Although born in the South West Queensland town of Roma, Wilson grew up in Yeppoon on the Capricorn Coast where she attended Sacred Heart Catholic Primary School and swam with local swimming club Yeppoon Sharks where she was selected in her first Queensland team.
Wilson won two medals as a member of Australian relay teams at the 2014 FINA World Swimming Championships (25 m) in Doha, Qatar: a silver in the women's 4×100-metre medley relay, and a bronze in the women's 4×200-metre freestyle relay.
At the 2015 World Aquatics Championships in Kazan, Russia, Wilson won three medals: a gold as a member of the winning Australian team in the women's 4×100-metre freestyle relay; a silver in the women's 100-metre backstroke; and a bronze in the women's 4×100-metre medley relay.
At the 2016 Summer Olympics, Wilson represented Australia in the 100 m backstroke, where she finished 8th in the final. However, as a heat swimmer for the 4x100metre freestyle and medley relay teams, she received a gold and a silver medal after the teams placed first and second in their respective finals.
Wilson again swam in the heats of the women's 4x100metre freestyle event at the 2020 Summer Olympics alongside Mollie O'Callaghan, Bronte Campbell and Meg Harris in July 2021, with the team posting the fastest qualifying time of 03:31:73. However, Wilson and O'Callaghan did not swim in the final with Emma McKeon and Cate Campbell selected to compete instead, taking the Australian relay team to victory. As heat swimmers, Wilson and O'Callaghan are still Olympic gold medal recipients.
Long course metres
|1||4x200 m freestyle relay[a]||7:41.50||2019 World Aquatic Championships||Gwangju, South Korea||25 July 2019||Former|||
|2||4x100 m mixed freestyle relay[b]||3:19.38||2022 World Aquatics Championships||Budapest, Hungary||24 June 2022||Current|||
|3||4x200 m freestyle relay (2)[c]||7:39.29||2022 Commonwealth Games||Birmingham, United Kingdom||31 July 2022||Current|||
a split 1:56.73 (2nd leg); with Ariarne Titmus (1st leg), Brianna Throssell (3rd leg), Emma McKeon (4th leg)
b split 52.25 (3rd leg); with Jack Cartwright (1st leg), Kyle Chalmers (2nd leg), Mollie O'Callaghan (4th leg)
c split 1:56.27 (1st leg); with Kiah Melverton (2nd leg), Mollie O'Callaghan (3rd leg), Ariarne Titmus (4th leg)
Long course metres
|1||4x100 m freestyle relay[a]||3:32.39||h||2016 Summer Olympics||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||6 August 2016||Former|||
Records not set in finals: h – heat; sf – semifinal; r – relay 1st leg; rh – relay heat 1st leg; b – B final; † – en route to final mark; tt – time trial
- List of Olympic medalists in swimming (women)
- List of Youth Olympic Games gold medalists who won Olympic gold medals
- "Madison Wilson". Rio Olympics. 10 August 2016. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- Gillespie, Tom (9 August 2016). "Meet Australia's other Roma-born Rio Olympian". The Western Star. News Corp Australia.
- "2016 Australian Olympic Swimming Team selected". Australian Olympic Committee. 14 April 2016. Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
- "Athlete: Madi Wilson". Swimming Australia. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
- "Award: 1155305". It's an Honour. Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. 26 January 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
- "Australian swimmers break national records, reach finals at Tokyo Olympics". ABC News. 24 July 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
- Linden, Julian (25 July 2021). "Tokyo Olympics 2021: Mollie O'Callaghan and Madi Wilson miss out on 4x100 final". The Daily Telegraph. News Corp Australi. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
- FINA 4x200m Freestyle relay results. Omega. 25 July 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
- "Mixed Freestyle Relay Final results" (PDF). omegatiming.com. 24 June 2022.
- "Aussies blast 7:39.29 for new 4x200 WR". SwimSwam. 31 July 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
- Mendes, Rodrigo (19 August 2016). "Rio 2016 Swimming 6 - 13: Results Book". Omega Timing; Atos. Version 1.1. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
- Madison Wilson at FINA
- Madison Wilson at Swimming Australia
- Madison Wilson at the Australian Olympic Committee
- Madison Wilson at Olympics.com
- Madison Wilson at Olympic.org (archived)
- Madi Wilson at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com (archived)
- Madi Wilson at Olympedia