National Assembly (South Korea)
National Assembly of the
Republic of Korea
Supported by (2)
Length of term
|Main Conference Room|
National Assembly Building, Seoul
37°31′55.21″N 126°54′50.66″E / 37.5320028°N 126.9140722°E
The National Assembly of the Republic of Korea, often shortened to the National Assembly in domestic English-language media, is the unicameral national legislature of South Korea. Elections to the National Assembly are held every four years. The latest legislative elections were held on 15 April 2020. The National Assembly has 300 seats, with 253 constituency seats and 47 proportional representation seats; 30 of the PR seats are assigned on additional member system, while 17 PR seats use the parallel voting method.
The unicameral assembly consists of at least 200 members according to the South Korean constitution. In 1990 the assembly had 299 seats, 224 of which were directly elected from single-member districts in the general elections of April 1988. Under applicable laws, the remaining seventy-five representatives were elected from party lists. By law, candidates for election to the assembly must be at least thirty years of age. As part of a political compromise in 1987, an earlier requirement that candidates have at least five years' continuous residency in the country was dropped to allow Kim Dae-jung, who had spent several years in exile in Japan and the United States during the 1980s, to return to political life. The National Assembly's term is four years. In a change from the more authoritarian Fourth Republic and Fifth Republic (1972–80 and 1980–87, respectively), under the Sixth Republic, the assembly cannot be dissolved by the president.
|Group||Floor leader||Seats||% of seats|
|▌People Power||Kweon Seong-dong||115||38.5%|
Structure and appointment
The constitution stipulates that the assembly is presided over by a Speaker and two Deputy Speakers, who are responsible for expediting the legislative process. The Speaker and Deputy Speakers are elected in a secret ballot by the members of the Assembly, and their term in office is restricted to two years. The Speaker is independent of party affiliation, and the Speaker and Deputy Speakers may not simultaneously be government ministers.
Parties that hold at least 20 seats in the assembly form floor negotiation groups (Korean: 교섭단체, Hanja: 交涉團體, RR: gyoseop danche), which are entitled to a variety of rights that are denied to smaller parties. These include a greater amount of state funding and participation in the leaders' summits that determine the assembly's legislative agenda.
In order to meet the quorum, the United Liberal Democrats, who then held 17 seats, arranged to "rent" three legislators from the Millennium Democratic Party. The legislators returned to the MDP after the collapse of the ULD-MDP coalition in September 2001.
To introduce a bill, a legislator must present the initiative to the Speaker with the signatures of at least ten other members of the assembly. The bill must then be edited by a committee to ensure that the bill contains correct and systematic language. It can then be approved or rejected by the Assembly.
There are 17 standing committees which examine bills and petitions falling under their respective jurisdictions, and perform other duties as prescribed by relevant laws.
- House Steering Committee
- Legislation and Judiciary Committee
- National Policy Committee
- Strategy and Finance Committee
- Science, ICT, Future Planning, Broadcasting and Communications Committee
- Education Committee
- Culture, Sports and Tourism Committee
- Foreign Affairs and Unification Committee
- National Defense Committee
- Security and Public Administration Committee
- Agriculture, Food, Rural Affairs, Oceans and Fisheries Committee
- Trade, Industry and Energy Committee
- Health and Welfare Committee
- Environment and Labor Committee
- Land, Infrastructure and Transport Committee
- Intelligence Committee
- Gender Equality and Family Committee
The National Assembly has 300 seats, with 253 constituency seats under FPTP and 47 proportional representation seats. With electoral reform taken in 2019, the PR seats apportionment method was replaced by a variation of additional member system from previous parallel voting system, although 17 seats were temporarily assigned under parallel voting in the 2020 South Korean legislative election.
As per Article 189 of Public Official Election Act, the PR seats are awarded to parties that have either obtained at least 3% of the total valid votes in the legislative election or at least 5 constituency seats. The number of seats allocated to each eligible party are decided by following formula:
- nAssembly = total number of seats in the National Assembly.
- nineligibles = number of seats obtained by ineligible parties and independents.
- nobtained constituencies = number of constituency seats obtained by the party.
- nams = total number of seats allocated for additional member system.
If the integer is less than 1, then ninitial is set to 0 and the party does not get any seats. Then the sum of initially allocated seats are compared to total seats for additional member system, and recalculated.
Final seats are assigned through the largest remainder method, and if the remainder is equal, the winner is determined by lottery among the relevant political parties.
The voting age was also lowered from 19 to 18 years old, expanding the electorate by over half a million voters.
From 2004 to 2009, the assembly gained notoriety as a frequent site for legislative violence. The Assembly first came to the world's attention during a violent dispute on impeachment proceedings for then President Roh Moo-hyun, when open physical combat took place in the assembly. Since then, it has been interrupted by periodic conflagrations, piquing the world's curiosity once again in 2009 when members battled each other with sledgehammers and fire extinguishers. The National Assembly since then have preventive measures to prevent any more legislative violence.
|South Korea portal|
Elections for the assembly were held under UN supervision on 10 May 1948. The First Republic of Korea was established on 17 July 1948 when the constitution of the First Republic was established by the Assembly. The Assembly also had the job of electing the president and elected anti-communist Syngman Rhee as president on 10 May 1948.
Under the first constitution, the National Assembly was unicameral. Under the second and third constitutions, the National Assembly was to be bicameral and consist of the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors, but in practice the legislature was unicameral because the House of Representatives was prevented from passing the law necessary to establish the House of Councillors.
Conservative Liberal Progressive
majority plurality only largest minority
|NARRKI→NA||55||1948 Rhee Syng-man (supported by NARRKI)
1948–1950 Shin Ik-hee (supported by NARRKI until 1949)
|DNP||24||Shin Ik-hee (supported by DNP)||24||KNP|
|LP||114||Yi Ki-bung (supported by LP)||15||DNP→DP (55)|
|LP||126||Yi Ki-bung (supported by LP)||79||DP (55)|
|House of Representatives||Majority
|DP (55)||175||Kwak Sang-hoon (supported by DP (55))||58||Others|
|House of Councillors||Majority
|DP (55)||31||Paek Nak-chun (supported by DP (55))||27||Others|
Since the reopening of the National Assembly in 1963 until today, it has been unicameral.
|DRP||110||Lee Hyu-sang (supported by DRP)||41||CRP→DRP→NDP|
|DRP||129||Lee Hyu-sang (supported by DRP)||45||NDP|
|DRP||113||Baek Du-jin (supported by DRP)||89||NDP|
|DRP+Presidential appointees||146||Chung Il-kwon (supported by DRP)||52||NDP|
|145||1978–1979 Chung Il-kwon (supported by DRP)
1979 Baek Du-jin (supported by DRP)
|DJP||151||1981–1983 Chung Rae-hyung (supported by DJP)
1983–1985 Chae Mun-shik (supported by DJP)
|DJP||148||Lee Jae-hyung (supported by DJP)||67||NKDP|
majority plurality largest minority
|Speaker||Majority floor leader||Minority floor leader
(largest parliamentary group)
||Kim Jae-sun (1988–90)
Park Jyun-kyu (1990–92)
|Yoon Gil-joong (1988)
Park Jyun-kyu (1988–90)
Park Tae-joon (1990)
Kim Young-sam (1990–92)
||Park Jyun-kyu (1992–93)
Hwang Nak-joo (1993)
Lee Man-sup (1993–94)
Park Jyun-kyu (1994–96)
|Kim Young-sam (1992)
Kim Jong-pil (1992–95)
Lee Chun-gu (1995)
Kim Yoon-hwan (1995–96)
|Kim Dae-jung (1992–93)
Lee Ki-taek (1993–95)
Kim Dae-jung (1995–96)
||Kim Soo-han (1996–98)
Park Jyun-kyu (1998–00)
|Lee Hong-koo (1996–97)
Lee Hoi-chang (1997)
Lee Man-sup (1997)
Lee Hoi-chang (1997)
Lee Han-dong (1997)
Mok Yo-sang (1997)
Lee Sang-deuk (1997–98)
Ha Sun-bong (1998)
Park Hee-tae (1998–99)
Lee Bu-young (1999–00)
|Cho Se-hyeong (1996–99)
Kim Young-bae (1999)
Lee Man-sup (1999–00)
Seo Young-hoon (2000)
||Lee Man-sup (2000–02)
Park Kwan-yong (2002–04)
|Jeon Chang-hwa (2000–01)
Lee Jae-oh (2001–02)
Lee Kyu-taek (2002–03)
Hong Sa-duk (2003–04)
|Seo Young-hoon (2000)
Kim Jung-kwon (2000–01)
Han Kwang-ok (2001–02)
Han Hwa-gap (2002–03)
Chyung Dai-chul (2003)
Park Sang-cheon (2003)
Cho Soon-hyung (2003–04)
||Kim Won-ki (2004–06)
Lim Chae-jung (2006–08)
|Chun Jung-bae (2004–05)
Chung Sye-kyun (2005–06)
Kim Han-gil (2006–07)
Chang Young-dal (2007–08)
Kim Hyo-seuk (2008)
|Kim Deog-ryong (2004–05)
Kang Jae-sup (2005–06)
Lee Jae-oh (2006)
Kim Hyong-o (2006–07)
Ahn Sang-soo (2007–08)
||Kim Hyong-o (2008–10)
Park Hee-tae (2010–12)
Chung Eui-hwa (2012)
|Hong Jun-pyo (2008–09)
Ahn Sang-soo (2009–10)
Kim Moo-sung (2010–11)
Hwang Woo-yea (2011–12)
|Won Hye-young (2008–09)
Lee Kang-lae (2009–10)
Park Jie-won (2010–11)
Kim Jin-pyo (2011–12)
||Kang Chang-hee (2012–14)
Chung Ui-hwa (2014–16)
|Lee Hahn-koo (2012–13)
Choi Kyoung-hwan (2013–14)
Lee Wan-koo (2014–15)
Yoo Seung-min (2015)
Won Yoo-chul (2015–16)
|Park Jie-won (2012)
Park Ki-choon (2012–13)
Jun Byung-hun (2013–14)
Park Young-sun (2014)
Kim Yung-rok (2014)
Woo Yoon-keun (2014–15)
Lee Jong-kul (2015–16)
||Chung Sye-kyun (2016–18)
Moon Hee-sang (2018–20)
|Woo Sang-ho (2016–17)
Woo Won-shik (2017–18)
Hong Young-pyo (2018–19)
Lee In-young (2019–20)
|Chung Jin-suk (2016)
Chung Woo-taek (2016–17)
Kim Sung-tae (2017–18)
Na Kyung-won (2018–19)
Shim Jae-chul (2019–20)
||Park Byeong-seug (2020–2022)
Kim Jin-pyo (2022–present)
|Yun Ho-jung (2020–2022)
Park Hong-keun (2022–present)
|Joo Ho-young (2020–2021)
Kim Gi-hyeon (2021–2022)
Kweon Seong-dong (2022–present)
- List of members of the South Korean Constituent Assembly
- List of members of the National Assembly (South Korea), 1950–1954
- List of members of the National Assembly (South Korea), 1954–1958
- List of members of the National Assembly (South Korea), 1981–1985
- List of members of the National Assembly (South Korea), 1985–1988
- List of members of the National Assembly (South Korea), 1988–1992
- List of members of the National Assembly (South Korea), 1992–1996
- List of members of the National Assembly (South Korea), 1996–2000
- List of members of the National Assembly (South Korea), 2000–2004
- List of members of the National Assembly (South Korea), 2004–2008
- List of members of the National Assembly (South Korea), 2008–2012
- List of members of the National Assembly (South Korea), 2012–2016
- List of members of the National Assembly (South Korea), 2016–2020
- List of members of the National Assembly (South Korea), 2020–2024
- List of political parties in South Korea
- Politics of South Korea
- National Assembly TV
- Supreme People's Assembly, the North Korean legislature
- 2019 South Korean Capitol attack
- ^ "조정훈, 김건희 왜 설치냐는 민주당에 "조선시대 생각"". Newsis (in Korean). 2 May 2023.
- ^ Article 21, Clause 1 of the Election Law
- ^ Article 48 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea.
- ^ a b Park, Young-Do (2010). "Kapitel 2: Verfassungsrecht". Einführung in das koreanische Recht [Introduction to Korean Law] (in German). Springer. p. 25. ISBN 9783642116032.
- ^ Youngmi Kim (2011). The Politics of Coalition in South Korea. Taylor & Francis, p. 65.
- ^ Y. Kim, pp. 68–9.
- ^ Park 2010, p. 27.
- ^ "Standing Committees and Special Committees of the National Assembly". National Assembly (in Korean).
- ^ 김광태 (23 December 2019). "(2nd LD) Opposition party launches filibuster against electoral reform bill". Yonhap News Agency. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- ^ "국가법령정보센터". www.law.go.kr. Retrieved 26 January 2023.
- ^ "국가법령정보센터". www.law.go.kr. Retrieved 26 January 2023.
- ^ "18-year-olds Hit the Polls for First Time in S. Korea". Korea Bizwire. 15 April 2020. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
- ^ "The World's Most Unruly Parliaments".
- ^ "South Korean president impeached". 12 March 2004 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- ^ "In pictures: Impeachment battle". 12 March 2004 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- ^ Glionna, By John M. (28 January 2009). "South Korea lawmakers: Reaching across the aisle with a sledgehammer". Los Angeles Times.
- ^ "South Korean politicians use fire extinguishers against opposition". 18 December 2008. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- ^ "Hall of Violence". 2 March 2009.
- ^ Setting the Stage Archived 16 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ ICL – South Korea Index Archived 13 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine