrieved April 13, 2015. A total of 183 units were registered in Germany in 2013.
- "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Segmenten und Modellreihen im Dezember 2014" [New registrations of passenger cars by segments and models in December 2014] (PDF) (in German). Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA). January 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 5, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2015. A total of 815 units were registered in Germany in 2014.
- "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im Dezember 2016 nach Segmenten und Modellreihen" [New registrations of passenger cars in December 2016 by segments and models] (PDF) (in German). Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA). January 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017. A total of 1,474 Model S cars were registered in Germany in 2016.
- Bekker, Henk (January 9, 2018). "2017 (Full Year) Germany: Best-Selling Electric Car Brands and Models". best-selling-cars.com. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
- "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Segmenten und Modellreihen im Dezember 2018 (FZ 11) (xlsx, 75 KB, Datei ist nicht barrierefrei)" [New registrations of passenger cars by segments and models in December 2018] (in German). Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA). January 2019. Retrieved January 14, 2019. Click on the link Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Marken und Modellreihen im Dezember 2018 (FZ 11) (xlsx, 75 KB, Datei ist nicht barrierefrei) to download the file with registrations figures by model.
- "Plug-in grant eligible vehicles licensed (at the end of Q3 2017)". UK: RAC Foundation. January 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018. This figure corresponds to eligible vehicles for the plug-in car and van grant schemes as licensed in the UK at the end of Q2 2017 (not cumulative sales).
- "Plug-in grant eligible vehicles licensed (at the end of Q1 2016)". UK: RAC Foundation. Retrieved June 7, 2016. Figures correspond to the number of vehicles registered at the end of the corresponding quarter.
- Lilly, Chris (September 17, 2015). "Outlander PHEV tops ultra-low emission league table as plug-in sales soar". Next Green Car. Retrieved September 24, 2015. A total of 1,047 Model S cars were registered in the UK at the end of June 2015.
- "Plug-in grant eligible vehicles licensed (at the end of Q3 2016)". UK: RAC Foundation. March 2017. Retrieved March 9, 2017. A total of 3,907 Model S cars were registered in the UK at the end of September 2016.
- "Autoverkäufe nach Modellen – Modellstatistik" [Passenger cars by model – Statistics by model] (in German). Auto Schweiz Suisse. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2018. Under "Modellstatistik Januar – Dezember 2017" download the xls file for 2017 sales, under "Modellstatistiken 2011–2016" download the xls file "ModellePW2016" for 2016 sales, click "2015 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2015" with sales by model for 2015, "2014 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2014" with sales by model for 2014, and "2013 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2013" with sales by model for 2013.
- "Statistik – Nyregistreringstal – Personbiler – Pr.model: januar–juni 2016" [Statistics – Passenger cars by model: January–June 2015] (in Danish). Bilimp. July 2016. Archived from the original on May 8, 2013. Retrieved August 9, 2016. "Select "2015 or 2014 or 2013 – Hele året" for the corresponding year and click on "Pr. model" for details of sales by brand and model.
- "Bilsalget i december samt hele 2016" [Car sales in December and throughout 2016] (in Danish). Bilimp. January 3, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017. Download the file "12-2016.xls" and click on the tab "Pressemeddelelse"
- "ÅRETS BILSALG 2017" [Car sales 2017] (in Danish). Bilimp. January 8, 2018. Retrieved January 28, 2018. Download the file "12-2017.xls" and click on the tab "Pressemeddelelse"
- "Topplistan december 2014 (def)" [Highscore in December 2014 (definitely)] (PDF) (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. January 6, 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 26, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
- "Nyregistreringar december 2016 def" [New Registrations December 2015 (final)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. January 4, 2016. Archived from the original on April 15, 2016. Retrieved April 15, 2016. Download the pdf file "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" See table: Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar December 2015
- "Nyregistrerade miljöbilar december 2016 (def)" [New Registrations Super Green car December 2016 (final)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. January 4, 2017. Retrieved March 10, 2017. Download the file "Nyregistrerade miljöbilar december 2016 (def)".
- "Definitiva nyregistreringar under 2017" [Definitive new registrations in 2017] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. January 8, 2018. Retrieved January 28, 2018. Download the pdf file "PressRel1712_DEF.pdf" See table: "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2017"
- "Nyregistreringar december 2018 (def)" [Definitive new registrations December 2018 (final)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. January 7, 2019. Retrieved January 20, 2018. Download the pdf file "PressRel1812_DEF.pdf" See table: "Nyregistrerade laddbara personbilar december 2018"
- Torregrossa, Michaël (January 15, 2014). "Tesla Model S – Plus de 22.000 ventes dans le monde en 2013" [Tesla Model S – More than 22,000 sales worldwide in 2013] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved February 12, 2015. A total of 15 units were registered in France in 2013.
- "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations de voitures électriques en France" [Sales figures & electric car registrations in France] (in French). Automobile Propre. January 2017. Retrieved March 10, 2017. See "Ventes de voitures électriques" in 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013. It shows all-electric car registrations between 2010 and 2016. A total of 785 Model S cars were registered in 2016, 708 in 2015 and 328 in 2014.
- "Près de 31 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en France en 2017 !" [Nearly 31,000 electric vehicles registered in France in 2017!] (in French). France: France Mobilité Électrique – AVERE. January 9, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
- "Baromètre annuel : près de 40 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en France en 2018 !" [Annual barometer: nearly 40,000 electric vehicles registered in France in 2018!] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique – AVERE France. January 9, 2019. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- Pontes, Jose (January 18, 2014). "Belgium December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
- "Immatriculations de Voitures Neuves Par Marque – December 2015" [New Car Registrations per Brand – December 2015] (PDF) (in French). Fédération Belge De L´Autombile Et Du Cycle (FEBIAC). January 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2016. See in the left side cumulative sales for 2015 (820) and 2014 (521).
- Pontes, Jose (January 24, 2017). "Belgium December 2016". EV Sales. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- Pontes, Jose (January 4, 2018). "Belgium December 2017". EV Sales. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
- Jose Pontes (January 4, 2019). "Belgium December 2018". EV Sales. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
- Soo, Zen (January 25, 2016). "With Tesla's Model S now Hong Kong's top-selling sedan, chief Elon Musk predicts city to become world leader in electric vehicles". South China Morning Post. Retrieved February 2, 2016.
- "Bundesländer-Statistik – Dezember 2015" [Federal Statistics – December 2015] (in German). Myampera.wordpress.com. August 2016. Retrieved August 12, 2016. Click on the tables by model by year.
- "Neuzulassungen nach Jahren" [Registrations by year] (in German). Statistik Austria. January 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015. Download the pdf file "Kfz-Neuzulassungen Jänner bis Dezember 2014" for Tesla's monthly sales during 2014.
- "BEV Overview table – Austria". European Alternative Fuels Observatory. March 2017. Retrieved March 10, 2017. Filter by country Austria.
- Pontes, Jose (January 17, 2018). "Austria December 2017". EV Sales. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
- Gasnier, Mat (January 12, 2016). "Australia Full Year 2015: Mazda first full importer to #2 in record market". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved January 18, 2016. Model S deliveries estimated at 1,250 units in 2015.
- McCowen, David (May 26, 2015). "Why the Tesla is Australia's best-selling electric car". Drive. Retrieved January 18, 2016. There were 65 Tesla Model S registered in New South Wales at the end of 2014, and 4 in Victoria.
- "BEV Overview table – Italy". European Alternative Fuels Observatory. March 2017. Retrieved March 10, 2017. Filter by country Italy.
- Moroni, Luca (January 6, 2018). "Dados para a venda de carros elétricos na Itália em dezembro de 2017" [Electric car salles data in Italy in December 2017] (in Italian). Green Start. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
- Hirsch, Jerry (February 19, 2014). "Tesla Motors ends year with higher sales but still a big loss". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 22, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2014. A total of 22,477 Model S sedans were sold in 2013.
- "Tesla CHAdeMO Adapter". Archived from the original on April 7, 2017.
- Crowe, Philippe (December 9, 2014). "Tesla Officially Open For Business in Australia". HybridCars.com. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- Loveday, Eric (December 10, 2014). "Tesla Model S Launches in Australia; First Australian Supercharger Comes Online". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- McCowen, David (May 26, 2015). "Why the Tesla is Australia's best-selling electric car". Drive. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- Wang, Ucilia (November 5, 2013). "Tesla Makes Record Delivery of Model S, Promises A 'Pioneering Approach' To Servicing Its Cars". Forbes. Retrieved November 5, 2013. Over 5,500 units delivered during 3Q 2013.
- Dobush, Grace (August 1, 2018). "Why Tesla Is Investing $5 Billion in a New China Factory, Its First Outside the U.S." Fortune. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- "Tesla's Model S outsold Mercedes S-Class in Europe last year". Automotive Industry Data (AID). April 1, 2016. Retrieved April 7, 2016. During 2015 Tesla Models S sales in Western Europe totaled 15,787 units, while Mercedes-Benz S-Class sales totaled 14,990 units.
- "Schiphol kiest voor duurzaam taxivervoer: Tesla" [Schiphol chooses sustainable taxi: Tesla]. Groen7.nl (Press release) (in Dutch). Schiphol Group. April 9, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Cobb, Jeff (November 17, 2016). "The Netherlands Becomes Sixth Country To Buy 100,000 Plug-in Vehicles". HybridCars.com. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- "Nederland Elektrisch – Cijfers en statistieken EV's in Nederland". nederlandelektrisch.nl.
- Ingram, Antony (August 7, 2013). "First 2013 Tesla Model S Delivered Outside North America – In Oslo". Green Car Reports. Retrieved August 7, 2013.
- Kane, Mark (August 30, 2013). "First Six Tesla Supercharger Stations Up And Runing(sic) in Norway; ~ 120 kW of Power". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- John Voelcker (June 6, 2012). "First 2012 Tesla Model S Delivered To Earliest Depositor Steve Jurvetson (Video)". Green Car Reports. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- Mark Kane (December 24, 2015). "Tesla Model S Now on Sale in Mexico". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved December 24, 2015. See more details in video (in Spanish).
- Ingram, Antony (December 3, 2013). "Tesla Wins Vs Ohio Car Dealers, Amendment Defeated". Green Car Reports. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
- Voelcker, John (June 21, 2013). "New York Auto Dealers Try To Make Registering Tesla Stores Illegal". Green Car Reports. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
- "Where can Tesla sell cars?". Mojo Motors, Inc. March 19, 2015. Archived from the original on July 8, 2015. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Tani, Maxwell (May 21, 2015). "Texas says no to Tesla direct sales". Business Insider. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Hutchinson, Lee (May 21, 2015). "Bill to allow Tesla to sell cars in Texas dies in committee". Ars Technica. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "List of Tesla Stores, Service Centers and Chargers". teslamotors.com. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- "Official Tesla Model S 2014 safety rating results". EURO NCAP. 2014. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "2014 Tesla Model S 5 HB RWD". NHTSA. 2014. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "Model S Achieves Euro NCAP 5-Star Safety Rating". Tesla Motors. November 5, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
- "2013 Tesla Model S 5 HB RWD". U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
- "Official Tesla Model S 2014 safety rating results". Euro NCAP. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
- "2017 Tesla Model S 4-door hatchback". IIHS-HLDI crash testing and highway safety.
- Kilgore, Tomi; Assis, Claudia (July 6, 2017). "Tesla no longer biggest U.S. car company by market cap as stock plunges briefly into bear-market territory". MarketWatch. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
- Christopher Jensen (October 2, 2013). "Tesla Says Car Fire Started in Battery". The New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- Steven Russolillo (October 4, 2013). "Musk Explains Why Tesla Model S Caught on Fire". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- Phillipe Crowe (October 4, 2013). "Tesla Model S Catches Fire". HybridCars.com. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- Voelcker, John (October 3, 2013). "First Tesla Model S Fire Caused By Collision With Road Debris". Green Car Reports. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- 2012–2013 Model S Emergency Response Guide (PDF). Tesla Motors. 2013. p. 18. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
If the high voltage battery becomes involved in fire or is bent, twisted, damaged, or breached in any way, or if you suspect that the battery is heating, use large amounts of water to cool the battery. DO NOT extinguish fire with a small amount of water. Always establish or request an additional water supply.
- David Shepardson (October 24, 2013). "U.S. will not open investigation into Tesla fire". The Detroit News. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Bill Vlasic and Jaclyn Trop (November 19, 2013). "After 3 Fires, Safety Agency Opens Inquiry into Tesla Model S". The New York Times. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- Eric Loveday (November 19, 2013). "NHTSA Opens Formal Investigation into 13,108 Model Year 2013 Tesla Model S Sedans Sold in US (Update)". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- Danielle Ivory (March 28, 2014). "Federal Safety Agency Ends Its Investigation of Tesla Fires". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Trop, Jaclyn (November 7, 2013). "Another Fire Raises Questions for Tesla". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2013.
- Voelcker, John (November 19, 2013). "Tesla Fires: NHTSA Will Probe, Warranty To Cover Fire Damage, Ride-Height Tweak". Green Car Reports. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- Lopez, Linette (February 13, 2014). "Another Tesla Caught on Fire While Sitting in a Toronto Garage This Month". Business Insider. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
- Ohnsman, Alan (February 14, 2014). "Tesla Investigating Cause of Fire in Toronto With Model S". Bloomberg News. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
- George, Patrick (March 28, 2014). "The Tesla Model S: Now With Road Debris-Crushing Titanium!". Jalopnik. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Blanco, Sebastian (March 28, 2014). "Tesla adds free titanium underbody shields to Model S to prevent fires". Autoblog Green. AOL Inc. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Roelsgaard, Peter (January 1, 2016). "Norsk Tesla bryder i brand under opladning" [Norsk Tesla ignites during charging]. Ekstra Bladet (in Norwegian). Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- Hopland, Sindre (January 2, 2016). "Tesla tok fyr under hurtiglading" [Tesla caught fire while supercharging]. NRK Sørlandet (in Norwegian). Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- George, Patrick (January 1, 2016). "Tesla Model S Burns to a Crisp During Supercharging in Norway". Jalopnik. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- Hattrem, Hanne; Larsen-Vonstett, Øystein (March 17, 2016). "Tesla-brannen: Kortslutning i bilen, men vet ikke hvorfor" [Tesla fire: Short circuit in the car but do not know why]. Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- Lambert, Fred (February 14, 2016). "Tesla Supercharger Fire: Authorities are shutting down the investigation and report indications that the fire originated in the car". Electrek. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- Lambert, Fred (March 17, 2016). "Tesla will update the Model S software for safer charging following a Supercharger fire". Electrek. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- Fehrenbacher, Katie (April 11, 2016). "Tesla Recalls 2,700 Model X Cars for Seat Problem". Fortune. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Wattles, Jackie (March 30, 2018). "Tesla recall: 123,000 Model S cars may have a steering problem". CNN. US. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
- Jin, Hyunjoo (December 31, 2021). "Tesla recalls almost half a million cars". nextmedia. Reuters. Retrieved December 31, 2021.
- "Tesla Model S Recalls". Cars.com. June 14, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- "Tesla Model S Recalls". Cars.com. January 13, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- "Tesla Recalling All Model S Sedans to Check for Seat Belt Defect". NBC News. November 20, 2015. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- "Model S seat belt inspection". Tesla Motors. November 19, 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
- Lambert, Fred (January 17, 2017). "Tesla to start replacing passenger airbags in all 2012 Model S sedans due to industry-wide Takata recall". Electrek. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- Lee, Timothy B. (June 10, 2016). "Tesla's real problem isn't that its cars are expensive. It's that they're unreliable". Vox. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- Lee, Timothy B. (April 20, 2017). "Tesla is recalling most of the cars it sold in 2016". Vox. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- Yadron, Danny; Tynan, Dan (July 1, 2016). "Tesla driver dies in first fatal crash while using autopilot mode". The Guardian. San Francisco. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- Vlasic, Bill; Boudette, Neal E. (June 30, 2016). "Self-Driving Tesla Involved in Fatal Crash". The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- Morris, David Paul (July 1, 2016). "Highway patrol found DVD player in wreckage of fatal Tesla accident". CNBC. Associated Press. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- "ODI Resume – Investigation: PE 16-007" (PDF). U.S.: Office of Defects Investigations, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). June 28, 2016. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
- "A Tragic Loss" (Press release). Tesla Motors. June 30, 2016. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- "Fatal Tesla Autopilot accident investigation ends with no recall ordered". The Verge. January 19, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
- "PE 16-007. MY2014-2016 Tesla Model S and Model X" (PDF). NHTSA. January 19, 2017. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- "Tesla Model S Achieves Best Safety Rating of Any Car Ever Tested" (Press release). Tesla Motors. August 19, 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- Ashlee Vance (August 20, 2013). "Tesla's Model S Sedan Destroys Safety Tests ... Literally". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- Jerry Hirsch (August 20, 2013). "Upstart Tesla wins top U.S. safety rating; what will competitors do?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- Alan Ohnsman (August 20, 2013). "Tesla Says Model S Sedan Receives Top U.S. Crash Rating". Bloomberg News. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- Mark Rogowsky (August 20, 2013). "Safest Car on the Road: Even Crashing Into A Wall Is Good News For Tesla". Forbes. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- Cheryl Jensen (August 21, 2013). "How Does Tesla's 5-Star Safety Rating Inform Overall Vehicle Safety?". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- Jason Siu (August 22, 2013). "Tesla Model S is NOT the Safest Car Ever, Say Feds". Auto Guide. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- "Update: Tesla roof so strong it broke crush-test machine". USA Today. August 21, 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- "Two electric cars miss IIHS awards". IIHS. February 1, 2017. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Broder, John (February 10, 2013). "Stalled Out on Tesla's Electric Highway". The New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- Musk, Elon (February 13, 2013). "A Most Peculiar Test Drive". Tesla Motors. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- Broder, John (February 14, 2013). "That Tesla Data: What It Says and What It Doesn't". The New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- Peter Valdes-Dapena (February 15, 2013). "Test drive: DC to Boston in a Tesla Model S". CNN Money. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- Philip LeBeau (February 19, 2013). "Behind the Wheel, Putting the Tesla to the Test". CNBC. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- Elvia Thompson (February 18, 2013). "Tesla Model S Road Trip: Electric Cars Make It From DC To CT". Green Car Reports. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- Sebastian Blanco (February 18, 2013). "Tesla Model S road trip drivers find success along NYT's failed drive route [w/video]". Autoblog Green. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- Margaret Sullivan (February 18, 2013). "Problems With Precision and Judgment, but Not Integrity, in Tesla Test". The New York Times. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- James Poniewozik (March 4, 2013). "Charged Debate". Time. Archived from the original on February 21, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- "After a Charging System Test, a Debate Erupts Online". The New York Times. February 22, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- "E-Auto-Härtetest auto motor und sport unterstreicht harte Testmethoden" [car auto motor und sport emphasizes hard test methods]. Auto motor und Sport. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- "Tesla S im Nachtest 258 km Reichweite bei 120 km/h und 13 Grad" [Tesla S at posttest reaches 258 km at 120 km / h, 13 degrees]. Auto motor und Sport. September 12, 2014. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- Meiners, Jens (August 28, 2014). "Beim dritten Gasstoß fängt der Tesla an zu schwächeln" [By the third step on the pedal the Tesla starts to weaken]. Die Welt. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- Nolan, David (November 25, 2013). "Life With Tesla Model S: Even After Update, Vampire Draw Remains". Green Car Reports. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
- Nolan, David (December 6, 2013). "Life With Tesla Model S: Electric-Draw Vampire Slain, At Last". Green Car Reports. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- "Consumer Reports Cuts Tesla From Its Recommended List Over Reliability". Yahoo!. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
- Rechtin, Mark (October 20, 2015). "Tesla Reliability Doesn't Match Its High Performance". Consumer Reports. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
- "2013 Tesla Model S Long-Term Wrap-Up | Edmunds.com". Edmunds. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
- "Tesla Model S Critical Backlash: Five Main Problems With Electric Car Identified In Recent Reviews". International Business Times. August 12, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
- "Consumer Reports Car Reliability Survey 2016". Consumer Reports. October 24, 2016. Retrieved October 24, 2016.
- Mukherjee, Sy (October 30, 2017). "This YouTuber Takes 25 Minutes to Explain Everything Wrong With His Tesla Model S". Fortune. US. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- LeBeau, Phil (October 24, 2018). "Tesla slips several spots in Consumer Reports reliability ranking". CNBC. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
- Su, Jean Baptiste. "Tesla Cars May Be The Safest In America, But Fail In Reliability: Consumer Reports". Forbes. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
- "Tesla Model 3 and Model S Regain a Consumer Reports Recommendation". November 14, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
- Christian Seabaugh (October 28, 2015). "2015 Tesla Model S P90D w/Ludicrous Upgrade First Test". Motor Trend.
- "Model S – Tesla Motors". teslamotors.com. Archived from the original on March 11, 2015.
- Quiroga, Tony (January 30, 2015). "2015 Tesla Model S P85D". Car and Driver. Archived from the original on May 23, 2016. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- Ronan Glon (September 29, 2015). "Owners Question Tesla P85D Power Output". Digital Trends.
- Sarah Shelton (September 29, 2015). "What Is The Actual Overall Horsepower Rating for the Tesla P85D?". HybridCars.com.
- "Model S – Tesla Motors". teslamotors.com. Archived from the original on November 2, 2015.
- Ramsdal, Roald (December 6, 2016). "Tesla mener P85D-kjøperne tok "en risiko for skuffelse, som de selv må bære"". Teknisk Ukeblad. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- "Tesla settles Norway lawsuit over car's performance". Reuters. December 12, 2016. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- "Be prepared for these roadblocks if you want to drive a Tesla in Singapore | Stuff". Stuff. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- "LTA on Tesla: CO2 emissions for electric cars start at power grid". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- "Gas Mileage of 2014 Tesla Model S". www.fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- "Here's how clean a Model S is in Singapore (and elsewhere)". Tesla Motors. March 10, 2016. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- hermes (March 4, 2016). "Electric car Tesla slapped with $15,000 tax surcharge". The Straits Times. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- "LTA on Tesla: CO2 emissions for electric cars start at power grid". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- "Singapore's LTA says the Tesla Model S it tested was a used car, hence its low efficiency". Tech in Asia. March 10, 2016. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- Mitrache, Vlad (June 22, 2021). ""Tesla Stole $1K from Me"—Plaid+ Reservation Holder Points at Shady Tactics". autoevolution. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
- "Tesla Model S Named 2013 AutoGuide.com Reader's Choice Car of the Year". AutoGuide. December 12, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "And Now There Is One.... Tesla Model S Declared 2013 World Green Car". International Business Times. PR Newswire. March 28, 2013. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Zenlea, David (November 1, 2012). "2013 Automobile of the Year: Tesla Model S". Automobile Magazine. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- Cunningham, Wayne; Goodwin, Antuan (December 19, 2012). "2012 Car Tech Awards: And the winner is..." CNET. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- Mark Rechtin. "Tesla Model S P85D Breaks the Consumer Reports Ratings System". Consumer Reports.
- Jamie Butters and Alan Ohnsman (January 21, 2013). "Tesla Model S Tops Consumer Reports Survey of Owners". Bloomberg News. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- Stephen Edelstein (December 4, 2014). "Tesla Model S Tops Consumer Reports Customer Satisfaction Index, Again". Green Car Reports. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Cobb, Jeff (February 25, 2014). "Consumer Reports: Tesla Model S 'Best Overall' 2014 Top Pick". HybridCars.com. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- "2015 Tesla Model S P85D". consumerreports.org.
- The Tesla Model S P85D Is So Good It Broke the Consumer Reports Test PopMech
- Voelcke, John (December 10, 2012). "2013 Tesla Model S: Green Car Reports' Best Car To Buy 2013". Green Car Reports. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "Tesla Model S: Greatest car of the 2010s | Hagerty Articles". Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- MacKenzie, Angus (January 1, 2013). "2013 Motor Trend Car of the Year: Tesla Model S". Motor Trend. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Natural Resources Canada (February 14, 2013). "2013 ecoENERGY for Vehicles Awards" (Press release). Natural Resources Canada. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- "Auto Grand Award Winner: Tesla Model S". PopSci. November 1, 2012. Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- "The top 10 cars that changed the world (and one that's about to)". The Daily Telegraph. December 21, 2014. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
- Chris Knapman (December 21, 2014). "Tesla Model S: the most important car of the last 20 years". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on December 19, 2014. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
- "Best Inventions of the Year 2012 – $22,000 – $750,000 -The Tesla Model S". Time. November 1, 2012. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- "The 10 Best Gadgets of the 2010s". December 14, 2019. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
- della Cava, Marco R. (October 31, 2012). "Tesla Model S: The 2013 Yahoo! Autos Car of the Year". Yahoo! Autos. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- Phillips, Drew (April 28, 2015). "AAA ranks Tesla Model S P85D best green car of 2015, Versa is best value". Auto Blog. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Snyder, John Beltz (June 24, 2014). "AAA says Tesla Model S is the best green car available". Auto Blog. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Green car reports car of the decade". December 30, 2019. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
- Andersen, Ina (August 26, 2015). "Norske Bjørn kjørte 728 kilometer i en Tesla – på én lading" [Norwegian Bjorn ran 728 kilometers in a Tesla – on a single charge]. Teknisk Ukeblad (in Norwegian). Retrieved June 22, 2016.
- "Longest Trip In A Production Electric Car: Tesla Model S P85D breaks Guinness World Records record". World Record Academy. August 27, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
- Musk, Elon (May 9, 2012). "Model S Efficiency and Range". Tesla Motors. Retrieved October 11, 2014.
- Westbrook, Justin T. (September 11, 2019). "Elon Musk Claims Tesla Model S Sets New Record At Laguna Seca, Which Is Not The Nürburgring". Jalopnik.
- Tesla, Inc. (September 12, 2019). Tesla Model S Fastest Lap at Laguna Seca. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021 – via Youtube.
We lapped Laguna Seca in 1:36.555 during advanced R&D testing of our Model S Plaid powertrain and chassis prototype — a second faster than the record for a four-door sedan.
- Liptak, Andrew (August 6, 2017). "Italian Tesla drivers set distance record after driving Model S 670 miles on a single charge". The Verge. Retrieved August 30, 2017.
- Muoio, Danielle (June 22, 2017). "Two Tesla fanatics just drove a Model S for a record 560 miles on a single charge – here's how". Business Insider. Australia. Retrieved August 30, 2017.
- Metcalf, David; Metcalf, Adam (December 13, 2012). "World Record Father-Son Drive" (Press release). Tesla Motors. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
- Motavalli, Jim (December 12, 2012). "Father and Son Drive 423 Miles on One Charge in Tesla Model S". The New York Times. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
- van Gilluwe, Frank (2013). Tesla Model S – Best Car Ever! (1st. ed.). FAQware. ISBN 978-0-9860689-0-4.
See book review: "Tesla Model S Best Car Ever!" is the Book All Model S Owners Should Own (Book Review)". InsideEVs. December 13, 2013.
- Howe, Nick J. (2014). Owning Model S: The Definitive Guide to Buying and Owning the Tesla Model S (1st. ed.).
See book review: "Owning A Tesla Model S: New Book Offers Tips, Tricks, Inside Info (Book Review)". Green Car Reports. May 27, 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tesla Model S.|
- Model S – official site at Tesla
- 2012 Tesla Model S test and range verification
- Should Battery Fires Drive Electric Cars Off the Road?, Scientific American, November 12, 2013.