GE Genesis

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GE Genesis
GE P42DC #174 on the Winter Park Express in 2024
Type and origin
Power typeDiesel–electric or dual-mode
BuilderGE Transportation Systems
ModelP40DC, P32AC-DM, P42DC
Build date1992–2001
Total produced321
Number rebuilt19
 • UICBo′Bo′
Gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
TrucksKrupp-MaK high-speed bolsterless
Wheel diameter40 in (1,016 mm)
Minimum curve251 ft (77 m) radius/ 22.85° (single unit)
318 ft (97 m) radius/ 18.2° (coupled)
Wheelbase43 ft 2+12 in (13.17 m) (between truck centers)
Length69 ft 0 in (21.03 m)
Width10 ft 0 in (3.05 m)
Height14 ft 4 in (4.37 m)
Axle load72,000 lb (32,659 kg) Max
Adhesive weight100%
Loco weightP40DC, P42DC: 268,240 lb (121,672 kg)
P32AC-DM: 274,400 lb (124,466 kg)
Fuel typeDiesel
Fuel capacity2,200 US gal (8,300 L) (DC)
1,800 US gal (6,800 L) (AC)
Lubricant cap.410 US gal (1,600 L) (DC)
365 US gal (1,380 L) (AC)
Coolant cap.380 US gal (1,400 L) (DC)
210 US gal (790 L) (AC)
Sandbox cap.26 cu ft (740 L) (DC)
8.5 cu ft (240 L) (AC)
Prime moverGE 7FDL16 (P40DC, P42DC), GE 7FDL12 (P32AC-DM)
RPM range200–1050 (600–900 while supplying HEP)
Engine type45° V16, four stroke cycle (P40DC, P42DC), 45° V12, four stroke cycle (P32AC-DM)
Displacement175.2 L (10,690 cu in) (7FDL16)
131.4 L (8,020 cu in) (7FDL12)
AlternatorGMG 195 (P40DC, P42DC)
GMG 195A1 (P32AC-DM)
Traction motorsGE 752AH (DC), GE GEB15 (AC)
Cylinders16 (P40DC, P42DC)
12 (P32AC-DM)
Cylinder size10.95 L (668 cu in)[1]
MU workingYes
Train heatingLocomotive-supplied head-end power
Loco brakeDynamic / Regenerative / Electropneumatic
Train brakesElectropneumatic
Performance figures
Maximum speed103 mph (166 km/h) (original P40DC)
110 mph (177 km/h) (P42DC, P32AC-DM, upgraded P40DC)
60 mph (97 km/h) (in electric mode; P32AC-DM only)[2]
Power output
  • 3,200 hp (2,400 kW) (P32AC-DM)
  • 4,000 hp (3,000 kW) (original P40DC)
  • 4,250 hp (3,170 kW) (upgraded P40DC, P42DC)
Tractive effortP40DC, P42DC:
280.25 kN (63,000 lbf) Starting
169 kN (38,000 lbf) Continuous @38 mph (61.2 km/h)[3]
275.8 kN (62,000 lbf) Starting @ Stall to 14 mph (23 km/h)
113.43 kN (25,500 lbf) Continuous @64 mph (103 km/h)[4]
Factor of adh.4.25 (DC)
4.4258 (AC)
OperatorsAmtrak, Metro-North Railroad, Via Rail, CT Rail
NumbersAmtrak: P42DC 1-207; P32AC-DM 700-717; P40DC 800-843 (15 in service, 12 sold)
Metro-North: P32AC-DM 201-231
VIA Rail Canada: P42DC 900-920
CT Rail: P40DC 6700–6711
Official nameGenesis

The GE Genesis (officially trademarked GENESIS[5]) is a series of passenger diesel locomotives built by GE Transportation for Amtrak, Metro-North, and Via Rail between 1992 and 2001. A total of 321 units were produced.

Designed to meet Amtrak's specifications, the Genesis series stands out for being the lowest North American diesel-electric locomotive at 14 feet 4 inches (4.37 m) tall. This allows for easier travel through low-clearance tunnels in the Northeast Corridor, especially compared to the earlier EMD F40PH which was 14 inches (356 mm) taller.

Technical design

The GE Genesis series stands out for its unique, lightweight monocoque carbody design, styled by industrial designer Cesar Vergara.[6] This innovative approach translates to improved aerodynamics and fuel efficiency compared to its predecessors.[7] However, the complexity of the monocoque design results in slightly higher maintenance and repair costs. Notably, Amtrak equips its Genesis locomotives with bolt-on nose cones to facilitate rapid repairs in the event of a grade crossing collision.[citation needed]

The Genesis represents a significant leap forward in performance. It boasts a 22% improvement in fuel efficiency and delivers 25% more power compared to the F40PH.[8] Furthermore, all Genesis locomotives utilize modern, four-stroke engines, surpassing the two-stroke technology employed in earlier EMD counterparts.[citation needed]

Further enhancing reliability, the Genesis is a fully computerized locomotive. Its onboard computer systems automatically manage various functions, including real-time adjustments to engine output in response to overheating, low oil pressure, or reduced airflow intake. This ensures continued operation during minor operational deviations, streamlining maintenance requirements.[8]

All Genesis locomotives provide head-end power (HEP) to the train via an alternator or inverter powered by the main engine. This system delivers a maximum output of 800 kilowatts (1,100 hp), capable of powering up to 16 Superliner railcars. The P40DC and P42DC models offer two HEP configurations: normal mode with the engine speed locked at 900 rpm for providing both HEP and traction power, and standby mode with the engine speed locked at 720 rpm for HEP only (no traction power). The P32AC-DM offers greater operational flexibility with its HEP inverter. The engine can run at 1,047 rpm while delivering both traction power and HEP. Additionally, it can idle at 620 rpm (notch three) while still providing HEP for lighting and air conditioning when not in use for traction.[citation needed]

The Genesis utilizes trucks manufactured by Krupp Verkehrstechnik [de], which has since been acquired by Siemens Mobility. Newer Genesis locomotives reflect this change and carry the Siemens name.[citation needed]


Three models of Genesis were built by General Electric, the P40DC, P42DC, and P32AC-DM.


New Jersey Transit #4800 on the Raritan Valley Line in 2008

The P40DC (GENESIS Series I)[9] or Dash 8-40BP (originally known as the AMD-103 or Amtrak Monocoque Diesel - 103MPH) is the first model in the Genesis series, built in 1993.[10] The locomotive operates in a diesel-electric configuration that uses DC to power the traction motors, producing 4,000 horsepower (2,980 kW) at 1047 rpm. Power output to the traction motors is 3,550 hp (2,650 kW) when running in HEP mode (900 rpm) with a 0 kW HEP load. Traction power in HEP mode decreases to 2,525 horsepower (1,880 kW) when providing the maximum 800 kW (1,100 hp) HEP load to the train. The P40DC is geared for a maximum speed of 103 miles per hour (166 km/h). The P40DC was succeeded in 1996 by the P42DC.

A feature unique to the P40DC and P32AC-DM is a hostler stand at the rear of the locomotive providing increased visibility and reversing capabilities to the engineer while conducting reverse operations. When a unit is in operation from this stand it is limited to 10 mph (16 km/h) and a dead man's switch protects against movement without an operator being present. Another unique feature to the original P40DC were the two strobes above the cab and an emergency flasher between the strobes. When they were overhauled, those features were removed.[8]

Both the P40DC and P42DC allowed Amtrak to operate heavy long-distance trains with fewer locomotives compared to the older EMD F40PH locomotives; two P40DCs could do the same work as three F40PHs. Additional deliveries of the P42DC ended up replacing the P40DCs.

Three units were prematurely wrecked (819 in the 1993 Big Bayou Canot train wreck, 807 and 829 in the 1999 Bourbonnais, Illinois, train crash) and scrapped. Eight were leased and later sold to the Connecticut DOT for Shore Line East in 2005, and four were rebuilt and sold to New Jersey Transit in 2007; NJ Transit sold its units to ConnDOT in 2015.

The remaining 28 units were placed out-of-service for many years. 15 of these units were rebuilt using 2009 ARRA stimulus funds and returned to service, now in the Phase V livery, except for 822, which is painted in Phase III Heritage livery for Amtrak's 40th Anniversary.[11] The units that were not rebuilt or sold have since been scrapped. Additionally, 816 was wrecked in January 2024 after colliding with a truck and subsequently derailing.[12]

In January 2018, ConnDOT awarded a contract to Amtrak to overhaul their twelve P40DC locomotives at the Beech Grove Shops.[13] The first unit was completed in early 2021.[14] With the introduction of M8 EMU trains for Shore Line East service, the rebuilt P40DCs will be exclusively used on the Hartford Line.

Upgraded and "Stimulus" P40DCs

By 2007, New Jersey Transit had upgraded their P40DC units with updated prime movers to match the 4,250 horsepower (3,170 kW) of the successor P42DC.[15] This was done by readjusting the position of the lay shafts within the prime mover.[citation needed]

Amtrak has returned 15 of their P40DC units to service as part of a project funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.[16] The first of the units were returned to service in March 2010 after being overhauled at the Beech Grove Shops. They were upgraded like NJT's units had been a few years before to have 4,250 hp (3,170 kW) and match the P42DC's maximum speed of 110 mph (177 km/h). They also received updated cab signaling systems. The upgraded locomotives still have mechanical air brakes, which makes them most suitable for trains that only require a single locomotive. This differs from the electronic air brakes on the P42DC and P32AC-DM.[17] They also feature a builder's plate indicating that they were rebuilt under the auspices of the TIGER stimulus program.


Via Rail P42DC #902

The P42DC (GENESIS Series I)[18] is the successor model to the P40DC. It has an engine output of 4,250 horsepower (3,170 kW) at 1,047 rpm, or 3,550 horsepower (2,650 kW) when running in HEP mode (900 rpm) with a 0 kW HEP load. as with the P40DC, traction horsepower in HEP mode decreases to 2,525 horsepower (1,880 kW) when providing the full 800 kW HEP load to the train.

The P42DC has a maximum speed of 110 mph (177 km/h) compared to the 103 mph (166 km/h) maximum speed of the P40DC. Tractive effort is rated at 280.25 kN (63,000 lbf) of starting effort and 169 kN (38,000 lbf) of continuous effort at 38 mph (61 km/h) given wheel power of 3,850 horsepower (2,870 kW).[3]

P42DCs are used primarily on most of Amtrak's long-haul and higher-speed rail service outside the Northeast and lower Empire Corridors. They will be replaced on long-distance service by 125 Siemens ALC-42 Charger locomotives between 2021 and 2024, but will remain in service on shorter corridor trains.[19]

Via Rail Canada has utilized P42DC locomotives since 2001, when they replaced the LRC locomotives that year. They are currently on services with speeds up to 100 mph (161 km/h), mainly on the Quebec City-Windsor rail corridor.[20]


Metro-North P32AC-DM #207 in 2007

The P32AC-DM (GENESIS Series II, short for "Passenger, 3,200 hp (2,400 kW), Alternating Current, Dual Mode")[21] was developed for both Amtrak and Metro-North. They can operate on power generated either by the on-board diesel prime mover or power collected from a third rail electrification system at 750 volts direct current; the third-rail shoes are used on the over-running third-rail into Penn Station for Amtrak units and the under-running third-rail into Grand Central Terminal for Metro-North. The P32AC-DM is rated at 3,200 horsepower (2,390 kW), 2,900 horsepower (2,160 kW) when supplying HEP, and is geared for a maximum speed of 110 mph (177 km/h). Tractive effort is rated at 275.8 kN (62,000 lbf) of starting effort from zero to 14 mph (23 km/h) and 113.43 kN (25,500 lbf) of continuous effort at 40 mph (64 km/h) given wheel power of 2,700 horsepower (2,010 kW).[4]

The P32AC-DM is unique as it is equipped with GE's GEB15 AC (alternating current) traction motors, rather than DC (direct current) motors as used in the other subtypes.[22] It is also only one of two modern American electro-diesel locomotives with third-rail capability, along with the EMD DM30AC operated by the Long Island Rail Road. NJ Transit and Exo's Bombardier ALP-45DP electro-diesel locomotive can operate from overhead catenary electrification.

The P32AC-DM is only used on services operating north from New York City, where diesel emissions through its two fully enclosed main terminal stations are prohibited. Amtrak rosters 18 P32AC-DM locomotives and uses them for its Empire Service, Ethan Allen Express, Lake Shore Limited (New York section), Adirondack, and Maple Leaf services, all of which travel to New York Penn Station. Metro-North rosters 31 P32AC-DM locomotives on push-pull trains to Grand Central Terminal; four are owned by the Connecticut Department of Transportation. The Metro-North and ConnDOT fleet of P32AC-DM locomotives will eventually be replaced by new Siemens SC-42DM Charger locomotives beginning in 2027.[23][24][25]

Original owners

Railroad Model Quantity Road numbers Notes
Amtrak P40DC 44 800–843 15 units upgraded to P42DC specifications and remain in service; 29 units sold or scrapped. 807, 816, 819, and 829 were wrecked and scrapped.
P42DC 207 1–207 To be replaced by 125 new ALC-42 Siemens Charger locomotives. 143 and 149 were wrecked and scrapped in 2001. 47 scrapped after the Cayce, South Carolina, train collision
P32AC-DM 18 700–717 Dual mode for operation on the Empire Connection into New York Penn.
Metro-North Railroad P32AC-DM 31 201–231 Dual mode for operation into Grand Central Terminal. 225 involved in a derailment in 2013 and was repaired.
228–231 owned by CTDOT
Via Rail P42DC 21 900–920 Last Genesis series locomotives built.

See also


  1. ^ Chen, G.; Flynn, P. L.; Gallagher, S. M.; Dillen, E. R. (April 1, 2003). "Development of the Low-Emission GE-7FDL High-Power Medium-Speed Locomotive Diesel Engine". Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. 125 (2): 505–512. doi:10.1115/1.1563241. ISSN 0742-4795.
  2. ^ "Genesis Series 2 - Dual Mode Passenger Locomotive for Amtrak". August 21, 2001. Archived from the original on August 21, 2001.
  3. ^ a b "Page 14" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 21, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
  4. ^ a b Page 29
  5. ^ "Earlier Locomotive Models". GE Transportation. Archived from the original on September 28, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
  6. ^ Gormick, Greg (November 21, 2005). "High style, high tech; Putting style back on track". Toronto Star. p. D01. ProQuest 438900729.
  7. ^ US 5535680, Bieber, Allen C., "Monocoque locomotive", published 1996-07-16, assigned to General Electric Company 
  8. ^ a b c Warner, David C (June 1993). "AMD103: Powering Amtrak Into the 21st Century". Passenger Train Journal. 24, No. 6 (186). Interurban Press: 23. ISSN 0160-6913.
  9. ^ P40DC Builders Plate
  10. ^ "Make way for the Genesis Series". Trains. Vol. 53. August 1993.
  11. ^ "On Track On Line - Stored, Sold and Leased P40s".
  12. ^ "Amtrak engineer seriously injured after train hits milk tanker, derails in Colorado". January 30, 2024.
  13. ^ "Notice of Contract Award" (PDF). Connecticut Department of Transportation. April 25, 2018.
  14. ^ "News Photo: First CDOT P40 rebuild debuts". Trains News Wire. March 8, 2021.
  15. ^ Donald Albertson (September 13, 2007). "NJT 808". Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
  16. ^ Amtrak ARRAProject List
  17. ^ Bob Johnston (October 2010). "Beech Grove to the Rescue". Trains. Vol. 70, no. 10. pp. 48–53.
  18. ^ P42 Builders Plate
  19. ^ "Amtrak to Improve National Network with New Locomotives" (Press release). Amtrak. December 21, 2018. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  20. ^ "Locomotives - P42DC | VIA Rail".
  21. ^ P32 Builders Plate
  22. ^ Brian Solomon (2000). American Diesel Locomotives. MBI Publishing Company. p. 160. ISBN 0-7603-0666-4. Retrieved September 25, 2008.
  23. ^ "Joint Metro-North and Long Island Committees Meeting". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 2020. pp. 128–132.
  24. ^ "Metro-North set to buy dual-mode locomotives from Siemens". Trains Magazine. December 14, 2020. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  25. ^ "Metro-North Railroad Procurements". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 20, 2023.