Piast dynasty

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Piast
COA Piast dynasty.svg
Country
Foundedc. 960
FounderMieszko I of Poland
Final rulerCasimir the Great, in the Kingdom of Poland, and George IV William of Legnica, in the Silesian duchies
Titles
Dissolution1370, in the Kingdom of Poland, and 1675, in the Duchies of Silesia
Branches

The House of Piast was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.[3] The first documented Polish monarch was Duke Mieszko I (c. 930–992).[4] The Piasts' royal rule in Poland ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir III the Great.

Branches of the Piast dynasty continued to rule in the Duchy of Masovia and in the Duchies of Silesia until the last male Silesian Piast died in 1675. The Piasts intermarried with several noble lines of Europe, and possessed numerous titles, some within the Holy Roman Empire. The Jagiellonian kings after John I Albert were also descended in the female line from Casimir III's daughter.

Origin of the name

The early dukes and kings of Poland are said to have regarded themselves as descendants of the semi-legendary Piast the Wheelwright (Piast Kołodziej),[5] first mentioned in the Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum (Chronicles and deeds of the dukes or princes of the Poles), written c. 1113 by Gallus Anonymus. However, the term "Piast Dynasty" was not applied until the 17th century.[6][7] In a historical work the expression Piast dynasty was introduced by the Polish historian Adam Naruszewicz, it is not documented in contemporary sources.[8][9]

History

The first "Piasts", probably of Polan descent, appeared around 940 in the territory of Greater Poland at the stronghold of Giecz.[10] Shortly afterwards they relocated their residence to Gniezno, where Prince Mieszko I ruled over the Civitas Schinesghe from about 960. The Piasts temporarily also ruled over Pomerania, Bohemia and the Lusatias, as well as Ruthenia, and the Hungarian Spiš region in present-day Slovakia. The ruler bore the title of a duke or a king, depending on their position of power.

The Polish monarchy had to deal with the expansionist policies of the Holy Roman Empire in the west, resulting in a chequered co-existence, with Piast rulers like Mieszko I, Casimir I the Restorer or Władysław I Herman trying to protect the Polish state by treaties, oath of allegiances and marriage alliances with the Imperial Ottonian and Salian dynasties. The Bohemian Přemyslid dynasty, the Hungarian Arpads and their Anjou successors, the Kievan Rus', later also the State of the Teutonic Order and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were mighty neighbours.

The Piast position was decisively enfeebled by an era of fragmentation following the 1138 Testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth. For nearly 150 years, the Polish state shattered into several duchies, with the Piast duke against the formally valid principle of agnatic seniority fighting for the throne at Kraków, the capital of the Lesser Polish Seniorate Province. Numerous dukes like Mieszko III the Old, Władysław III Spindleshanks or Leszek I the White were crowned, only to be overthrown shortly afterwards. The senior branch of the Silesian Piasts, descendants of Bolesław III Wrymouth's eldest son Duke Władysław II the Exile, went separate ways and since the 14th century were vassals of the Bohemian Crown.

After the Polish royal line and Piast junior branch had died out in 1370, the Polish crown fell to the Anjou king Louis I of Hungary, son of late King Casimir's sister Elizabeth Piast. The Masovian branch of the Piasts became extinct with the death of Duke Janusz III in 1526. The last ruling duke of the Silesian Piasts was George William of Legnica who died in 1675. His uncle Count August of Legnica, the last male Piast, died in 1679. The last legitimate heir, Duchess Karolina of Legnica-Brieg died in 1707 and is buried in Trzebnica Abbey. Nevertheless, numerous families, like the illegitimate descendants of the Silesian duke Adam Wenceslaus of Cieszyn (1574–1617), link their genealogy to the dynasty.

Coat of arms

About 1295, Przemysł II used a coat of arms with a white eagle[11] – a symbol later referred to as the Piast coat of arms or as the Piast Eagle.[12] The Silesian Piasts in the 14th century used an eagle modified by a crescent, which became the coat of arms of the Duchy of Silesia.

Piast rulers

Piast kings and rulers of Poland appear in list form in the following table. For a list of all rulers, see List of Polish monarchs.

Legendary dukes of the Polans

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage

Dukes and Kings of Poland

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage

High Dukes of Poland (Fragmentation of the Kingdom)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage

Kings of Poland (Reunification attempts)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage

Kings of Poland (Reunited Kingdom)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage

Female Piasts

Queen consorts

Priesthood

Archbishops

Bishops

Family tree of Piasts

Chościsko
Piast the Wheelwright
HOUSE OF PIAST
Siemowit
duke of Polans
Lestek
duke of Polans
Siemomysł
duke of Polans
Mieszko I of Poland
duke of Poland
Czcibor
prince
Koronamala.png
Bolesław I the Brave
king of Poland
Vladivoj
duke of Bohemia
Mieszko I
prince
Świętopełk
prince
Lambert
prince
Koronamala.png
Mieszko II Lambert
king of Poland
Otto
prince
Dytryk
prince
Bolesław the Forgotten
duke of Poland
Casimir I the Restorer
duke of Poland
Władysław I Herman
duke of Poland
Mieszko
prince
Mieszko
prince of Cracow
Zbigniew
prince
Bolesław III Wrymouth
duke of Poland
Władysław II the Exile
duke of Silesia
BRANCH OF SILESIA
Bolesław IV the Curly
high duke of Poland
Mieszko III the Old
duke of Greater Poland
BRANCH OF
GREATER POLAND
Henry
duke of Sandomierz
Casimir II the Just
duke of Masovia
BRANCH OF LESSER POLAND
Leszek
duke of Masovia
Odon
duke of Greater Poland
Stephen
prince
Mieszko the Younger
duke of Kalisz
Władysław III Spindleshanks
duke of Greater Poland
Leszek the White
duke of Sandomierz
Konrad I
duke of Masovia
Władysław
duke of Greater Poland
Bolesław V the Chaste
duke of Sandomierz
Bolesław I
duke of Masovia
Casimir I
duke of Kuyavia
Siemowit I
duke of Masovia
BRANCH OF MASOVIA
Casimir II
duke of Łęczyca
Siemowit
duke of Dobrzyń
Konrad II
duke of Masovia
Bolesław II
duke of Masovia
Koronamala.png
Casimir III the Great
king of Poland
Leszek
duke of Dobrzyń
Władysław the Hunchback
duke of Dobrzyń
Bolesław
duke of Dobrzyń
Siemowit II
duke of Warsaw
Trojden I
duke of East Masovia
Wenceslaus
duke of Plock
Anna of Poland
William, Count of Celje
Bolesław-Jerzy II
king of Galicia-Volhynia
Siemowit III, Duke of Masovia
duke of Masovia
Casimir I
duke of Warsaw
Koronamala.png
Władysław II Jagiełło
king of Poland
Janusz I
duke of Warsaw
Siemowit IV
duke of Plock
BRANCH OF PLOCK
Henry
bishop of Plock
Janusz the Younger
heir
Bolesław
heir
Konrad Januszowic
prince
Siemovit V
duke of Plock
Alexander
bishop of Trento
Casimir III
duke of Plock
Trojden II
duke of Plock
Wladysław I
duke of Plock
Boleslaw IV
duke of Warsaw
Siemovit VI
duke of Plock
Wladysław II
duke of Plock
Konrad III Rudy
duke of Warsaw
Casimir IIi
bishop of Plock
Bolesław V
duke of Plock
Janusz II
duke of Plock
Stanisław
duke of Warsaw
Janusz III
duke of Warsaw

See also

References

  1. ^ A. Małecki, Studya heraldyczne [Heraldic Studies], vol. I, Lwów 1890, pp. 268–285; M. L. Wójcik, Ród Gryfitów do końca XIII wieku. Pochodzenie – genealogia – rozsiedlenie, Historia CVII, Wrocław 1993, p. 39.
  2. ^ Rodowód książąt pomorskich Edward Rymar Książnica Pomorska, 2005, page 53
  3. ^ "FamilyTreeDNA – Genetic Testing for Ancestry, Family History & Genealogy". www.familytreedna.com. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  4. ^ Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Schellinger, Paul (28 October 2013). Northern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. ISBN 9781136639517.
  5. ^ Ulwencreutz, Lars (2013). Ulwencreutz's the Royal Families in Europe. p. 191. ISBN 9781304581358.
  6. ^ Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN Warsaw 1975 vol. III p. 505
  7. ^ "Piast Dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 March 2011. The name Piast was not applied to the dynasty until the 17th century.
  8. ^ Juliusz Bardach (1957). Historia państwa i prawa Polski do roku 1795: Bardach, J. Historia państwa i prawa Polski do połowy XV wieku. Państwowe Wydawn. Naukowe. p. 68.
  9. ^ Jacek Hertel (1980). Imiennictwo dynastii piastowskiej we wcześniejszym średniowieczu. Państwowe Wydawn. Naukowe. pp. 31, 160. ISBN 978-83-01-01662-3.
  10. ^ "Gniezno czy Giecz, czyli skąd pochodzi dynastia?". Gniezno czy Giecz, czyli skąd pochodzi dynastia? - Gniezno czy Giecz, czyli skąd pochodzi dynastia? - Wydarzenia - Wiedza - HISTORIA: POSZUKAJ. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  11. ^ Tomaney, William. "Poland Today » White eagle regains its crown". Poland Today » White eagle regains its crown. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  12. ^ Górczyk, Wojciech, "Półksiężyc, orzeł, lew i smok. Uwagi o godłach napieczętnych Piastów" http://histmag.org/?id=3057&act=ac[clarification needed][year needed]

External links