This is a good article. Click here for more information.
Page semi-protected

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937 film)

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
Snow White 1937 poster.png
Theatrical release poster
Directed bySupervising Director Sequence Directors
Written by
Based onSnow White
by The Brothers Grimm
Produced byWalt Disney
Starring
Music by
Production
company
Distributed byRKO Radio Pictures
Release dates
Running time
83 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$1.49 million[1]
Box office$418 million[2]

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a 1937 American animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Productions and released by RKO Radio Pictures. Based on the 1812 German fairy tale by the Brothers Grimm, it is the first full-length traditionally animated feature film and the first Disney animated feature film. The story was adapted by storyboard artists Dorothy Ann Blank, Richard Creedon, Merrill De Maris, Otto Englander, Earl Hurd, Dick Rickard, Ted Sears and Webb Smith. David Hand was the supervising director, while William Cottrell, Wilfred Jackson, Larry Morey, Perce Pearce, and Ben Sharpsteen directed the film's individual sequences.

Snow White premiered at the Carthay Circle Theatre in Los Angeles, California on December 21, 1937. It was a critical and commercial success and, with international earnings of more than $8 million during its initial release (compared to its $1.5 million budget), it briefly held the record of highest-grossing sound film at the time. The popularity of the film has led to its being re-released theatrically many times, until its home video release in the 1990s. Adjusted for inflation, it is one of the top-ten performers at the North American box office and the highest-grossing animated film. Worldwide, its inflation-adjusted earnings top the animation list.[3]

Snow White was nominated for Best Musical Score at the Academy Awards in 1938, and the next year, producer Walt Disney was awarded an honorary Oscar for the film. This award was unique, consisting of one normal-sized, plus seven miniature Oscar statuettes. They were presented to Disney by Shirley Temple.[4]

In 1989, the United States Library of Congress deemed the film "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" and selected it as one of the first 25 films for preservation in the National Film Registry.[5] The American Film Institute ranked it among the 100 greatest American films, and also named the film as the greatest American animated film of all time in 2008. Disney's take on the fairy tale has had a significant cultural effect, resulting in popular theme park attractions, a video game, a Broadway musical, and an upcoming live-action film.

Plot

Having lost both of her parents at a young age, Snow White is a princess living with her wicked and cold-hearted stepmother, the Queen. Fearing that Snow White's beauty will outshine her own, the Queen forces her to work as a scullery maid and asks her Magic Mirror daily "who is the fairest one of all." For years, the mirror always answers that the Queen is, pleasing her.

One day, the Magic Mirror informs the Queen that Snow White is now the fairest in all of the land. On that same day, Snow White meets and falls in love with a prince who overhears her singing. Angered, the Queen orders her Huntsman to take Snow White into the forest, kill her, and bring back her heart in a jeweled box. The Huntsman cannot bring himself to kill Snow White, and reveals to her the Queen's plot. He then urges her to flee into the woods and never return.

Lost and frightened, Snow White is befriended by woodland animals who lead her to a cottage deep in the woods. Finding seven small chairs in the cottage's dining room, Snow White assumes the cottage is the untidy home of seven orphaned children. With the animals' help, she proceeds to clean the place and cook a meal. Snow White soon learns that the cottage is the home of seven dwarfs named Doc, Grumpy, Happy, Sleepy, Bashful, Sneezy, and Dopey, who work in a nearby mine. Returning home, they are alarmed to find their cottage clean, and suspect that an intruder has invaded their home. Snow White introduces herself, and the dwarfs welcome her after she offers to clean and cook for them. Snow White keeps house for the dwarfs while they mine for jewels during the day; and at night, they all sing, play music, and dance.

Back at the castle, the Magic Mirror reveals that Snow White is still living, and with the dwarfs. Enraged that the Huntsman tricked her, the Queen creates a poisoned apple that will put whoever eats it into a death-like sleep. She learns the curse can be broken by "love's first kiss," but is certain Snow White will be buried alive before this can happen. Using a potion to disguise herself as an old hag, the Queen goes to the cottage while the dwarfs are away. The animals see through the disguise, but are unable to warn Snow White; they rush off to find the dwarfs. The Queen fools Snow White into biting into the apple, and she falls into a death-like slumber.

The dwarfs return with the animals as the Queen leaves the cottage, and give chase, trapping her on a cliff. She tries to roll a boulder onto them, but lightning strikes the cliff before she can do so, causing her to fall and get crushed to death by the boulder. In their cottage, the dwarfs find Snow White asleep by the poison. Unwilling to bury her in the ground, they instead place her in a glass coffin in the forest. Together with the animals, they keep watch over her.

A year later, the prince learns of Snow White's eternal sleep and visits the coffin. Saddened by her apparent death, he kisses her, which breaks the spell and awakens her. The dwarfs and animals all rejoice as the prince takes Snow White to his castle.

Cast

Walt Disney introduces each of the Seven Dwarfs in a scene from the original 1937 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs theatrical trailer.
.

Production

Film trailer, featuring reviews, cels from the production, and introducing the characters by their personality.

Development on Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs began in early 1934, and in June 1934, Walt Disney announced the production of his first feature, to be released under Walt Disney Productions,[7] to The New York Times.[8] One evening that same year, Disney acted out the entire story of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs to his staff, announcing that the film would be produced as a feature-length film.[9]

Before Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the Disney studio had been primarily involved in the production of animated short subjects in the Mickey Mouse and Silly Symphonies series. Disney hoped to expand his studio's prestige and revenues by moving into features,[10] and estimated that Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs could be produced for a budget of US$250,000; this was ten times the budget of an average Silly Symphony.[8]

While not the first animated feature film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was to be the first full-length cel animated feature in motion picture history.[7][11] As such, Walt Disney had to fight to get the film produced. Both his brother and business partner Roy Disney and his wife Lillian attempted to talk him out of it,[10] and the Hollywood movie industry derisively referred to the film as "Disney's Folly" while it was in production.[12] He had to mortgage his house to help finance the film's production, which eventually ran up a total cost of $1,488,422.74, a massive sum for a feature film in 1937.[1] Midway through, Disney needed a $250,000 loan to finish the film. Disney ran a rough cut for Joseph Rosenberg of Bank of America, who sat impassively during the showing. Then Rosenberg turned to the worried Disney and said, “Walt, that thing is going to make a hatful of money” and approved the loan.[13]

Story development

On August 9, 1934, twenty-one pages of notes—entitled "Snowwhite suggestions"—were compiled by staff writer Richard Creedon, suggesting the principal characters, as well as situations and 'gags' for the story. As Disney had stated at the very beginning of the project, the main attraction of the story for him was the Seven Dwarfs, and their possibilities for "screwiness" and "gags"; the three story meetings held in October and attended by Disney, Creedon, Larry Morey, Albert Hurter, Ted Sears and Pinto Colvig were dominated by such subjects. At this point, Disney preferred to begin actual work on Snow White's discovery of the cottage of the Seven Dwarfs.[14] Disney had suggested from the beginning that each of the dwarfs, whose names and personalities are not stated in the original fairy tale, could have individual personalities. The dwarfs' names were chosen from a pool of about fifty potentials, including Jumpy, Deafy, Dizzey, Hickey, Wheezy, Baldy, Gabby, Nifty, Sniffy, Swift, Lazy, Puffy, Stuffy, Tubby, Shorty, and Burpy.[15] The seven finalists were chosen through a process of elimination. The leader of the dwarfs, required to be pompous, self-important and bumbling, was named Doc; others were named for their distinguishing character traits. At the end of the October story meetings, however, only Doc, Grumpy, Bashful, Sleepy, and Happy of the final seven were named; the other two dwarfs were named Jumpy and "Seventh," who was deaf and spry.[16]

Along with a focus on the characterizations and comedic possibilities of the dwarfs, Creedon's eighteen-page outline of the story written from the October meetings, featured a continuous flow of gags as well as the Queen's attempt to kill Snow White with a poisoned comb, an element taken from the Grimms' original story. After persuading Snow White to use the comb, the disguised Queen would have escaped alive, but the dwarfs would have arrived in time to remove it. After the failure of the comb, the Queen was to have the Prince captured and taken to her dungeon, where she would have come to him (story sketches show this event both with the Queen and the Witch) and used magic to bring the dungeon's skeletons to life, making them dance for him and identifying one skeleton as "Prince Oswald", an example of the more humorous atmosphere of this original story treatment.[17] It is written in story notes that the Queen has such magical power only in her own domain, the castle. With the Prince refusing to marry her, the Queen leaves him to his death (one sketch shows the Prince trapped in a subterranean chamber filling with water)[18] as she makes her way to the dwarfs' cottage with the poisoned apple. The forest animals were to help the Prince escape the Queen's minions and find his horse. The Prince was to ride to the cottage to save Snow White but took the wrong road (despite warnings from the forest animals and his horse, whom he, unlike Snow White, could not understand). He, therefore, would not have arrived in time to save her from the Queen but would have been able to save her with love's first kiss. This plot was not used in the final film, though many sketches of the scene in the dungeon were made by Ferdinand Horvath.

Other examples of the more comical nature of the story at this point included suggestions for a "fat, batty, cartoon type, self-satisfied" Queen.[16] The Prince was also more of a clown, and was to serenade Snow White in a more comical fashion. Walt Disney encouraged all staff at the studio to contribute to the story, offering five dollars for every 'gag';[19] such gags included the dwarfs' noses popping over the foot of the bed when they first meet Snow White.

Disney became concerned that such a comical approach would lessen the plausibility of the characters and, sensing that more time was needed for the development of the Queen, advised in an outline circulated on November 6 that attention be paid exclusively to "scenes in which only Snow White, the Dwarfs, and their bird and animal friends appear". The names and personalities of the dwarfs, however, were still "open to change". A meeting of November 16 resulted in another outline entitled 'Dwarfs Discover Snowwhite', which introduced the character of Dopey,[16] who would ultimately prove to be the most successful of the dwarf characterizations.[20] For the rest of 1934, Disney further developed the story by himself, finding a dilemma in the characterization of the Queen, who he felt could no longer be "fat" and "batty", but a "stately beautiful type", a possibility already brought up in previous story meetings.[21] Disney did not focus on the project again until the autumn of 1935. It was believed that the Silly Symphony short The Goddess of Spring (1934) may have placed doubt in his studio's abilities to animate a realistic girl.[21] Apparently, a three-month trip to Europe that summer restored his confidence. At this point, Disney and his writers focused on the scenes in which Snow White and the dwarfs are introduced to the audience and each other.[22] He laid out the likely assignments for everyone working on the film in a memorandum of November 25, 1935, and had decided on the personalities of the individual dwarfs.[23]

It had first been thought that the dwarfs would be the main focus of the story, and many sequences were written for the seven characters. However, at a certain point, it was decided that the main thrust of the story was provided by the relationship between the Queen and Snow White.[24] For this reason, several sequences featuring the dwarfs were cut from the film. The first, which was animated in its entirety before being cut, showed Doc and Grumpy arguing about whether Snow White should stay with them. Another, also completely animated, would have shown the dwarfs eating soup noisily and messily; Snow White unsuccessfully attempts to teach them how to eat 'like gentlemen'. A partially-animated sequence involved the dwarfs holding a "lodge meeting" in which they try to think of a gift for Snow White; this was to be followed by the elaborate 'bed-building sequence', in which the dwarfs and the forest animals construct and carve a bed for the princess. This was also cut, as it was thought to slow down the movement of the story.[24] The soup-eating and bed-building sequences were animated by Ward Kimball, who was sufficiently discouraged by their removal to consider leaving the studio; Disney, however, persuaded him to stay by promoting Kimball to supervising animator of Jiminy Cricket in his next feature Pinocchio (1940).[25]

Animation

The famous "Heigh-Ho" sequence from Snow White was animated by Shamus Culhane
.

The primary authority on the design of the film was concept artist Albert Hurter. All designs used in the film, from characters' appearances to the look of the rocks in the background, had to meet Hurter's approval before being finalized.[26] Two other concept artists—Ferdinand Horvath and Gustaf Tenggren—also contributed to the visual style of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Horvath developed a number of dark concepts for the film, although many other designs he developed were ultimately rejected by the Disney team as less easily translated into animation than Hurter's.[27] Tenggren was used as a color stylist and to determine the staging and atmosphere of many of the scenes in the film, as his style borrowed from the likes of Arthur Rackham and John Bauer and thus possessed the European illustration quality that Walt Disney sought.[28] He also designed the posters for the film and illustrated the press book. However, Horvath didn't receive a credit for the film.[29] Other artists to work on the film included Joe Grant, whose most significant contribution was the design for the Queen's Witch form.[30]

Don Graham really knew what he was teaching, and he "showed" you how to do something – he didn't just talk. He taught us things that were very important for animation. How to simplify our drawings – how to cut out all the unnecessary hen scratching amateurs have a habit of using. He showed us how to make a drawing look solid. He taught us about tension points – like a bent knee, and how the pant leg comes down from that knee and how important the wrinkles from it are to describe form. I learned a hell of a lot from him!

Art Babbitt[31]

Art Babbitt, an animator who joined the Disney studio in 1932, invited seven of his colleagues (who worked in the same room as him) to come with him to an art class that he himself had set up at his home in the Hollywood Hills. Though there was no teacher, Babbitt had recruited a model to pose for him and his fellow animators as they drew. These "classes" were held weekly; each week, more animators would come. After three weeks, Walt Disney called Babbit to his office and offered to provide the supplies, working space and models required if the sessions were moved to the studio. Babbitt ran the sessions for a month until animator Hardie Gramatky suggested that they recruit Don Graham, an art teacher from the Chouinard Institute. Graham taught his first class at the studio on November 15, 1932, and was joined by Philip L. Dike a few weeks later.[8] These classes were principally concerned with human anatomy and movement, though instruction later included action analysis, animal anatomy and acting.[31]

The first duty of the cartoon is not to picture or duplicate real action or things as they actually happen—but to give a caricature of life and action—to picture on the screen things that have run thru the imagination of the audience to bring to life dream-fantasies and imaginative fancies that we have all thought of during our lives or have had pictured to us in various forms during our lives [...] I definitely feel that we cannot do the fantastic things, based on the real, unless we first know the real. This point should be brought out very clearly to all new men, and even the older men.

Walt Disney in 1935[32]

Though the classes were originally described as a "brutal battle", with neither instructor nor students well-versed in the other's craft,[8] the enthusiasm and energy of both parties made the classes stimulating and beneficial for all involved. Graham often screened Disney shorts and, along with the animators, provided critique featuring both strengths and weaknesses. For example, Graham criticised Babbitt's animation of Abner the mouse in The Country Cousin as "taking a few of the obvious actions of a drunk without coordinating the rest of the body", while praising it for maintaining its humour without getting "dirty or mean or vulgar. The country mouse is always having a good time".[31]

Very few of the animators at the Disney studio had had artistic training (most had been newspaper cartoonists); among these few was Grim Natwick, who had trained in Europe. The animator's success in designing and animating Betty Boop for Fleischer Studios showed an understanding of human female anatomy and, when Walt Disney hired Natwick, he was given female characters to animate almost exclusively. Attempts to animate Persephone, the female lead of The Goddess of Spring, had proved largely unsuccessful; Natwick's animation of the heroine in Cookie Carnival showed greater promise, and the animator was eventually given the task of animating Snow White herself. Though live action footage of Snow White, the Prince and the Queen was shot as reference for the animators, the artists' animators disapproved of rotoscoping, considering it to hinder the production of effective caricature. Nevertheless, all of the above-mentioned characters were fully rotoscoped and utilized by their respective artists, some more, some less.[33] Despite Graham and Natwick's objections, however, some scenes of Snow White and the Prince were directly traced from the live-action footage.[31]

It proved difficult to add color to Snow White's and the Queen's faces. Eventually, they found a red dye that worked and which was added with a small piece of cotton wrapped around a tipple pencil on each individual cel. Helen Ogger, an employee at the ink department, was also an animator and decided to use the same system used in animation. The method was so time-consuming that it was never used again on the same scale. It was also used to a smaller degree in Pinocchio and Fantasia but, after Ogger left the studio in 1941, there was no one else with the same skills who could replace her.[34]

The studio's new multiplane camera gave a three-dimensional feeling in many sequences and was also used to give a rotating effect in the scene where the Queen transforms into a witch.

Music and records

The songs in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs were composed by Frank Churchill and Larry Morey. Paul J. Smith and Leigh Harline composed the incidental music score. Well-known songs from the film include "Heigh-Ho", "Someday My Prince Will Come", and "Whistle While You Work". Since Disney did not have its own music publishing company at the time, the publishing rights for the music and songs were administered through Bourne Co. Music Publishers, which continues to hold these rights. In later years, the studio was able to acquire back the music rights from many of their other films, but not Snow White, Pinocchio, Dumbo or most Silly Symphony cartoons. Snow White became the first American film to have a soundtrack album, released in conjunction with the feature film. Before Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, a film soundtrack recording was unheard of and of little value to a movie studio.

Cinematic influences

At this time, Disney also encouraged his staff to see a variety of films. These ranged from the mainstream, such as MGM's Romeo and Juliet (1936)—to which Disney made direct reference in a story meeting pertaining to the scene in which Snow White lies in her glass coffin—to the more obscure, including European silent cinema. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, as well as the two Disney films to follow it, were also influenced by such German expressionist films as Nosferatu (1922) and The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), both of which were recommended by Disney to his staff. This influence is particularly evident in the scenes of Snow White fleeing through the forest and the Queen's transformation into the Witch. The latter scene was also inspired by Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1931), to which Disney made specific reference in story meetings.[31]

Release

Original theatrical run

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs premiered at the Carthay Circle Theatre on December 21, 1937.[1] The film received a standing ovation at its completion[35] from an audience that included Judy Garland, Marlene Dietrich and Charles Laughton.[36] Six days later, Walt Disney and the seven dwarfs appeared on the cover of Time magazine.[37] Three weeks later, it opened at the Radio City Music Hall in New York City and a theater in Miami in January 1938,[1] in which the strong box office sales encouraged RKO Radio Pictures to place the film into general release on February 4. It became a major box-office success, earning rentals of $4.2 million in the United States and Canada during its initial release,[38] becoming the most successful sound film of all time, in which it displaced Al Jolson's The Singing Fool (1928). Snow White would soon be displaced from this position by Gone with the Wind in 1939.[39][40]

Snow White proved equally popular with foreign audiences. In September 1938, Variety reported that the film was having a remarkably long box-office run at theaters in Sydney, Australia. In that city, it noted, "Walt Disney's 'Snow White' (RKO) experienced no difficulty at hitting 11 weeks, with more ahead."[41] Variety reported as well that Snow White was having even longer runs in other cities overseas, such as in London, where the film had generated greater box-office receipts than during its exclusive New York screenings at Radio City Music Hall:

'Snow White' (RKO) is in its 27th week at the New Gallery, London, and will continue to be shown through the regular London release dates, Sept. 19 for North London, and Sept. 26 for South London. There is a likelihood that the New Gallery first-run will run until Christmas. Picture reported to have exceeded $500,000, passing Radio City's five-week mark, which just fell short of the $500,000 mark.[41]

According to RKO, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs had earned $7,846,000 in international box office receipts by the end of its original theatrical run.[42] This earned RKO a profit of $380,000.[43]

Re-releases

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was first re-released in 1944, to raise revenue for the Disney studio during the World War II period. This re-release set a tradition of re-releasing Disney animated features every few years, and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was re-released to theaters in 1952, 1958, 1967, 1975, 1983, 1987 and 1993.[44] Coinciding with the 50th-anniversary release in 1987, Disney released one of many authorized novelizations of the story, this one written by children's author Suzanne Weyn.[45][46]

In 1993, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs became the first film to be entirely scanned to digital files, manipulated, and recorded back to film. The restoration project was carried out entirely at 4K resolution and 10-bit color depth using the Cineon system (10 bits each of red, green and blue—30 in total) to digitally remove dirt and scratches.[47]

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs has had a lifetime gross of $418 million across its original release and several reissues.[2] Adjusted for inflation, and incorporating subsequent releases, the film still registers one of the top-10 American film moneymakers of all time,[48] and is the highest-grossing animated film.[49]

Critical reaction

The film was a tremendous critical success, with many reviewers hailing it as a genuine work of art, recommended for both children and adults.[50] Although film histories often state that the animation of the human characters was criticized, more recent scholarship found that contemporary reviewers praised the realistic style of the human animation, with several stating that audiences had forgotten that they are watching animated humans rather than real ones.[50] Frank S. Nugent of The New York Times felt that "Mr. Disney and his technical crew have outdone themselves. The picture more than matches expectations. It is a classic, as importantly cinematically as The Birth of a Nation or the birth of Mickey Mouse. Nothing quite like it has been done before; and already we have gone impolite enough to clamor for an encore."[51] Variety observed that "[so] perfect is the illusion, so tender the romance and fantasy, so emotional are certain portions when the acting of the characters strikes a depth comparable to the sincerity of human players, that the film approaches real greatness."[52] Harrison's Reports wrote Snow White was "entertainment that should be enjoyed by every one. Intelligent adults will marvel at the mechanical ingenuity that went into the making of it; and it is something to marvel at, for at times the characters seem lifelike. That is brought about by the expert synchronization of the action with the music and the dialogue."[53]

At the 11th Academy Awards, the film won an Academy Honorary Award for Walt Disney "as a significant screen innovation which has charmed millions and pioneered a great new entertainment field". Disney received a full-size Oscar statuette and seven miniature ones, presented to him by 10-year-old child actress Shirley Temple.[4] The film was also nominated for Best Musical Score.[54] "Some Day My Prince Will Come" has become a jazz standard that has been performed by numerous artists, including Buddy Rich, Lee Wiley, Oscar Peterson, Frank Churchill,[55] and Oliver Jones;[56] it was also the title for albums by Miles Davis, by Wynton Kelly, and Alexis Cole.[57]

Noted filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein and Charlie Chaplin praised Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs as a notable achievement in cinema; Eisenstein went so far as to call it the greatest film ever made.[58] The film inspired Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to produce its own fantasy film, The Wizard of Oz, in 1939.[59] Another animation pioneer, Max Fleischer, decided to produce his animated feature film Gulliver's Travels in order to compete with Snow White. The 1943 Merrie Melodies short Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs, directed by Bob Clampett, parodies Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs by presenting the story with an all-black cast singing a jazz score.

Critical re-evaluation and industry recognition

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is referred by many critics as one of the greatest animated films in history. Rolling Stone ranked it as the 4th Greatest Animated Movies ever, calling it the one that “changed the future of animation.”[60] Time magazine ranked the film as the 13th Best Animated films of all time.[61] Harper's Bazaar listed the film as the number one animated film of all time, crediting it as the one that started it all.[62]

In 1987, Snow White was inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame, a rare feat for a fictional character and is currently the only Disney Princess to do so.[63]

The American Film Institute (AFI), an independent non-profit organization created in the United States by the National Endowment for the Arts,[64] releases a variety of annual awards and film lists recognizing excellence in filmmaking. The AFI 100 Years... series, which ran from 1998 to 2008, created categorized lists of America's best movies as selected by juries composed from among over 1,500 artists, scholars, critics, and historians. A film's inclusion in one of these lists was based on the film's popularity over time, historical significance and cultural impact.[65] Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was selected by juries for inclusion on many AFI lists, including the following:

Home media

On October 28, 1994, the film was released for the first time on home video on VHS and LaserDisc as the first release in the Walt Disney Masterpiece Collection.[71] The LaserDisc edition contained the film along with several bonus material such as a making-of documentary, an archival interview of Walt Disney, and deleted scenes.[72] By 1995, the film had sold 24 million home video units and grossed $430 million.[73] As of 2002, the film sold 25.1 million home video units in the United States.[74]

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was released on DVD on October 9, 2001, the first in Disney's Platinum Editions, and featured, across two discs, the digitally restored film, a making-of documentary narrated by Angela Lansbury, an audio commentary by John Canemaker and, via archived audio clips, Walt Disney.[75][76] It sold a record 1 million copies in 24 hours.[77] A VHS release followed on November 27, 2001. Both versions were returned to the Disney Vault on January 31, 2002.[78] As of 2001, the film grossed a combined $1.1 billion from box office and home video revenue.[79]

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was released on Blu-ray on October 6, 2009, the first of Disney's Diamond Editions, and a new DVD edition was released on November 24, 2009. The Blu-ray includes a high-definition version of the movie sourced from a new restoration by Lowry Digital, a DVD copy of the film, and several bonus features not included on the 2001 DVD. This set returned to the Disney Vault on April 30, 2011.[80]

Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment re-released Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs on Blu-ray and DVD on February 2, 2016, as the first of the Walt Disney Signature Collection line. It was released on Digital HD on January 19, 2016, with bonus material.[81]

Cultural impact and legacy

Following the film's release, a number of Snow White themed merchandise were sold, including hats, dolls, garden seeds, and glasses. The film's merchandise generated sales of $8 million, equivalent to over $100 million adjusted for inflation.[82] The film's intellectual property has been franchised across a diverse range of mediums, including a Broadway musical, video games and theme park rides.

Snow White's success led to Disney moving ahead with more feature-film productions. Walt Disney used much of the profits from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs to finance a new $4.5 million studio in Burbank – the location on which The Walt Disney Studios is located to this day.[83] Within two years, the studio completed Pinocchio and Fantasia and had begun production on features such as Dumbo, Bambi, Alice in Wonderland and Peter Pan.[84]

Comics adaptations

The Silly Symphony Sunday comic strip ran a four-month-long adaptation of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs from December 12, 1937, to April 24, 1938. The comic was written by Merrill De Maris, and drawn by Hank Porter and Bob Grant.[85] This adaptation was republished several times as a comic book, most recently in 1995.[86]

Mondadori, the official Italian publisher of Disney comics, produced several comic book sequels of the 1937 film. The first story was published in 1939.[87]

Theme parks

Snow White's Enchanted Wish (named Snow White's Scary Adventures until 2020) is a popular theme park ride at Disneyland (an opening day attraction dating from 1955),[88] Tokyo Disneyland,[89] and Disneyland Paris.[90] Fantasyland at Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom[91] underwent an expansion from 2012 to 2014. The Snow White's Scary Adventures ride was replaced with Princess Fairytale Hall, where Snow White and other princesses are located for a meet and greet. Included in the 2013 expansion of Fantasyland is the Seven Dwarfs Mine Train roller coaster.[92] Snow White, her Prince, the Queen, and the Seven Dwarfs are also featured in parades and character appearances throughout the parks. Disneyland's Fantasyland Theater hosted Snow White: An Enchanting Musical from 2004 to 2006.

Video games

Radio City Music Hall Stage musical

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was the first Disney-produced musical on the New York stage. Unknown Mary Jo Salerno played Snow White in the Disney-produced Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (televised as Snow White Live!) at the Radio City Music Hall.[100] Music and lyrics for four new songs were created by Jay Blackton and Joe Cook, respectively; titles included "Welcome to the Kingdom of Once Upon a Time" and "Will I Ever See Her Again?".[101] It ran from October 18 to November 18, 1979, and January 11 to March 9, 1980, a total of 106 performances.[102] A cast album was issued by Buena Vista Records.[1]

Canceled prequel

In the 2000s, DisneyToon Studios began development on a computer-animated prequel to Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, titled The Seven Dwarfs. Director Mike Disa and screenwriter Evan Spiliotopoulos pitched a story explaining how the Dwarfs met, and how the Evil Queen killed Snow White's father and took the throne. According to Disa, DisneyToon management changed the prequel's plot to center around how Dopey lost his voice upon witnessing the death of his mother. After Disney purchased Pixar in 2006, John Lasseter, DisneyToons' new Chief Creative Officer, canceled The Seven Dwarfs.[103]

Exhibition

A behind-the-scenes exhibition titled Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs: The Creation of a Classic took place at The Walt Disney Family Museum from November 15, 2012 to April 14, 2013. The event celebrated the film’s 75th anniversary by displaying more than 200 pieces of rare concept art and animation. It also detailed the entire story of the film’s production, its release and the worldwide recognition it has earned through the years.[104][105] Two extensive companion books, The Fairest One of All: The Making of Walt Disney’s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs: The Art and Creation of Walt Disney’s Classic Animated Film were written by J.B. Kaufman and published by Weldon Owen on October 16, 2012.[106][107]

Live-action adaptation

In October 2016, a live-action adaptation of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was announced.[108] The script will be written by Erin Cressida Wilson; while Benj Pasek and Justin Paul, who also wrote new song material for the 2019 live action adaptation of Aladdin, will write new songs for the project.[108] In 2019, Marc Webb had signed on as director.[109] Principal photography was originally scheduled to begin in March 2020, in Vancouver,[citation needed] but filming was then delayed to the summer or fall of 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic.[110] In May 2021, it was reported that Webb was still attached to direct the film but would not begin work on it until later that year, owing to his schedule with the TV series Just Beyond.[citation needed] On June 22, 2021, Rachel Zegler was cast as Snow White, and production was slated to begin in 2022.[111] Filming took place in the United Kingdom, beginning March 2022.[112] Deadline Hollywood reported on November 3, 2021, that Gal Gadot is in final negotiations to portray the Evil Queen.[113] Gadot confirmed her casting during the premiere of the film Red Notice.[114] During that month, it was reported that Greta Gerwig had worked on the most recent draft on the film's script.[115] On January 12, 2022, The Hollywood Reporter reported that Andrew Burnap had been cast in an unspecified "male lead" role, not the prince or huntsman.[116] Peter Dinklage criticized Disney for what he described as "hypocrisy" for being "proud" of casting a Latina actress as Snow White while making a film about "seven dwarfs living in a cave together".[117] Following Dinklage's criticism, Disney announced that the film will use unidentified "magical creatures" in place of them.[118] The film will also simply be titled Snow White due to the absence of the Seven Dwarfs.[119] In March 2022, the set of the film caught on fire at Pinewood Studios just before production began.[120] Filming wrapped in July of that year.[121] During that month, Martin Klebba announced that he would be playing Grumpy.[122]

Other appearances

The Seven Dwarfs made rare appearances in shorts, despite their popularity; they simply were too numerous to animate efficiently. Commissioned shorts The Standard Parade (1939), The Seven Wise Dwarfs (1941, using mostly recycled footage), All Together (1942) and The Winged Scourge (1943) all include appearances.[123]

The 1984 film Gremlins used the cartoon in the theater scenes.[124]

The animated television series House of Mouse, which included many Disney character animated cameos, included the characters in the special Mickey's Magical Christmas: Snowed in at the House of Mouse. The Evil Queen appeared in a starring role in the film Once Upon a Halloween as well. In the arena of live action, the fantasy television series Once Upon a Time (produced by Disney-owned ABC Studios) regularly includes live-action interpretations of these characters including Snow White, the Prince, the Evil Queen and Grumpy.

An animated television series featuring a new version of the seven dwarfs titled The 7D premiered on Disney XD on July 7, 2014, and ended its run on November 5, 2016. The show takes place 30 years before the events of the original film.

In the 2015 Marvel television series Agent Carter episode "The Iron Ceiling", the film was used to teach the children at the Red Room to speak english.

Snow White also appears in the 2018 film Ralph Breaks the Internet, which was released on November 21, 2018.

At the end of the 2022 Marvel film Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness, Wanda Maximoff's sons can be seen watching Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs on the television in the living room.[125]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Barrier 1999, p. 229.
  2. ^ a b Box-office
    • Wilhelm, Henry Gilmer; Brower, Carol (1993). The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs: Traditional and Digital Color Prints, Color Negatives, Slides, and Motion Pictures. Preservation Pub. p. 359. ISBN 978-0-911515-00-8. In only 2 months after the 1987 re-release, the film grossed another $45 million—giving it a total gross to date of about $375 million! (Online copy at Google Books) {{cite book}}: External link in |quote= (help)
    • "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1987 Re-issue)". Boxoffice. Archived from the original on January 8, 2019. Retrieved May 29, 2016. North American box-office: $46,594,719
    • "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1993 Re-issue)". Boxoffice. Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved May 29, 2016. North American box-office: $41,634,791
  3. ^ Records, Guinness World (2014). Guinness World Records. Vol. 60 (2015 ed.). pp. 160–161. ISBN 978-1-9088-4370-8. The 2015 edition of Guinness World Records does not provide an explicit figure for Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. However, it does state that it is one of only two pre-1955 films—the other being Gone with the Wind—that are among the adjusted top ten. It placed tenth in the 2012 edition, and the eleventh highest-grossing film according to the 2015 edition is The Exorcist, which has grossed $1.794 billion adjusted to 2014 prices. The adjusted grosses for the other films on the chart increased by 4.2 percent between 2011 and 2014 according to Guinness, and using this apparent rate of inflation would take the adjusted gross for Snow White from $1.746 billion at 2011 prices to $1.819 billion at 2014 prices.
  4. ^ a b Gabler 2006, pp. 277–278.
  5. ^ "Film Registry Picks First 25 Movies". Los Angeles Times. Washington, D.C. September 19, 1989. Archived from the original on May 5, 2020. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
  6. ^ a b "The Seven Dwarfs Character History". Disney Archives. Archived from the original on August 1, 2003. Retrieved September 25, 2008.
  7. ^ a b Smith, Dave (2006). Disney A to Z: The Official Encyclopedia (3rd ed.). p. 33. ISBN 0-7868-4919-3.
  8. ^ a b c d Barrier 1999, pp. 125–126.
  9. ^ Lebowitz, Shana (September 20, 2015). "The way Walt Disney inspired his team to make 'Snow White' reveals his creative genius — and insane perfectionism". Business Insider. Archived from the original on April 13, 2019. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  10. ^ a b Thomas 1991, p. 66.
  11. ^ Chaffee, Keith (October 28, 2019). "A Week to Remember: International Animation Day". Los Angeles Public Library. Retrieved June 22, 2022.
  12. ^ Thomas 1994, p. 138.
  13. ^ Bob Thomas. Walt Disney: An American Original. Simon & Schuster, 1976
  14. ^ Barrier 1999, pp. 126–127.
  15. ^ Thomas 1991, p. 68.
  16. ^ a b c Barrier 1999, p. 128.
  17. ^ Barrier 1999, pp. 127–128.
  18. ^ Canemaker 1996, p. 34.
  19. ^ Gabler 2006, p. 221.
  20. ^ Thomas 1991, p. 68–69.
  21. ^ a b Barrier 1999, p. 129.
  22. ^ Barrier 1999, pp. 140–141.
  23. ^ Barrier 1999, pp. 142–143.
  24. ^ a b Thomas & Johnston 1981, p. 232.
  25. ^ Canemaker 2001, pp. 99–101.
  26. ^ Canemaker 1996, p. 22.
  27. ^ Canemaker 1996, pp. 32–33.
  28. ^ Canemaker 1996, pp. 39–40.
  29. ^ Canemaker 1996, pp. 33–34.
  30. ^ Canemaker 1996, p. 51.
  31. ^ a b c d e Girveau, Bruno, ed. (2006). Once Upon a Time — Walt Disney: The Sources of inspiration for the Disney Studios. London: Prestel. ISBN 978-3-7913-3770-8.
  32. ^ Usher, Shaun (June 15, 2010). "Letters of note: How to Train an Animator, by Walt Disney". Archived from the original on February 3, 2020. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  33. ^ Johnson, David (2017). Snow White's People: An Oral History of the Disney Film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs — Vol. 1. Theme Park Press. ISBN 978-1-6839-0054-2.
  34. ^ Johnson, David (1988). "Not Rouge, Mr. Thomas!". Animation Artist Magazine. Archived from the original on May 10, 2000.
  35. ^ Kinni, Theodore (December 16, 2011). Be Our Guest: Revised and Updated Edition. Disney Electronic Content. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-4231-4014-6. Archived from the original on January 28, 2022. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  36. ^ Cousins, Mark (2006). The Story of Film. Pavilion. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-86205-760-9.
  37. ^ "Happy, Grumpy, Bashful, Sleepy, Sneezy, Doc, Dopey, Disney". Time. December 27, 1937. Archived from the original on September 18, 2013.
  38. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 255
  39. ^ Gabler 2006, pp. 276–277.
  40. ^ Finler, Joel Waldo (2003). The Hollywood Story. Wallflower Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-903364-66-6.
  41. ^ a b "Disney Pic 11th Wk. In Sydney". Variety. September 7, 1938. p. 11. Retrieved August 4, 2018 – via Internet Archive.
  42. ^ Maltin, Leonard (1987) [1980]. Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. New York: Plume. p. 57. ISBN 0-452-25993-2.
  43. ^ Sedgwick, John (1994). "Richard B. Jewell's RKO film grosses, 1929–51: The C. J. Trevlin Ledger: A comment". Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television. 14 (1): 44. doi:10.1080/01439689400260041. Archived from the original on July 30, 2021. Retrieved July 31, 2021 – via Taylor & Francis.
  44. ^ Block, Alex Ben; Wilson, Lucy Autrey, eds. (2010). George Lucas's Blockbusting: A Decade-By-Decade Survey of Timeless Movies Including Untold Secrets of Their Financial and Cultural Success. HarperCollins. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-06-177889-6.
  45. ^ Weyn, Suzanne (1987). Snow White & the Seven Dwarfs: Walt Disney Classics Series. New York NY: Scholastic. p. 80. ISBN 0-590-41170-5. Archived from the original on August 19, 2020. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  46. ^ Walt Disney's classic Snow White and the seven dwarfs: based on Walt Disney's full-length animated classic. Dublin OH. OCLC 123104598 – via WorldCat.org.
  47. ^ Aldred, John (Winter 1997). "Disney's Snow White: The Story Behind the Picture". The Association of Motion Picture Sound. Archived from the original on January 12, 2001. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
  48. ^ "Top Lifetime Adjusted Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved March 7, 2022.
  49. ^ "Highest-grossing animation at the domestic box office (inflation adjusted)". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on March 6, 2022. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  50. ^ a b Frome, Jonathan (October 1, 2013). "Snow White: Critics and Criteria for the Animated Feature Film". Quarterly Review of Film and Video. 30 (5): 462–473. doi:10.1080/10509208.2011.585300. ISSN 1050-9208. S2CID 192059823.
  51. ^ Nugent, Frank S. (January 14, 1938). "The Screen in Review: The Music Hall Presents Walt Disney's Delightful Fantasy". The New York Times. p. 21. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  52. ^ Flynn, John C. Sr. (December 28, 1937). "Film Reviews: Snow White and 7 Dwarfs". Variety. p. 17. Retrieved July 30, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  53. ^ "'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs'". Harrison's Reports. January 15, 1938. p. 10. Retrieved July 30, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  54. ^ "Bette Davis again wins award as Best Actress; Tracy among Best Actors". The Evening Independent. Los Angeles, CA. February 24, 1939. p. 9. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021. Retrieved January 5, 2013 – via Google News Archive.
  55. ^ Berg, Chuck (October 30, 1988). "Piano, steel beat island rhythms". Lawrence Journal-World. p. 4D. Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved January 5, 2013 – via Google News Archive.
  56. ^ Adams, James (December 13, 1986). "Jones leaves no possible note unplayed". Edmonton Journal. p. 30. Archived from the original on March 1, 2021. Retrieved January 5, 2013 – via Google News Archive.
  57. ^ Loudon, Christopher (April 5, 2010). "Alexis Cole Digs Disney". JazzTimes. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  58. ^ Culhane, John (July 12, 1987). "'Snow White' at 50: Undimmed Magic". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 4, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2007.
  59. ^ Fricke, John; Jay Scarfone; William Stillman (1986). The Wizard of Oz: The Official 50th Anniversary Pictorial History. New York, NY: Warner Books, Inc. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-446-51446-0.
  60. ^ Wilkinson, Sam Adams,Charles Bramesco,Tim Grierson,Noel Murray,Jenna Scherer,Scott Tobias,Alissa; Adams, Sam; Bramesco, Charles; Grierson, Tim; Murray, Noel; Scherer, Jenna; Tobias, Scott; Wilkinson, Alissa (October 13, 2019). "40 Greatest Animated Movies Ever". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on March 2, 2021. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  61. ^ "The 25 All-TIME Best Animated Films". Time. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  62. ^ Janes, DeAnna (August 31, 2017). "The Best Animated Films of All Time". Harper's BAZAAR. Archived from the original on December 11, 2021. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  63. ^ "Snow White". Hollywood Walk of Fame. October 25, 2019. Archived from the original on January 7, 2022. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  64. ^ "History of AFI". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
  65. ^ Van Gelder, Lawrence (June 21, 2001). "'Citizen Kane' Wins an Election". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 5, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  66. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie". American Film Institute. Los Angeles CA. June 1998. Archived from the original on May 29, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  67. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie – 10th Anniversary Edition". American Film Institute. Los Angeles CA. June 20, 2007. Archived from the original on August 18, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  68. ^ "AFI's 10 Top 10: Animation". American Film Institute. Los Angeles CA. Archived from the original on May 18, 2010. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  69. ^ "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains". American Film Institute. Los Angeles CA. June 4, 2008. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  70. ^ "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Songs". American Film Institute. Los Angeles CA. June 22, 2004. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  71. ^ Nichols, Peter M. (September 16, 1994). "Home Video". The New York Times. p. D17. Archived from the original on July 31, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  72. ^ Saltzman, Barbara (November 20, 1994). "Home Entertainment: 'Snow White' Laser Set Among Fairest of All". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 31, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  73. ^ "Mediaweek". Mediaweek. A/S/M Communications. 5: 29. 1995. Archived from the original on August 18, 2020. Retrieved August 16, 2018. Most people would correctly guess Snow White, which moved 24 million units at a retail price of about $18 a pop — call it $430 million gross.
  74. ^ Wroot, Jonathan; Willis, Andy (2017). DVD, Blu-ray and Beyond: Navigating Formats and Platforms within Media Consumption. Springer. p. 22. ISBN 9783319627588. Archived from the original on May 21, 2019. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  75. ^ Brevet, Brad (October 6, 2009). "Blu-ray Review: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (Platinum Edition)". Rope of Silicon. Seattle WA: RopeofSilicon.com LLC. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  76. ^ Arnold, Thomas (June 8, 2001). "DVD Debut of 'Snow White' Could Switch Families From VHS to DVD in a Hurry". hive4media.com. Archived from the original on June 30, 2001. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  77. ^ "Hi-Ho, Hi-Ho...". Variety. October 15, 2001. p. 8.
  78. ^ "Time Is Running Out ... Four of Disney's Greatest Animated Classics Are Disappearing into the Vault" (Press release). Buena Vista Home Entertainment. January 23, 2002. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved November 22, 2017 – via TheFreeLibrary.com.
  79. ^ "The inside story of how DVDs became the entertainment industry's most lucrative product". Newsweek. Newsweek, Inc. 138: 189. 2001. Archived from the original on August 20, 2020. Retrieved August 16, 2018. Disney has milked $1.1 billion out of the perky princess since "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" first arrived in 1937, rereleasing the movie eight times in theaters for each successive generation, and then selling millions of videotapes in two "limited" releases.
  80. ^ "Snow White And The Seven Dwarfs | Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment". Disneydvd.disney.go.com. Archived from the original on February 7, 2013. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  81. ^ Wolfe, Jennifer (January 19, 2016). "Disney Launches Signature Collection with 'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs'" (Press release). Walt Disney Studios. Archived from the original on July 31, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021 – via Animation World Network.
  82. ^ "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Released Nationwide: February 4, 1938". Newspapers.com. February 1, 2016. Archived from the original on June 30, 2018. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  83. ^ Sito, Tom (2007). Drawing The Line: The Untold Story of the Animation Unions from Bosko to Bart Simpson. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 111–112. ISBN 978-0-8131-2407-0.
  84. ^ Barrier 1999, p. 269.
  85. ^ Taliaferro, Al; Osborne, Ted; De Maris, Merrill (2016). Silly Symphonies: The Complete Disney Classics, vol 2. San Diego: IDW Publishing. ISBN 978-1631408045.
  86. ^ "Snow White Comic Book Revisited". Filmic Light: Snow White Archive. April 5, 2011. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  87. ^ Luca Boschi, Leonardo Gori and Andrea Sani, I Disney italiani, Granata Press, 1990, p. 31
  88. ^ "Disneyland's Snow White's Scary Adventures Page". Disneyland.disney.go.com. Archived from the original on June 20, 2010. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
  89. ^ "Tokyo Disney's Snow White's Adventures Page". Tokyodisneyresort.co.jp. Archived from the original on March 31, 2010. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
  90. ^ "Disneyland Paris' Blanche-Neige et les Sept Nains Page". Parks.disneylandparis.co.uk. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
  91. ^ "Disney World's Snow White's Scary Adventures Page". Disneyworld.disney.go.com. Archived from the original on June 6, 2009. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
  92. ^ "Disney's Fantasyland plan leaves Snow White ride out in cold". Orlando Sentinel. February 3, 2011. Archived from the original on February 12, 2011. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  93. ^ "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs — Game Boy Color". IGN. News Corporation. Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  94. ^ "Official Kingdom Hearts Page". Square Enix. Archived from the original on April 3, 2005. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
  95. ^ Square Enix, Inc. via PR Newswire (September 7, 2010). "KINGDOM HEARTS Birth by Sleep Unveils the Saga's Untold Origins Today". Sys-Con Media. Woodcliff Lake, NJ: SYS-CON Media. Archived from the original on November 19, 2018. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  96. ^ "10 Best Disney iOS Games". Arcadesushi.com. November 15, 2013. Archived from the original on June 17, 2013. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  97. ^ "Snow White: The Queen's Return – Android-apps op Google Play". Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
  98. ^ "Update 16: Snow White | Livestream". YouTube. December 1, 2017.
  99. ^ "Update 33: Snow White, Tangled | Livestream". YouTube. September 6, 2019.
  100. ^ Debnam, Betty (February 7, 1980). ""Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" made into musical". The Nevada Daily Mail. Nevada MO. United Press Syndicate. p. 7. Archived from the original on February 27, 2021. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  101. ^ Fanning, Jim (December 21, 2012). "D23's From the Archives: Snow White Oddities—Part 3". Disney D23. Burbank CA: The Walt Disney Company. Archived from the original on June 16, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  102. ^ Loney, Glenn Meredith (1983). 20th century theatre, Volume 2. Facts on File. ISBN 0-87196-463-5.
  103. ^ Armstrong, Josh (August 14, 2013). "Mike Disa and The Seven Dwarfs: How the Snow White prequel became a Dopey movie". AnimatedViews.com. Archived from the original on October 23, 2014. Retrieved August 26, 2014.
  104. ^ "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs: The Creation of a Classic". The Walt Disney Family Museum. Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  105. ^ "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs: The Creation of a Classic". The Walt Disney Family Museum. November 1, 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2022.
  106. ^ "The Fairest One of All". J.B. Kaufman. November 13, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  107. ^ "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs: The Art and Creation of Walt Disney's Classic Animated Film". J.B. Kaufman. Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  108. ^ a b "Disney Developing Live-Action 'Snow White' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. October 31, 2016. Archived from the original on August 22, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
  109. ^ "Marc Webb Eyed to Direct Disney's 'Snow White' Remake (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. May 30, 2019. Archived from the original on May 30, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  110. ^ Geek Vibes Nation [@Geekvibesnation] (February 26, 2020). "Marc Webb's 'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs' Now Looks To Begin Filming This July in Vancouver and Los Angeles. Yesterday we reported the filming was delayed from March to Summer. #SnowWhite #Disney" (Tweet). Retrieved July 6, 2020 – via Twitter.
  111. ^ Kroll, Justin (June 22, 2021). "'Snow White': 'West Side Story's Rachel Zegler To Play Title Role In Disney's Live-Action Adaptation Of Animated Classic". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on June 22, 2021. Retrieved June 22, 2021.
  112. ^ Daniels, Nia (August 27, 2021). "Disney's Snow White to Film in the UK". Kemps Film and TV Production Services Handbook. Archived from the original on August 30, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  113. ^ Kroll, Justin (November 3, 2021). "Gal Gadot To Play Evil Queen In Disney's Live-Action 'Snow White'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on January 13, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  114. ^ Dick, Jeremy (November 4, 2021). "Snow White Star Gal Gadot Is 'So Excited' to Play the Evil Queen". MovieWeb. Archived from the original on January 3, 2022. Retrieved January 2, 2022.
  115. ^ Maitland, Hayley (November 17, 2021). "Heigh-Ho! Greta Gerwig is Penning the Script for Disney's Live-Action Snow White Remake". Vouge. Archived from the original on November 17, 2021. Retrieved March 8, 2022.
  116. ^ Kit, Boris (January 12, 2022). "Andrew Burnap Joins Rachel Zegler, Gal Gadot in Disney's Live-Action 'Snow White' Remake (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Penske Media. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  117. ^ Chappell, Peter (January 26, 2022). "Peter Dinklage blasts Disney over 'backwards' Snow White remake". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Archived from the original on January 26, 2022. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
  118. ^ Taylor, Drew (January 25, 2022). "Disney Assures Peter Dinklage on 'Snow White' Reboot: 'We Are Taking a Different Approach' on Dwarf Characters". The Wrap. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
  119. ^ Taylor, Drew (January 25, 2022). "Disney Assures Peter Dinklage on 'Snow White' Reboot: 'We Are Taking a Different Approach' on Dwarf Characters". The Wrap. Archived from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved March 16, 2022.
  120. ^ Yossman, K.J. (March 15, 2022). "Disney's 'Snow White' Set Catches Fire at Pinewood Studios". Variety. Archived from the original on March 15, 2022. Retrieved March 15, 2022.
  121. ^ Kennedy, Michael (July 16, 2022). "Everything We Know About Disney's Live-Action Snow White Remake". ScreenRant. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
  122. ^ Amidon, Aurora (July 5, 2022). "Disney's Snow White Remake Casts Pirates of the Caribbean Alum as Grumpy". CBR. Retrieved August 31, 2022.
  123. ^ "Diana Saenger's Review Express". Reviewexpress.com. 2009. Archived from the original on February 5, 2016. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
  124. ^ "Gremlins' (1984) Review". The New York Times. December 11, 2018. Archived from the original on July 31, 2019. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
  125. ^ Shaffer, Joshua (May 8, 2022). "Easter Egg: Snow White in Doctor Strange 2". Discovering The Magic Kingdom. Retrieved May 8, 2022.

Works cited

External links

Streaming audio