Congressional Progressive Caucus
|Deputy chair||Katie Porter|
|National affiliation||Democratic Party|
|Seats in the Senate Democratic Caucus|
1 / 50
|Seats in the Senate|
1 / 100
|Seats in the House Democratic Caucus|
99 / 220
|Seats in the House|
99 / 435
The Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC) is a congressional caucus affiliated with the Democratic Party in the United States Congress. The CPC represents the most left-leaning faction of the Democratic Party. It was founded in 1991 and has grown since then.
As of March 22, 2022, of the 117th United States Congress, the CPC has 101 members (99 voting Representatives, 1 non-voting Delegate, and 1 Senator), making it the largest ideological caucus in the Democratic Party (slightly larger than the New Democrat Coalition) and the second largest ideological caucus overall (after the Republican Study Committee). The CPC is chaired by U.S. Representative Pramila Jayapal (D-WA).
The CPC was established in 1991 by U.S. Representatives Ron Dellums (D-CA), Lane Evans (D-IL), Thomas Andrews (D-ME), Peter DeFazio (D-OR), Maxine Waters (D-CA) and Bernie Sanders (I-VT). Additional Representatives joined soon thereafter, including Major Owens (D-NY), Nydia Velázquez (D-NY), David Bonior (D-MI), Bob Filner (D-CA), Barney Frank (D-MA), Maurice Hinchey (D-NY), Jim McDermott (D-WA), Jerry Nadler (D-NY), Patsy Mink (D-HI), George Miller (D-CA), Pete Stark (D-CA), John Olver (D-MA) and Lynn Woolsey (D-CA). Sanders was the first CPC Chairman.
The founding CPC members were concerned about the economic hardship imposed by the deepening recession and the growing inequality brought about by the timidity of the Democratic Party response in the early 1990s. On January 3, 1995, at a standing room only news conference on Capitol Hill, they were the first group inside Congress to chart a comprehensive legislative alternative to U.S. Speaker Newt Gingrich and the Republican Contract with America. The CPC's ambitious agenda was framed as "The Progressive Promise: Fairness".
List of chairs
|Term start||Term end||Chair(s)|
Rep. Bernie Sanders (I-VT)
Rep. Dennis Kucinich (D-OH)
Rep. Peter DeFazio (D-OR)
|2005||2009||Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA)||Rep. Lynn Woolsey (D-CA)|
|2009||2011||Rep. Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ)|
|2011||2017||Rep. Keith Ellison (D-MN)|
|2017||2019||Rep. Mark Pocan (D-WI)|
|2019||2021||Rep. Pramila Jayapal (D-WA)|
Rep. Pramila Jayapal (D-WA)
The CPC advocates "a universal, high-quality, Medicare for All health care system for all", living wage laws, reductions in military expenditure, a crackdown on corporate greed, putting an end to mass incarceration, supporting and implementing swift measures to start reversing climate change, immigration policies that are humane, and reparations.
In April 2011, the CPC released a proposed "People's Budget" for fiscal year 2012. Two of its proponents stated: "By implementing a fair tax code, by building a resilient American economy, and by bringing our troops home, we achieve a budget surplus of over $30 billion by 2021 and we end up with a debt that is less than 65% of our GDP. This is what sustainability looks like".
In 2019, the Democratic-controlled House of Representatives passed the Raise the Wage Act, which would have gradually raised the minimum wage to $15 per hour. It was not taken up in the Republican-controlled Senate. In January 2021, Democrats in the Senate and House of Representatives reintroduced the bill. In February 2021, the Congressional Budget Office released a report on the Raise the Wage Act of 2021 which estimated that incrementally raising the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour by 2025 would benefit 17 million workers, but would also reduce employment by 1.4 million people. On February 27, 2021, the Democratic-controlled House passed the American Rescue Plan pandemic relief package, which included a gradual minimum wage increase to $15 per hour. The measure was ultimately removed from the Senate version of the bill.
A prominent 2019 attempt to get legislation passed for a Green New Deal was sponsored by Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-NY) and Sen. Ed Markey (D-MA) during the 116th United States Congress, though it failed to advance in the Senate. Green New Deal proposals call for public policy to address climate change along with achieving other social aims like job creation and reducing economic inequality. The name refers back to the New Deal, a set of social and economic reforms and public works projects undertaken by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in response to the Great Depression. The Green New Deal combines Roosevelt's economic approach with modern ideas such as renewable energy and resource efficiency.
The United States National Health Care Act, also known as Medicare for All or Expanded and Improved Medicare for All Act, is a bill first introduced in the United States House of Representatives by Representative John Conyers (D-MI) in 2003, with 38 co-sponsors. In 2019, the original 16-year-old proposal was renumbered, and Pramila Jayapal (D-WA) introduced a broadly similar, but more detailed, bill, HR 1384, in the 116th Congress. As of November 3, 2019[update], it had 116 co-sponsors still in the House at the time, or 49.8% of House Democrats.
The act would establish a universal single-payer health care system in the United States, the rough equivalent of Canada's Medicare and Taiwan's Bureau of National Health Insurance, among other examples. Under a single-payer system, most medical care would be paid for by the federal government, ending the need for private health insurance and premiums, and re-casting private insurance companies as providing purely supplemental coverage, to be used when non-essential care is sought. The national system would be paid for in part through taxes replacing insurance premiums, but also by savings realized through the provision of preventive universal health care and the elimination of insurance company overhead and hospital billing costs.On September 13, 2017, Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT) introduced a parallel bill in the United States Senate, with 16 co-sponsors. The act would establish a universal single-payer health care system in the United States.
In 2019, the CPC challenged House Speaker Nancy Pelosi regarding the details of a drug-pricing bill, the Elijah Cummings Lower Drug Costs Now Act. The final version was the result of extensive negotiations between House Democratic leadership and members of the CPC. The bill was introduced into the House of Representatives on September 19, 2019 during the 116th Congress by Rep. Frank Pallone (D-NJ). The bill received 106 co-sponsors. It passed the House on December 12, 2019 by a vote of (230-192). All Democrats voted for the measure, and all but 2 Republicans voted against it. The bill was then sent to the Senate. The Senate, having been controlled by Republicans, did not bring the bill up to a vote.
During the 117th United States Congress congresswoman Judy Chu (CA-27) introduced the Women's Health Protection Act. The act would expand abortion rights and codify Roe v. Wade. It was introduced in response to the Texas Heartbeat Act. It passed House of Representatives (218-211), but was defeated in the Senate on a 46–48 vote in February 2022.
|Election year||Senate||House of Representatives|
|Overall seats||Democratic seats||Independent seats||±||Overall seats||Democratic seats||±|
2 / 100
1 / 51
1 / 2
77 / 435
77 / 193
1 / 100
0 / 53
1 / 2
68 / 435
68 / 200
1 / 100
0 / 44
1 / 2
68 / 435
68 / 188
1 / 100
0 / 46
1 / 2
78 / 435
78 / 193
1 / 100
0 / 45
1 / 2
96 / 435
96 / 233
1 / 100
0 / 48
1 / 2
95 / 435
95 / 220
All members are Democrats or caucus with the Democratic Party. In the 117th Congress, there are 101 declared Progressives, including 99 voting Representatives, one non-voting member and one Senator.
- Thomas Andrews (ME-1) – defeated in run for Senate in 1994
- Tammy Baldwin (WI-2) – elected to Senate in 2012
- Bob Brady (PA-1) – left caucus
- Sherrod Brown (OH-13) – elected to Senate in 2006
- Roland Burris (IL Senate) – retired from Congress in 2010
- Mike Capuano (MA-7) – defeated for re-nomination in 2018 by current caucus member Ayanna Pressley
- Julia Carson (IN-7) – died in 2007
- Donna M. Christensen (Virgin Islands) – retired from Congress in 2014
- Gil Cisneros (CA-39) – defeated for re-election in 2020
- Hansen Clarke (MI-13) – defeated for re-nomination in 2012
- Lacy Clay (MO-1) – defeated for re-nomination in 2020 by current caucus member Cori Bush
- Emanuel Cleaver (MO-5) – left caucus
- John Conyers (MI-13) – resigned from Congress in 2017
- Angie Craig (MN-2) – left caucus
- Elijah Cummings (MD-7) – died in 2019
- Donna Edwards (MD-4) – defeated in run for Senate in 2016
- Keith Ellison (MN-5) – elected Attorney General of Minnesota in 2018
- Lane Evans (IL-17) – retired from Congress in 2006
- Chaka Fattah (PA-2) – defeated for re-nomination in 2016 by current caucus member Dwight Evans
- Russ Feingold (WI Senate) – defeated for re-election in 2010
- Bob Filner (CA-51) – retired from Congress in 2012
- Barney Frank (MA-4) – retired from Congress in 2012
- Marcia Fudge (OH-11) – became Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in 2021
- Tulsi Gabbard (HI-2) – retired from Congress in 2020
- Alan Grayson (FL-8) (FL-9) – defeated in run for Senate in 2016
- Luis Gutierrez (IL-4) – retired from Congress in 2018
- Deb Haaland (NM-1) – became Secretary of the Interior in 2021
- John Hall (NY-19) – defeated for re-election in 2010
- Phil Hare (IL-17) – defeated for re-election in 2010
- Katie Hill (CA-25) – resigned from Congress in 2019
- Maurice Hinchey (NY-22) – retired from Congress in 2012
- Mazie Hirono (HI-2) – elected to Senate in 2012
- Mike Honda (CA-17) – defeated for re-election in 2016 by current caucus member Ro Khanna
- Rush Holt (NJ-12) – retired from Congress in 2014
- Jesse Jackson, Jr. (IL-2) – resigned in 2012
- Joe Kennedy III (MA-04) – retired to run for Senate in 2020 (lost to incumbent Ed Markey)
- Ruben Kihuen (NV-4) – retired from Congress in 2018
- Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick (MI-13) – defeated for re-nomination in 2010
- Dennis Kucinich (OH-10) – defeated for re-nomination in 2012
- John Lewis (GA-5) – died in 2020
- Dave Loebsack (IA-2) – retired from Congress in 2020
- Ed Markey (MA-5) – elected to Senate in 2013
- Eric Massa (NY-29) – resigned from Congress in 2010
- Cynthia McKinney (GA-4) – defeated for re-nomination in 2008 by current caucus member Hank Johnson
- Brad Miller (NC-13) – retired from Congress in 2012
- George Miller (CA-11) – retired from Congress in 2014
- Jim Moran (VA-8) – retired from Congress in 2014
- Debbie Mucarsel-Powell (FL-26) – defeated for re-election in 2020
- Rick Nolan (MN-8) – retired from Congress in 2018
- John Olver (MA-1) – retired from Congress in 2012
- Major Owens (NY-11) – retired from Congress in 2006
- Ed Pastor (AZ-7) – retired from Congress in 2014
- Nancy Pelosi (CA-8) – left caucus when elected House Minority Leader
- Jared Polis (CO-2) – elected Governor of Colorado in 2018
- Carol Shea-Porter (NH-1) – retired from Congress in 2018
- Laura Richardson (CA-37) – defeated for re-election in 2012
- Lucille Roybal-Allard (CA-40) – left caucus
- Bobby Rush (IL-1) – left caucus
- José E. Serrano (NY-15) – retired from Congress in 2020
- Louise Slaughter (NY-25) – died in 2018
- Hilda Solis (CA-32) – became Secretary of Labor in 2009
- Pete Stark (CA-13) – defeated for re-election in 2012
- Bennie Thompson (MS-2) – left caucus
- John Tierney (MA-6) – defeated for re-nomination in 2014
- Stephanie Tubbs Jones (OH-11) – died in 2008
- Henry Waxman (CA-33) – retired from Congress in 2014
- Paul Wellstone (MN Senate) – died in 2002
- Robert Wexler (FL-19) – resigned in 2010
- Lynn Woolsey (CA-6) – retired from Congress in 2012
- Democratic Socialists of America
- Factions in the Democratic Party (United States)
- Progressive Democrats of America
- Progressivism in the United States
- "What is CPC?". Retrieved July 23, 2014.
- "Ellison Offers Progressive View Of Debt Deal". NPR. August 1, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
Congressional Progressive Caucus — the liberal wing of the Democratic Party in the House
- Raza, Syed Ali (2012), Social Democratic System, Global Peace Trust, p. 91
- Cunningham, Vinson (February 19, 2017). "Will Keith Ellison Move the Democrats Left?". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
- "Congressional Progressive Caucus: Caucus Members". house.gov.
- Hardisty, Jean (2000). Mobilizing Resentment: Conservative Resurgence From The John Birch Society To The Promise Keepers. Boston: Beacon Press. p. 221. ISBN 978-0807043172.
- "Two congressmen endorse Carl Sciortino in race to replace Markey in Congress". Boston.com. September 13, 2013. Retrieved July 23, 2014. "[T]he Congressional Progressive Caucus, the umbrella group for left-leaning Democratic members of Congress".
- Talbot, Margaret (October 5, 2015). "The Populist Prophet". The New Yorker. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- Brodey, Sam (July 21, 2015). "How Keith Ellison made the Congressional Progressive Caucus into a political force that matters". MinnPost. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- "The Progressive Promise". Congressional Progressive Caucus. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- "The People's Budget" (PDF). Congressional Progressive Caucus. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
- Honda, Michael; Grijalva, Raul (April 11, 2011), "The only real Democratic budget", The Hill, retrieved March 24, 2018
- "Democrats introduce bill to hike federal minimum wage to $15 per hour", CNBC, January 16, 2019.
- "The Budgetary Effects of the Raise the Wage Act of 2021" (PDF). Congressional Budget Office. February 1, 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 8, 2021. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Selyukh, Alina (February 8, 2021). "$15 Minimum Wage Would Reduce Poverty But Cost Jobs, CBO Says". NPR.
Raising the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour by 2025 would increase wages for at least 17 million people, but also put 1.4 million Americans out of work, according to a study by the Congressional Budget Office released on Monday.
- Rosenberg, Eli (February 8, 2021). "CBO report finds $15 minimum wage would cost jobs but lower poverty levels". The Washington Post.
Raising the minimum wage to $15 an hour would significantly reduce poverty and increase earnings for millions of low-wage workers, while adding to the federal deficit and cutting overall employment, according to a new study from the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office. ... On one hand, the CBO estimated that raising the minimum wage to $15 an hour by 2025 would cost 1.4 million jobs and increase the deficit by $54 billion over 10 years. But it also estimated the policy would lift 900,000 people out of poverty and raise income for 17 million people — about 1 in 10 workers. Another 10 million who have wages just above that amount could potentially see increases, as well, the CBO reported.
- "American Rescue Plan: What's in the House's $1.9 trillion coronavirus relief plan", Washington Post, February 27, 2021.
- "Senate passes $1.9 trillion Biden relief bill after voting overnight on amendments, sends measure back to House", Washington Post, March 6, 2021.
- Rebecca Shabad; Dartunorro Clark (March 26, 2019). "Senate fails to advance Green New Deal as Democrats protest McConnell 'sham vote'". NBC News. Archived from the original on July 15, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
- Jeremy Lovell (July 21, 2008) "Climate report calls for green 'New Deal'" Archived June 10, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Reuters.
- A Green New Deal: Discursive Review and Appraisal. Archived February 24, 2021, at the Wayback Machine Macroeconomics: Aggregative Models eJournal. Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Accessed March 14, 2019.
- Hilary French, Michael Renner and Gary Gardner: Toward a Transatlantic Green New Deal Archived March 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine The authors state: "Support is growing around the world for an integrated response to the current economic and environmental crises, increasingly referred to as the "Green New Deal". The term is a modern-day variation of the U.S. New Deal, an ambitious effort launched by President Franklin Roosevelt to lift the United States out of the Great Depression. The New Deal of that era entailed a strong government role in economic planning and a series of stimulus packages launched between 1933 and 1938 that created jobs through ambitious governmental programs, including the construction of roads, trails, dams, and schools. Today's Green New Deal proposals are also premised on the importance of decisive governmental action, but incorporate policies to respond to pressing environmental challenges through a new paradigm of sustainable economic progress."
- H.R. 676
- "House Reps Introduce Medicare-for-All Bill" Becker's Hospital Review, Feb. 14, 2013
- "Medicare for All bill loses its special number". Modern Healthcare. February 2, 2019. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- "Dingell, Jayapal and more than 100 Co-Sponsors Introduce Medicare For All Act of 2019". U.S. Representative Debbie Dingell. February 27, 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
- "H.R.1384 – Medicare for All Act of 2019". U.S. Congress. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
- Krugman, Paul (June 13, 2005). "One Nation, Uninsured". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Bernie Sanders to Sponsor Single-Payer Healthcare Bill". Newsweek. March 26, 2017.
- RoseAnn DeMoro [@RoseAnnDeMoro] (September 13, 2017). ".@BernieSanders shouts out the Democrats that did the right thing in supporting #MedicareForAll. #WednesdayWisdom" (Tweet). Retrieved September 13, 2017 – via Twitter.
- "115th United States Congress". U.S. Congress. 2017–2018.
- Dayen, David; Grimm, Ryan (December 9, 2019). "House Progressives Challenge Nancy Pelosi on Drug-Pricing Bill". The Intercept. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
- Zhou, Li (December 12, 2019). "The House just passed an ambitious bill to lower prescription drug prices". Vox. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
- Pallone, Frank (September 8, 2020). "Cosponsors – H.R.3 – 116th Congress (2019–2020): Elijah E. Cummings Lower Drug Costs Now Act". www.congress.gov. Archived from the original on April 13, 2021. Retrieved April 7, 2021.
- Chu, Judy (September 21, 2021). "H.R.3755 - 117th Congress (2021-2022): Women's Health Protection Act of 2021". Congress.gov. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
- Kapur, Sahil; Vitali, Ali (February 28, 2022). "Senate rejects Democratic bill to codify abortion rights". NBC News. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
- "Caucus Members". Congressional Progressive Caucus. Retrieved July 23, 2021.
- "Partisan Voting Index – Districts of the 115th Congress". The Cook Political Report. April 15, 2021. Retrieved April 15, 2021.