COVID-19 lockdowns

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A usually congested highway in Penang, Malaysia, deserted during the Movement Control Order.
Healthcare workers in Hong Kong prepare to conduct mass COVID-19 testing of Jordan residents during a localised lockdown.
A sign usually used for traffic management displays a public health warning in Belfast during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom.
At a community quarantine checkpoint in Bohol, Philippines, police officers check a passing jeepney.
Queue in front of a supermarket in Italy caused by social distancing measures and supply shortages during the lockdown.
Volunteers in Cape Town pack food parcels to distribute to the needy during the pandemic lockdown in South Africa.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions colloquially known as lockdowns (encompassing stay-at-home orders, curfews, quarantines, cordons sanitaires and similar societal restrictions) have been implemented in numerous countries and territories around the world. These restrictions were established with the intention to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.[1] By April 2020, about half of the world's population was under some form of lockdown, with more than 3.9 billion people in more than 90 countries or territories having been asked or ordered to stay at home by their governments.[2] Although similar disease control measures have been used for hundreds of years, the scale of those implemented in the 2020s is thought to be unprecedented.[3][failed verification]

Research and case studies have shown that lockdowns are generally effective at reducing the spread of COVID-19, therefore flattening the curve.[4][5][6] The World Health Organization's recommendation on curfews and lockdowns is that they should be short-term measures to reorganize, regroup, rebalance resources, and protect health workers who are exhausted. To achieve a balance between restrictions and normal life, the WHO recommends a response to the pandemic that consists of strict personal hygiene, effective contact tracing, and isolating when ill.[7]

Although many public health experts and economists supported lockdown restrictions,[8] citing greater long-term costs for allowing the disease to spread uncontrollably, pandemic restrictions have had health,[9] social, and economic impacts, and have been met with protests in some territories.

Efficacy

Several researchers, from modeling and demonstrated examples, have concluded that lockdowns are effective at reducing the spread of, and deaths caused by, COVID-19.[4][5][10][6][11][12][13][14][15] Lockdowns are thought to be most effective at containing or preventing COVID-19 community transmission, healthcare costs and deaths when implemented earlier, with greater stringency, and when not lifted too early.[16][17][18][19][20]

A study investigating the spread based on studies of the most common symptoms such as loss of taste and smell in France, Italy and the UK showed a marked decrease in new symptoms just a few days after the start of confinement on the countries (Italy and France) with the strongest lockdowns.[21] Modelling on the United States pandemic suggested "the pandemic would have been almost completely suppressed from significantly taking off if the lockdown measures were implemented two weeks earlier" and that the second wave would have been less severe had the lockdown lasted another two weeks.[16]

The stringent lockdown in Hubei in early 2020 proved effective at controlling the COVID-19 outbreak in China.[14][22] The relatively high number of cases and deaths in Sweden, which has kept much of its society open during the pandemic, when compared to its neighbours with comparable demographics Norway, Denmark and Finland that did enforce lockdowns, is thought to be at least partly attributable to this difference in policy.[23][24][25][26][27] Similarly, modelling on Australian data concluded that achieving zero community transmission through a strict lockdown lowers healthcare and economic costs compared to less stringent measures that allow transmission to continue, and warned that early relaxation of restrictions have greater costs.[18][19] This "zero community transmission" approach was adopted in Australia, and a strict four month lockdown in the state of Victoria during an outbreak in Melbourne, combined with other measures, averted a wider outbreak in the country in 2020.[28] New Zealand and Vietnam also adopted a "Zero-COVID" strategy throughout 2020 that included targeted lockdowns.[29][30]

The emergence of the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in 2021 has led some commentators to suggest that although lockdowns continue to reduce the spread of COVID-19, they have become less effective at containing it. Lockdowns in Australia and Vietnam in response to Delta outbreaks proved less effective at containment than previous lockdowns were against the spread of other variants.[31][32][33]

Voluntary versus mandatory restrictions

A member of the Peruvian Army with a police dog enforces curfew on 31 March 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru

One study led by an economist at the University of Chicago found that involuntary lockdowns had little impact, with voluntary distancing making up nearly 90% of the fall in consumer traffic as people feared the virus itself.[34] Similarly, a National Bureau of Economic Research study found stay-at-home orders increased staying at home by just 5–10%.[35] Another study from Yale University found that most social distancing was voluntary, driven primarily by "media coverage of morbidity and mortality."[36]

On the other hand, some studies have argued[13][37] that coercive measures probably decreased interactions, while accepting that most of the reduction may have been voluntary. One of those two studies, by Flaxman et al., has been criticized, among other things for having a country-specific adjustment factor, without which the model would predict a massive number of deaths for Sweden.[38] One widely cited economic simulation asserting that shelter-in-place orders reduced total cases three-fold, however, held voluntary distancing constant.[39] Another study found a 30% difference among border-counties where stay-at-home orders were imposed.[40]

Another study that compared the impact of 'less restrictive interventions' on the spread of COVID-19 in Sweden and South Korea, with mandatory stay-at home orders in 8 other countries, such as France and Spain, did not find evidence for greater disease control in the countries with more restrictions.[41] However, the findings of the study have been questioned due to its numerous limitations, including the small sample size of countries.[42][43]

Some research has also found that an "advisory" approach is not adequate to control COVID-19 outbreaks. An analysis of an outbreak in northern Italy found that an effective reduction in community transmission occurred during a strict national lockdown, and that earlier less stringent measures were ineffective at reducing mobility to a level low enough to reduce the spread of COVID-19.[17]

Since the beginning of the pandemic, Google has consistently collected data on movements, showing rapid declines in public activity long before legal restrictions were imposed.[44] An April 2020 poll found that 93% of Americans voluntarily chose to only leave home when necessary, regardless of legal restrictions.[45]

Reception

A February 2021 review of 348 articles concluded there was acknowledgement of the importance of non-pharmaceutical interventions in controlling the spread of COVID-19.[6] However, current research also acknowledges high societal costs, though less than the costs of allowing the pandemic to spread without mitigation.[5][4][6][46]

Related to epidemiology

Epidemiological evidence supports generalized non-pharmaceutical interventions to curb the spread of COVID-19.[6][47][48][49]

During the early stages of the pandemic in Europe and the United States, statistical modeling which advised that restrictions were helpful to prevent a large number of deaths were used as the basis for lockdowns.[15] This includes an Imperial College projection, led by epidemiologist Neil Ferguson.[50] Despite some criticisms, academics defended the Imperial projection as fundamentally sound, while admitting the code was "a buggy mess."[51]

A notable opponent of lockdowns has included Sweden's state epidemiologist Anders Tegnell, who has frequently criticised the strategy.[52][53] The Swedish government's approach has included minimal restrictions and has been controversial in part due to the relatively high death toll due to widespread transmission.[54][55] However, the Swedish government began considering enacting a lockdown in early 2021.[56][57]

While arguing in August 2020 for the need for further lockdowns in the United States, physicians Ranu Dhillon and Abraar Karan argued for "smarter lockdowns" that impose restrictions on areas with high levels of transmission, and to increase support to vulnerable populations in these locations to offset the economic costs.[58]

A number of medical experts signed the Great Barrington Declaration in October 2020 which called for "Focused Protection" on high risk groups and minimal restrictions on the general population to achieve herd immunity through COVID-19 infection. However, the majority of medical experts and the WHO have strongly criticised this proposed strategy for its lack of scientific basis and for being unethical.[48][59][60] The declaration has also attracted controversy over its funding and the authenticity of its signatures.[47][61]

Related to social impacts

Some commentators have suggested that states' use of emergency powers to curb freedom of assembly and movement are authoritarian and may result in long-term democratic backsliding. Centralization of power by political leadership in Hungary, Poland, China and Cambodia in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have been cited as examples.[62][63][64]

Some researchers have noted that COVID-19 pandemic restrictions have come with mental health costs, compounded by those caused by the COVID-19 pandemic itself.[6][65][66][67][68]

Due to their closure, educational institutions worldwide transitioned to online learning. Teachers and faculty had to learn new ways to engage with students while in a COVID-19 pandemic. Examples of online teaching tools are podcasts, videos, and virtual classrooms.[69][better source needed]

UN Women warned in a April 2020 report that COVID-19 pandemic restrictions exacerbate gender inequalities and have led to an increase in domestic violence.[70] Many women are being forced to 'lockdown' at home with their abusers at the same time that services to support survivors are being disrupted or made inaccessible.[71] For instance, in France there was a spike in cases of about 30% since the lockdown in March 2020.[70]

Related to economic impacts

Some economists supported increased government funding for mitigation efforts, even at the cost of tolerating a very large economic contraction.[72] They agreed that lockdowns should continue until the threat of resurgence has declined, even when considering only the economic impact.[73] There was a general agreement, at least in some economic circles, that "severe lockdowns — including closing non-essential businesses and strict limitations on people's movement — are likely to be better for the economy in the medium term than less aggressive measures".[74]

Both the World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have published statements noting the impact of the lockdowns on livelihoods and food security, and Dr David Nabarro, WHO Special Envoy on COVID-19 stated in October 2020 that "lockdowns just have one consequence that you must never ever belittle, and that is making poor people an awful lot poorer".[75][76][77]

Protests

There have also been a number of protests worldwide in opposition to lockdowns, including in the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, the Netherlands, Canada and New Zealand. The motivations for and sizes of these protests have varied. Some have been spurred by the economic and social impacts of lockdowns, but have also been associated with misinformation related to the pandemic, conspiracy theories and anti-vaccination.[78][79]

Table of pandemic lockdowns

Country / territory Place First lockdown Second lockdown Third lockdown Fourth lockdown Fifth lockdown Sixth lockdown Seventh lockdown Eighth lockdown Total length (days) Level
Start date End date Length (days) Start date End date Length (days) Start date End date Length (days) Start date End date Length (days) Start date End date Length (days) Start date End date Length (days) Start date End date Length (days) Start date End date Length (days)
Albania 2020-03-13[80] 2020-06-01[81] 80 80 National
Algeria Algiers 2020-03-23[82] 2020-05-14[83] 52 52 City
Blida
Argentina Greater Buenos Aires 2020-03-19[84] 2020-11-08[85] 234 2021-05-22[86] 2021-05-30 9 2021-06-05[87] 2021-06-06 2 245 Metropolitan area
Rest of the country 2020-03-19[84] 2020-05-10[88] 52 2021-05-22[86] 2021-05-30 9 2021-06-05[87] 2021-06-06 2 63 National
Armenia 2020-03-24[89] 2020-05-04[90] 41 41 National
Australia Melbourne 2020-03-31[91] 2020-05-12[92][a] 43 2020-07-09[b][93][94] 2020-10-27[95] 111 2021-02-13[96] 2021-02-17[96] 5 2021-05-28[97] 2021-06-10[98] 14 2021-07-16[99] 2021-07-27[100] 12 2021-08-05[101] 2021-10-21[102] 78 263 Metropolitan area
Greater Shepparton 2020-03-31 2020-05-12[92] 43 2020-08-06[94] 2020-09-16[94] 41 2021-02-13[96] 2021-02-17[96] 5 2021-05-28 2021-06-03 7 2021-07-16[99] 2021-07-27[100] 12 2021-08-05[101] 2021-08-09 5 2021-08-21[103] 2021-09-15[104][105] 25 2021-10-02[106] 2021-10-09[107] 7 145 Local government area
Ballarat 2020-03-31 2020-05-12[92] 43 2020-08-06[94] 2020-09-16[94] 41 2021-02-13[96] 2021-02-17[96] 5 2021-05-28 2021-06-03 7 2021-07-16[99] 2021-07-27[100] 12 2021-08-05[101] 2021-08-09 5 2021-08-21[103] 2021-09-09[104][105] 20 2021-09-16[108] 2021-09-22[c][109][110] 7 140
Greater Geelong 2020-03-31 2020-05-12[92] 43 2020-08-06[94] 2020-09-16[94] 41 2021-02-13[96] 2021-02-17[96] 5 2021-05-28 2021-06-03 7 2021-07-16[99] 2021-07-27[100] 12 2021-08-05[101] 2021-08-09 5 2021-08-21[103] 2021-09-09[104][105] 20 2021-09-20[111] 2021-09-26[112] 7 140
Surf Coast Shire 2020-03-31 2020-05-12[92] 43 2020-08-06[94] 2020-09-16[94] 41 2021-02-13[96] 2021-02-17[96] 5 2021-05-28 2021-06-03 7 2021-07-16[99] 2021-07-27[100] 12 2021-08-05[101] 2021-08-09 5 2021-08-21[103] 2021-09-09[104][105] 20 2021-09-20[111] 2021-09-26[112] 7 140
Mitchell Shire 2020-03-31 2020-05-12[92] 43 2020-07-09[b][113] 2020-09-16[94] 70 2021-02-13[96] 2021-02-17[96] 5 2021-05-28 2021-06-03 7 2021-07-16[99] 2021-07-27[100] 12 2021-08-05[101] 2021-08-09 5 2021-08-21[103] 2021-09-09[104][105] 20 2021-09-20[111] 2021-10-13[d][114] 24 186
Mildura 2020-03-31 2020-05-12[92] 43 2020-08-06[94] 2020-09-16[94] 41 2021-02-13[96] 2021-02-17[96] 5 2021-05-28 2021-06-03 7 2021-07-16[99] 2021-07-27[100] 12 2021-08-05[101] 2021-08-09 5 2021-08-21[103] 2021-09-09[104][105] 20 2021-10-09[115] 2021-10-22[116] 14 147
Latrobe Valley 2020-03-31 2020-05-12[92] 43 2020-08-06[94] 2020-09-16[94] 41 2021-02-13[96] 2021-02-17[96] 5 2021-05-28 2021-06-03 7 2021-07-16[99] 2021-07-27[100] 12 2021-08-05[101] 2021-08-09 5 2021-08-21[103] 2021-09-09[104][105] 20 2021-09-29[117] 2021-10-06[118] 7 140 Region
Rest of regional Victoria[e] 2020-03-31 2020-05-12[92] 43 2020-08-06[94] 2020-09-16[94] 41 2021-02-13[96] 2021-02-17[96] 5 2021-05-28 2021-06-03 7 2021-07-16[99] 2021-07-27[100] 12 2021-08-05[101] 2021-08-09 5 2021-08-21[103] 2021-09-09[104][105] 20 133 State
South Australia 2020-11-19[119] 2020-11-22[120] 3 2021-07-21[121] 2021-07-27 7 62
Southern Tasmania 2021-10-16[122] 2021-10-19 3 55
Northern Beaches (NSW) 2020-12-19[123] 2021-01-10[124] 22 2021-06-26 2021-10-11[f][125] 107 181 Local government area
Brisbane 2021-01-08[126] 2021-01-11[126] 3 2021-03-29[127] 2021-04-01[128] 3 2021-06-29[129] 2021-07-03 4 2021-07-31[130] 2021-08-08[131] 8 67 Metropolitan area
Perth 2021-01-31[132] 2021-02-05[132] 5 2021-04-23[133] 2021-04-26[133] 3 2021-06-28[134] 2021-07-02[134] 4 61 Metropolitan area
Peel 2021-01-31[132] 2021-02-05[132] 5 2021-04-23[133] 2021-04-26[133] 3 2021-06-28 2021-07-02 4 61 Region
South West 2021-01-31[132] 2021-02-05[132] 5 57
Illawarra 2021-06-26[135] 2021-10-11[g][136][137][125] 107 159
Greater Sydney 2021-06-26[135] 2021-10-11[h][136][137][125] 107 159 Metropolitan area
Darwin 2021-06-27[138] 2021-07-02[139] 5 2021-08-16 2021-08-19 3 57 Metropolitan area
South East Queensland 2021-06-29[129] 2021-07-02 3 2021-07-31 2021-08-08 8 63 Region
Townsville 2021-06-29[129] 2021-07-02 3 2021-07-31 2021-08-08 8 63 Metropolitan area
Alice Springs 2021-06-30 [140] 2021-07-03 3 55 Metropolitan area
Central West 2021-07-20[141] 2021-07-27[141] 7 2021-08-14 2021-10-11[i][142] 58 117 Region
Hunter Region 2021-08-05[143][144] 2021-10-11[j][142] 67 119
Upper Hunter 2021-08-05[143] 2021-09-16[k][142][145] 42 94
Muswellbrook 2021-08-05[143] 2021-09-16[l][142][145] 42 2021-09-28[146] 2021-10-11[m] 13 107 Local government area
Armidale 2021-08-07[147] 2021-09-10[148] 34 87
Cairns Region 2021-08-08[149] 2021-08-11[150] 3 55 Region
Yarrabah 2021-08-08[149] 2021-08-11[150] 3 55 Local government area
Richmond Valley 2021-08-09[151] 2021-09-10[142][152] 32 84
Lismore 2021-08-09[151] 2021-09-10[142][148] 32 2021-09-16[145] 2021-09-23 7 2021-10-03[153] 2021-10-11 8 99
Byron Shire 2021-08-09[151] 2021-09-10[142][152] 32 2021-09-21[154] 2021-09-28 7 91
Ballina 2021-08-09[151] 2021-09-10[142][152] 32 84
Tamworth 2021-08-09[155] 2021-09-10[142][152][148] 32 84
Dubbo 2021-08-11[156] 2021-10-11[n][142][148] 61 113
Australian Capital Territory 2021-08-12[157] 2021-10-15[158] 61 114 Territory
Regional NSW[o] 2021-08-14[159] 2021-09-10[142][148] 28 81 Region
Mid-Coast 2021-08-14[159] 2021-09-10[142][148][160] 28 81 Local government area
South Coast[p] 2021-08-14[159] 2021-10-11[q][142][148] 57 109 Region
Bega Valley 2021-08-14[159] 2021-09-16[r][142][148][161] 33 85 Local government area
Goulburn–Mulwaree 2021-08-14[159] 2021-10-11[s][142][148] 57 109
Snowy Monaro 2021-08-14[159] 2021-09-16[t][142][148][161] 33 2021-09-30[162] 2021-10-11[163] 11 96
Yass Valley 2021-08-14[159] 2021-09-10[148] 28 2021-09-14[164] 2021-09-27 14 94
Albury (NSW) 2021-08-14[159] 2021-09-10[142][148] 28 2021-09-16[145] 2021-09-23 7 87
Cowra 2021-08-14[159] 2021-09-10[142][148] 28 2021-09-20[165] 2021-10-05[166] 14 94
Glen Innes Severn (NSW) 2021-08-14[159] 2021-09-10[142][148] 28 2021-09-17[167] 2021-09-24 7 87
Hilltops (NSW) 2021-08-14[159] 2021-09-10[142][148] 28 2021-09-17[167] 2021-10-01[168] 14 94
Port Macquarie-Hastings 2021-08-14[159] 2021-09-10[142][148] 28 2021-09-28[146] 2021-10-05 7 87
Oberon 2021-08-14[159] 2021-09-10[142][148] 28 2021-09-29[169] 2021-10-11[163] 12 92
Gunnedah 2021-08-14[159] 2021-09-10[142][148] 28 2021-10-05[170] 2021-10-11 6 86
Casino 2021-08-14[159] 2021-09-10[142][148] 28 2021-10-02[171] 2021-10-11 9 89 Town
Rest of the country[u] 2020-03-23[172] 2020-05-15[173] 52 52 National
Austria 2020-03-16[174] 2020-04-13[175] 28 2020-11-03[176] 2020-11-30[176] 27 2020-12-26[177] 2021-02-07[178] 43 2021-11-22[179] 2021-12-11[180] 20 118
Azerbaijan 2020-03-31[181] 2020-08-30[181] 152 152
Bangladesh 2020-03-26[182] 2020-05-16[183] 51 2021-04-05[184] 2021-07-14[185] 100 2021-07-23[186] 2021-08-10[187] 18 169
Barbados 2020-03-28[188] 2020-05-03[188] 36 36
Belgium 2020-03-18[189] 2020-05-04 [190] 47 2020-11-02[191] 2020-12-14[191] 42 2021-03-27[192] 2021-04-26[193] 30 119
Bermuda 2020-04-04[188] 2020-05-02[194] 28 28
Bhutan 2020-08-11[195] 2020-09-01[196] 21 21
Bolivia 2020-03-22[197] 2020-07-31[198] 131 131
Botswana 2020-04-02[199] 2020-04-30[199] 28 28
Brazil Santa Catarina 2020-03-17[200] 2020-04-07[200] 21 21 State
São Paulo 2020-03-24[201] 2020-05-10[202] 47 47
Bulgaria 2020-03-13[v][206][207] 2020-06-15[w][209][210] 94 2020-11-28 (de facto)[x][212] 2021-01-31[y][212][213] 65 2021-03-22[z][215] 2021-03-31 10 169 National
Cambodia Phnom Penh 2021-04-15[216] 2021-05-05[217] 21 21 Municipality
Ta Khmau
Canada British Columbia 2020-03-18[218] 2020-05-18[219] 61 2020-11-07[220] 2021-01-08[220] 62 123 Province
Ontario 2020-03-17[221][222] 2020-05-14 58 2021-04-03[223] 2021-05-01 28 86
Ontario - South 2020-12-26[224] 2021-01-23[224] 28 2021-04-08[225] 2021-06-02[225] 55 83 Region
Ontario - North 2020-12-26[224] 2021-01-09[224] 14 14
Quebec 2020-03-18 2020-05-04 47 2020-12-25[226] 2021-01-11[226] 18[226] 65 Province
Colombia 2020-03-25[227] 2020-06-30[228] 97 97 National
Congo 2020-03-31[229] 2020-04-20[229] 20 20
Costa Rica 2020-03-23[230] 2020-05-01[231] 39 39
Croatia 2020-03-18[232] 2020-05-11 32 2020-12-22[233] 2020-12-29[234] 7 39
Cyprus 2020-03-24[235] 2020-04-13[235] 20 2021-01-10[236] 2021-01-31[236] 21 2021-04-26[237] 2021-05-09[237] 13 54
Czech Republic 2020-03-16[174] 2020-04-12[238] 27 2020-10-22[239] 2021-03-28[239] 174 201
Denmark 2020-03-12[240] 2020-04-13[241] 33 2020-12-25[242] 2021-03-01[243] 66 99
Ecuador 2020-03-16[244] 2020-03-31[244] 15 15
El Salvador 2020-03-12[245] 2020-04-02[245] 21 21
Eritrea 2020-04-02[246] 2020-04-23[246] 21 21
Estonia 2021-03-11[247] 2021-04-11[247] 31 31 National
Fiji Lautoka 2020-03-20[248] 2020-04-07[249] 18 2021-04-19 18 City
Suva 2020-04-03[250] 2020-04-17[251] 14 14
France Nationwide 2020-03-17[252] 2020-05-11[253] 55 2020-10-30[254] 2020-12-15[255] 46 2021-04-04[256] 2021-05-03[256] 29 130 National
Paris 2021-03-19[257] 2021-04-18 30 131 Region
Finland 2021-03-08[258] 2021-03-28[258] 20 20 National
Georgia 2020-03-31[259] 2020-04-21[259] 21 21
Germany different regionally 2020-03-16[aa][261] 2020-05-30[262][263]
to 2020-05-11[264]
76 2020-11-02[265] 2021-03-01 to 2021-06-11[266][267] 119 to 222 179 to 298
Berchtesgadener Land 2020-10-20[268] 2020-11-03[269] 14 43 to 64 District
Ghana Accra 2020-03-30[270] 2020-04-12[271] 13 13 Metropolitan area
Kumasi
Greece Nationwide 2020-03-23[272] 2020-05-04[273] 42 2020-11-07[274] 2021-03-22[275] 135 177 National
Thessaloniki 2020-11-03[276] 139 181 Regional unit
Serres
Guernsey 2020-03-25[277] 2020-06-20[278] 87 2021-01-23[279] 2021-02-22[280] 30 117 National
Honduras 2020-03-20[281] 2020-05-17[282] 58 58
Hungary 2020-03-28[283] 2020-04-10[283] 13 13
India Nationwide 2020-03-25[284] 2020-06-07[285] 74 74
Bengaluru 2021-04-27[286] 2021-05-09 12 12 Region
Delhi 2021-04-19[287] 2021-05-31[288] 42 42 Region
Haryana 2021-05-03[289] 2021-05-10 7 7 State
Maharashtra 2021-04-14[290] 2021-06-15[291] 62 62 State
Odisha 2021-05-05[292] 2021-05-19 14 14 State
Rajasthan 2021-05-10[293] 2021-06-08[294] 29 29 State
Uttar Pradesh 2021-04-30[295] 2021-05-10[296] 10 10 State
Iran 2020-03-14[297] 2020-04-20[298] 37 2021-04-14[299] 2021-04-24 14 47 National
Iraq 2020-03-22[300] 2020-04-11[301] 20 20
Ireland All 26 counties 2020-03-12[ab][302][303] 2020-05-18[304] 67 2020-10-21[305] 2020-12-01[306] 41 2020-12-24[ac][307] 2021-04-12[308] 119 227
Kildare 2020-08-07[309][310] 2020-08-31[311] 24 24 Regional
Laois 2020-08-21[312] 14 14
Offaly
Israel Bnei Brak 2020-04-02[313] 2020-04-16[314] 14 30 42 86 City
Nationwide 2020-09-18[315] 2020-10-18[316] 2020-12-27[317] 2021-02-07[318] 72 National
Italy Nationwide 2020-03-09[ad][319] 2020-05-18[320] 70 2020-12-24[321][ae] 2021-01-06[321] 13 2021-03-15[322] 2021-04-30 46 129 National
Lombardy 2020-11-06[323] 2020-12-03[324] 27 2021-01-17 [325] 2021-01-30 13 110 Region
Piedmont 2020-11-06[323] 2020-12-03[324] 97
Aosta Valley 2020-11-06[323] 2020-12-03[324]
Calabria 2020-11-06[323] 2020-12-03[324]
Sicily 2021-01-17[325] 2021-01-30 13 83
Province of Bolzano 2021-01-17 [325] 2021-01-30 Province
Jamaica Saint Catherine 2020-04-15[326] 2020-04-22[326] 7 7 Parish
Jordan 2020-03-18[327] 2020-04-30[328] 43 2020-11-10[329] 2020-11-15[329] 5 48 National
Kosovo 2020-03-14[330] 2020-05-04 [331] 51 51
Kuwait 2020-05-10[332] 2020-05-31[332] 21 21
Lebanon 2020-03-15[333] 2020-03-28[333] 13 2020-11-14[334] 2020-11-28 14 27
Libya 2020-03-22[335] 2020-06-27[336] 97 97
Lithuania 2020-03-16[337] 2020-06-18[338] 94 2020-11-07[339] 2020-11-28 21 115
Madagascar Antananarivo 2020-03-23[340] 2020-04-20[341] 28 28 City
Toamasina
Malaysia 2020-03-18[342] 2020-06-09[343] 83 2021-01-13 2021-02-10 28 2021-06-01[344] 2021-08-16[345] 76 187 National
Mexico Nationwide 2020-03-23[346] 2020-06-01[346] 70 70
Chihuahua 2020-10-23[347] 2020-12-06 44 114 State
Durango 2020-11-03[348] 2020-12-06 33 103
Baja California 2020-12-07 70
Mexico City 2020-12-19[349] 70
State of Mexico 2020-12-19[349] 70
Morelos 2021-01-04 70
Guanajuato 2021-01-04 70
Mongolia 2020-03-10[350] 2020-03-16[350] 6 2020-11-17[351] 2020-12-01 15 21 National
Montenegro Tuzi 2020-03-24[352] 2020-05-05[353] 42 42 Municipality
Morocco 2020-03-19[354] 2020-06-10[355] 83 83 National
Flag of Myanmar.svg
Myanmar
Yangon 2020-04-18[356] 2020-07-01[357] 74 2020-09-01[358] 2021-04-10[359] 220 2021-07-08[360] 2021-10-27[361] 111 405 City
Namibia 2020-03-27[af][362] 2020-05-04[363] 38 38
Nepal Nepal Nationwide 2020-03-24[364] 2020-07-21[365] 120 120
Kathmandu 2020-08-20[366] 2020-09-09[366] 21 141 City
Netherlands 2020-03-15[367] 2020-04-06[367] 22 2020-12-15[368] 2021-06-05[369] 172 2021-12-19[370] 2022-01-14[371] 26 220 National
New Zealand Nationwide 2020-03-23[372][373] 2020-05-13[374] 52 2021-08-18[372] 2021-09-07[372] 21 73 National
Auckland 2020-08-12[375] 2020-08-30[372] 19 2021-02-14[376] 2021-02-17[376] 3 2021-02-28[372] 2021-03-07[372] 7 2021-08-18[372] 2021-11-29(TBC)[377] 104 185 Region
Nigeria Abuja 2020-03-30[378] 2020-04-12[378] 13 13 City
Lagos
Ogun State
Northern Cyprus 2020-03-30[379] 2020-05-04[380] 35 35 National
North Korea Nationwide 2022-05-12[381] not set not set National
Kaesong 2020-07-25[382] 2020-08-14[383] 20 20 City
Oman Muscat 2020-04-10[384] 2020-05-29[385] 49 49 Governorate
Jalan Bani Bu Ali 2020-04-16[386] 2020-05-29[387] 43 43 Province
Pakistan 2020-03-24[388] 2020-05-09[389] 46 2021-05-08[390] 2021-05-18 10 46 National
Panama 2020-03-25[391] 2020-05-31
(downgraded to a night and weekend curfew)[392]
67 67
Papua New Guinea 2020-03-24[393] 2020-04-07[393] 14 14
Paraguay 2020-03-20[394] 2020-05-03[395] 44 44
Peru 2020-03-16[396] 2020-06-30[397] 106 106
Philippines Cebu 2020-03-27[398] 2020-05-15[ag][399]
to 2020-05-31[ah][400]
49 to 65 49 to 65 Province
Davao Region 2020-03-19[401] 2020-05-15[399] 57 57 Region
Luzon 2020-03-15[ai][402] 2020-04-30[aj][403]
to 2020-05-15[ak][404]
to 2020-05-31[ah][400]
46 to 61 to 77 2020-08-04[405][al] 2020-08-18[405][al] 15 2021-01-25 2021-02-15 21 2021-03-29 2021-11-15 231 61 to 92 Island group
Soccsksargen 2020-03-23[401] 2020-05-15[406] 53 53 Region
Poland 2020-03-13[407] 2020-04-11[408] 29 2020-12-28[409] 2021-01-17[409] 20 2021-03-20[410] 2021-04-25[411] 36 85 National
Portugal 2020-03-19[412] 2020-04-02[408] 14 2021-01-15[413] 2021-03-15[414] 59 73
Qatar Doha Industrial Area 2020-03-11[415] 2020-06-15[416] 96 96 Industrial park
Romania 2020-03-25[417] 2020-05-12[418] 48 48 National
Russia Moscow 2020-03-30[419] 2020-05-12[420][421] 43 2021-10-28[422] 2021-11-04 7 50 Metropolitan area
Rest of the country[am] 2020-03-28[423] 2020-04-30[423] 33 33 National
Rwanda 2020-03-21[424] 2020-04-19[425] 29 29
Samoa 2020-03-26[426] 2020-04-08[427] 13 13
San Marino 2020-03-14[428] 2020-05-05[429] 52 52
Saudi Arabia Jeddah 2020-03-29[430] 2020-06-21[431] 84 84 City
Mecca 2020-03-26[430] 87 87
Medina
Qatif 2020-03-09[432] 104 104 Area
Riyadh 2020-03-26[430] 87 87 City
Serbia 2020-03-15[408] 2020-04-21[433]
to 2020-05-04[434]
37 to 50 37 to 50 National
Singapore 2020-04-07[435] 2020-06-01[436] 56 2021-05-16[437] 2021-06-13 28 2021-07-22 2021-08-09 18 2021-09-27 2021-11-21

[438]

56 158
South Africa 2020-03-26[439] 2020-04-30[440] 35 2020-12-28 2021-01-15 18 2021-06-28 2021-07-25 27 80
Spain 2020-03-14[441] 2020-05-09[442] 56 56
Sri Lanka 2020-03-18[443] 2020-06-21[444] 95 2021-08-20[445] 2021-10-01[446] 42 137
Switzerland 2020-03-17[447] 2020-04-27[448] 41 2021-01-18[449] 2021-03-01[450] 42 83
Thailand 2020-03-25[451] 2020-05-31[452] 67 67
Trinidad and Tobago 2020-03-17[453] 2020-03-31[453] 14 14
Tunisia 2020-03-22[454] 2020-04-19[455] 28 28
Turkey 2020-04-23[456] 2020-04-27[456] 4 4 Only in 30 metropolitan cities and Zonguldak.
Nationwide 2021-04-29[457] 2021-05-17[457] 18 18 National
Ukraine 2020-03-17[408] 2020-04-24[408] 38 38
United Arab Emirates 2020-03-26[458] 2020-04-17[459] 22 22
United Kingdom England 2020-03-23[460] 2020-07-04[461] 103 2020-11-05[462] 2020-12-02[462] 27 2021-01-05[463] 2021-03-28[464][an] 83 213
Scotland 2020-06-29[465] 98 2020-12-26[466] 2021-04-02[467] 97 195
Northern Ireland 2020-07-03[468] 102 2020-11-27[469] 2020-12-11[469] 14 2020-12-26[470] 2021-04-12[471] 107 223 Country
Wales 2020-07-13[472] 112 2020-10-23[473] 2020-11-09[473] 17 2020-12-20[474] 2021-03-13[475][476][ao] 83 212
North West 2020-12-31[477] 2021-03-29 88 88 Region
North East 2020-12-31[477] 2021-03-29 88 88
East Midlands 2020-12-31[477] 2021-03-29 88 88
West Midlands 2020-12-31[477] 2021-03-29 88 88
Norfolk 2020-12-26[478] 2021-03-29 93 93 County
Suffolk 2020-12-26[479] 2021-03-29 93 93
Cambridgeshire 2020-12-26[480] 2021-03-29 93 93
Essex 2020-12-26[481] 2021-03-29 93 93
London area 2020-12-20[482] 2021-03-29 99 99 City
Kent & South East 2020-12-20[482] 2021-03-29 99 99 Region
Leicester 2020-06-30[483] 2020-07-24[484] 24 24 County
Glasgow 2020-11-20[485] 2020-12-11[485] 21 21
East Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire
East Dunbartonshire
West Dunbartonshire
North Lanarkshire
South Lanarkshire
East Ayrshire
South Ayrshire
West Lothian
Stirling
United States California 2020-03-19[486] 2021-06-15[487] 453 110 State
Connecticut 2020-03-23[488] 2020-04-22[489] 30 30 State
Illinois 2020-03-21[490] 2020-05-30[491] 70 70
Kansas City in Kansas 2020-03-24[492] 2020-04-19[493] 26 26 City
Massachusetts 2020-03-24[494] 2020-05-04[494] 41 41 State
Michigan 2020-03-24[495] 2020-04-13[489] 20 20
New York 2020-03-22[496] 2020-06-13[497] 83 83
Oregon 2020-03-24[498] 2020-05-15[499] 53 53
Wisconsin 2020-03-24[500] 2020-05-13[501] 50 50
Venezuela 2020-03-17[502] 2020-05-13 57 57 National
Vietnam Nationwide 2020-04-01[503] 2020-04-22[504] 21 21
Da Nang 2020-07-28[505] 2020-09-05[506] 39 60 City
Hai Duong 2021-02-16[507] 2021-03-02 14 35 Province, Chi Linh city lockdown began from 28 January.
Bac Ninh 2021-05-18[508][509] 23 23 4 districts and 1 city
Bac Giang 2021-05-18[510][511] 23 6 districts
Zimbabwe 2020-03-30[512] 2020-05-02[513] 33 33 National
Outbreak ongoing: Lockdown data as of 29 June 2022

Notes

  1. ^ Restrictions were further eased on the 1st of June 2021, however during the time between then and the 12th of May 2021, "Stay at home orders" were not active and hence this period didn't constitute what is internationally considered a "lockdown".
  2. ^ a b Stage 3 lockdown imposed on 8 July; Stage 4 lockdown imposed on 2 August 2020
  3. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  4. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  5. ^ All of Victoria except Melbourne, Greater Shepparton, Ballarat, Greater Geelong, Surf Coast Shire and Mitchell Shire
  6. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  7. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  8. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  9. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  10. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  11. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  12. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  13. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  14. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  15. ^ Applies for all others Regional NSW outside Greater Sydney, Hunter Region, Dubbo, Central West, South Coast, Goulburn, Queanbeyan-Palerang and Snowy Monaro
  16. ^ Applies for all South Coast except Bega Valley after 16/09/2021
  17. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  18. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  19. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  20. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  21. ^ Applies for further measures in each Australian state and territory
  22. ^ Initially to last until 13 April 2020, included closures of universities, schools, restaurants and other establishments, a ban on mass gatherings, suspension of sports competitions for more than two months, certain temporary restrictions on the free movement of citizens, but no strict "Stay at home order".[203] A number of lockdown measures were already eased or lifted in April[204] and May 2020.[205]
  23. ^ Depending on the strictness of the definition for a lockdown; some sources such as Politico Europe consider it to have ended by 9 May, with a total duration of 57 days.[208]
  24. ^ Closures of all educational institutions, restaurants and other establishments, a ban on most cultural events, all excursions and forms of group tourism, children forbidden to participate in organized sports events, no "Stay at home order", described as a "soft" or "partial" lockdown and officially entered into force at 23:30 on 27 November.[211]
  25. ^ The lockdown was initially to end on 21 December 2020, but was subsequently extended until 31 January 2021, though with a few of the restrictions relaxed, such as children in kindergartens and in grades 1-4 being able to attend in-person classes from January 2021.
  26. ^ Preceded by some measures on the regional level, no "Stay at home order".[214]
  27. ^ Lockdown was started in Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria on 20 March 2020. Two days later, it was expanded to the whole of Germany[260]
  28. ^ A national stay-at-home order was officially declared on 27 March
  29. ^ A full third lockdown was declared from 30 December and was repeatedly extended.
  30. ^ Lockdown was first started in Northern Italy on 8 March 2020, then expanded to the rest of Italy the following day
  31. ^ The lockdown was suspended on 28, 29, 30 December 2020 and 4 January 2021
  32. ^ Lockdown was started in the regions of Erongo and Khomas but effectively enforced countrywide. On 14 April the lockdown was extended to 4 May and to all of Namibia.
  33. ^ Except in Cebu City only where it was extended to 16 days
  34. ^ a b Lockdown was extended to areas under high risk COVID-19 zones
  35. ^ Lockdown was started in Metro Manila, but expanded to the rest of Luzon two days later, 17 March 2020
  36. ^ In most Luzon areas only, except Metro Manila and selected areas of Luzon are on high risk COVID-19 zones
  37. ^ Lockdown was extended to Metro Manila and remaining areas of Luzon
  38. ^ a b Metro Manila, Bulacan, Cavite and Rizal only.
  39. ^ Applies for mandatory holidays and further measures in each Russian region
  40. ^ England has followed an incremental easing of restrictions since 8 March 2021. Most lockdown restrictions were lifted between March and June, July 19 is the date set for the expiry of most legal restrictions in England. Although some sources describe this date as the "end" of lockdown, March 28 was the date in which the "stay at home orders" were ended. This fits the most internationally accepted definition of what constitutes a lockdown.
  41. ^ Most lockdown restrictions were lifted between March and June. March 13 was the date in which the "stay at home orders" were ended. This fits the most internationally accepted definition of what constitutes a lockdown.


In the table pandemic lockdowns are defined as the shutdown of parts of the economy,[514] due to non-pharmaceutical anti-pandemic measures and are enforceable by law like:

These measures are considered to have caused the COVID-19 recession in 2020.[515] The table does not contain:

The pandemic has resulted in the largest number of shutdowns/lockdowns worldwide at the same time in history.[citation needed]. By 26 March, 1.7 billion people worldwide were under some form of lockdown,[516] which increased to 3.9 billion people by the first week of April – more than half of the world's population.[517][518]

Major restrictions first began in China,[519] with other countries in East Asia like Vietnam soon following it in implementing widespread containment measures. Much of Europe, North America and Africa took much longer to bring in tough measures. Lockdowns between and within nations are of varying stringency.[520]

By mid April, nearly 300 million people, or about 90 per cent of the population, were under some form of lockdown in the United States,[521] with around 100 million in the Philippines[522] and about 59 million in South Africa,[523] while around 1.3 billion were under lockdown in India, which was the largest of all lockdowns.[524][525]

By the end of April, around 300 million people were under lockdown in various countries of Europe, including but not limited to Italy, Spain, France, and the United Kingdom; while around 200 million people were under lockdown in Latin America.[522]

Variation by countries and territories

A drive through COVID-19 testing site in South Korea in February 2020. South Korea did not implement any lockdown measures; its K-Quarantine strategy included rapidly developing mass testing capacity and infrastructure.

Countries and territories around the world have enforced lockdowns of varying stringency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Some include total movement control while others have enforced restrictions based on time. In many cases, only essential businesses are allowed to remain open. Schools, universities and colleges have closed either on a nationwide or local basis in 63 countries, affecting approximately 47 percent of the world's student population.[526][527]

Beginning with the first lockdown in China's Hubei province[528] and nationwide in Italy in March, lockdowns continued to be implemented in many countries throughout 2020 and 2021. On 24 March 2020, the entire 1.3 billion population of India was ordered to stay at home during its lockdown, making it the largest of the pandemic.[529] The world's longest continuous lockdown lasting 234 days took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 2020. As of October 2021, the city of Melbourne, Australia, and certain cities in Peru and Chile spent the most cumulative days in lockdown over separate periods, although measures varied between these countries.[530][531]

A few countries and territories did not use the strategy, including Japan, Belarus, Sweden, South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Tanzania, two states in Brazil and certain United States states.

See also

Notes

References

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