2023 Spanish government formation

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

2023 Spanish government formation
Pedro Sánchez receiving applause from his party and cabinet after his successful investiture as prime minister on 16 November 2023.
Date24 July 2023 – 16 November 2023
LocationSpain
CauseHung parliament following the 2023 general election
Participants
Outcome

Attempts to form a government in Spain followed the Spanish general election of 23 July 2023, which failed to deliver an overall majority for any political party. As a result, the previous cabinet headed by Pedro Sánchez was forced to remain in a caretaker capacity until the election of a new government.

The election failed to provide a majority for either the left-wing bloc, comprising the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and Sumar, with the support of the Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), EH Bildu, the Basque Nationalist Party (PNV), and the Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG), or the right-wing bloc, comprising the People's Party (PP), Vox, the Navarrese People's Union (UPN), and Canarian Coalition (CCa). As a result, Together for Catalonia (Junts) was left as the kingmaker in negotiations. The unexpectedly good result for Sánchez's PSOE and the underperformance of the PP-led right-wing bloc triggered speculation over the future of PP leader Alberto Núñez Feijóo.

Following weeks of political tensions, which saw Sánchez accepting an amnesty law for Catalan separatist politicians convicted or investigated for events related to the 2017–2018 Spanish constitutional crisis and the 2019–2020 Catalan protests, he was able to secure the support of Sumar, ERC, Junts, EH Bildu, PNV, BNG and CCa to be re-elected as prime minister by an absolute majority on 16 November 2023; the first time since 2011 that a repeat election was not needed, as well as the first time since that date that a candidate was elected in the first ballot of investiture. Sánchez's re-election and amnesty law proposal sparked protests.

The procedure for government formation in Spain was outlined in Article 99 of the 1978 Constitution:

1. After renewal of the Congress of Deputies, and in other cases provided under the Constitution, the King, after consultation with the representatives appointed by the political groups with Parliamentary representation, and through the Speaker of Congress, shall nominate a candidate for President of the Government.
2. The candidate nominate [sic] in accordance with the provisions of the foregoing paragraph shall submit to the Congress of Deputies the political programme of the Government that he intends to form and shall seek the confidence of the Houses.
3. If the Congress of Deputies, by vote of the absolute majority of its members, invests said candidate with its confidence, the King shall appoint him President. If an absolute majority is not obtained, the same proposal shall be submitted for a new vote forty-eight hours after the previous vote, and it shall be considered that confidence has been secured if it passes by a simple majority.
4. If, after this vote, confidence for the investiture has not been obtained, successive proposals shall be voted upon in the manner provided in the foregoing paragraphs.
5. If within two months after the first vote for investiture no candidate has obtained the confidence of Congress, the King shall dissolve Congress and call new elections, following endorsement by the Speaker of Congress.

— Article 99 of the Spanish Constitution.[1]

Post-2023 election developments

Initial positions

Congress of Deputies resulting from the 23 July 2023 general election

Ahead of the election, opinion polls predicted a majority for the People's Party (PP) and Vox. When this failed to materialize,[2][3] both the PP and the ruling Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) claimed the right to form a government.[4][5][6] The possible outcomes discussed following the election were:[7]

The Canarian Coalition (CCa) was seen as a possible part of either bloc, depending on negotiations. Other possible solutions, such as a grand coalition or the abstention of PP or PSOE in the other's investiture, were seen as unfeasible. As a result, Together for Catalonia (Junts), led by the fugitive former Catalan president Carles Puigdemont, was widely regarded as the kingmaker, with both blocs needing their seven seats to form a government, likely in exchange for further concessions on Catalan independence.[8][9][10] Míriam Nogueras, the Congress spokeswoman for Junts, said that her party "was not born to stabilise the Spanish State, but so that Catalonia may be an independent country", adding that her party's vote for Sánchez's investiture would not be given for free.[11]

Feijóo acknowledged his difficulty in forming a parliamentary majority, but expressed his intention to seek investiture nonetheless if tasked by the King to form a government.[12][13][14] Having previously called for an end to sanchismo (a derogatory reference to Sánchez's government work), the PP then asked PSOE to allow Feijóo's investiture, as they had done for Mariano Rajoy during the previous government formation process in 2016.[15][16] PSOE promptly rejected this request as impossible after "years of insults", and described it as an attempt by Feijóo to "cover up his failure" by pretending he could command sufficient support for his investiture.[17] Feijóo warned of the breakup of Spain if Sánchez was confirmed as prime minister with the support of pro-independence parties.[18]

On 24 July, CCa spokeswoman Ana Oramas expressed her party's refusal to support a "ghost government" of Feijóo, stating that "there is no possibility that Feijóo will be prime minister".[19] This rejection was echoed hours later by Andoni Ortuzar, the president of the PNV, which refused even to enter talks with the PP.[20] Vox stated on 26 July that they could enable Feijóo's investiture "if he could convince a couple of PSOE's deputies" to vote for him, while warning that they would not give the "patriotic vote" of their 33 deputies for free.[21][22] On 25 July, Arnaldo Otegi, the leader of EH Bildu, announced that his party's six deputies would vote for Sánchez and the PSOE during the investiture vote.[23] ERC said it was favourable to Sánchez's investiture, pending a vote among its membership,[24] while the BNG announced it could vote for Sánchez to avoid a right-wing government, but without granting him a "blank cheque".[25]

Feijóo's unlikely alliance

The PP's result in the election—well below expectations of reaching above 150 or 160 seats—triggered criticism of Feijóo's performance as party leader.[26][27][28] During election night, party supporters interrupted Feijóo's hastily reworked victory speech with chants of "Ayuso, Ayuso!", in reference to Isabel Díaz Ayuso, the Madrilenian president, who some within the party and the Spanish right-wing saw as a possible successor as PP leader.[29]

PP leader Feijóo attempted unsuccessfully to convince Sánchez's PSOE to allow him to govern as the candidate of "the most voted political force" (pictured, both men in April 2022).

Former Madrilenian president Esperanza Aguirre said during an interview that the election result was attributable to Feijóo's strategy of "seeking to reach out to the PSOE rather than governing with Vox", and commented that Ayuso was the future of the party and of Spain.[30] Ayuso herself acknowledged on 26 July that she had received messages asking her "to take a step forward", but said she was not thinking of challenging Feijóo for the party leadership. "It cannot be that on Thursday we are giving him our support and applauding him [at a rally], and now throwing him off a bridge", she said.[31][32][33] However, she warned Feijóo against seeking an agreement with the PSOE to allow his investiture, commenting that "You cannot reach a deal with the disaster."[34] On 27 July, party secretary-general Cuca Gamarra criticized Aguirre's remarks as outside the party's unity and discourse.[35]

Some commentators voiced doubts over whether Feijóo would be willing or able to remain in opposition in the event that Sánchez was able to secure a second term in office.[36][37] Following the counting of the expat vote, one seat in Madrid was flipped from PSOE to PP, meaning that Sánchez's investiture would require an affirmative vote from Junts, not just an abstention. The PP then U-turned on its previous hardline stance towards Junts on 29 July, expressing willingness to engage in talks with Puigdemont's party "within the Constitution's framework" in order to invest Feijóo as prime minister,[38][39] though this was later ruled out by Gamarra.[40] That same day, Puigdemont tweeted that his party would not be convinced by "political blackmail", and saw only three possibilities out of the deadlock: Junts voting in favour of Sánchez, the PSOE allowing Feijóo's investiture, or a repeat election.[41] Sánchez and the PSOE were said to be in no hurry to secure his investiture, instead allowing Junts time to "reflect" on their options as Feijóo exhausted himself looking for support ahead of a failed investiture.[42][43]

On 30 July, Feijóo sent an official letter to Sánchez, softening the tone his party had maintained against Sánchez's government for years, and asking for a meeting the following week to negotiate a solution that allowed the party with the most votes to govern.[44][45] Sánchez wrote back the same day noting that, in a parliamentary democracy, it is whoever secures the most support in Congress, and not the most votes, who is entitled to govern, and reminding Feijóo of the multiple PP–Vox agreements reached in previous years throughout Spain in which the PP did not finish in first place. Sánchez said he would wait until the Congress convened for the new parliamentary term on 17 August, and the King nominated a candidate for investiture, before meeting Feijóo, "as well as the rest of spokespersons of the parliamentary groups with representation in the chamber".[46][47]

By 31 July, Feijóo's successful investiture became increasingly unfeasible. CCa, until then considered as a likely Feijóo ally, expressed its willingness to negotiate an investiture agreement with Sánchez, on the grounds that, while it rejected any government that included either Sumar or Vox, it felt closer to Yolanda Díaz's party than to Santiago Abascal's.[48][49] Javier Esparza, the leader of UPN, the only party which up to that point had pledged its support to Feijóo,[50] acknowledged that, while it was legitimate for Feijóo to continue seeking support for his investiture, it was unlikely for him to be elected prime minister "in any of the scenarios", and said Feijóo could not "keep fooling people".[51] The same day, Vox attacked Feijóo, blaming him for the failure to win a right-wing majority in the election and accusing him of "deceiving all Spaniards". The party's secretary-general Jorge Buxadé said that "Feijóo spent the campaign talking about how he was close to an absolute majority, encouraged by his own rigged opinion polls".[52] This came after it was revealed that Feijóo and Abascal had met secretly after the election to analyze the results.[53]

On 6 August, Abascal offered to support Feijóo's investiture for a minority government without demanding cabinet posts for his party "in order to prevent Sánchez from being elected with the support of Spain's enemies", a reference to pro-independence parties. However, party members acknowledged this unconditional support was offered due to Feijóo having no chance of being elected.[54] The next day, the PP attempted to use the possibility of a government without Vox as leverage to gain the PNV's support,[55] to which the PNV replied that they had expressed their opposition to Feijóo's investiture "with crystal clarity" on 24 July.[56][57]

Parliamentary setup

Media focus centered around the possible outcome of the vote for the Congress bureau when the chamber reconvened on 17 August, as the PP's absolute majority in the Senate ensured control of that chamber.[58] Both PP and PSOE attempted to secure the support of minor parties for their candidates to the post of president of the Congress of Deputies: the PP fielded Cuca Gamarra as their candidate, while the PSOE nominated former president of the Balearic Islands, Francina Armengol.[59][60]

Ahead of the election, both parties were tied at 171 expected votes for the post: Gamarra had the declared support of PP (137), Vox (33)—in exchange for a vice presidency in the chamber's bureau[61]—and UPN (1), while Armengol was expected to have the support of the PSOE (121), Sumar (31), ERC (7), EH Bildu (6), PNV (5) and the BNG (1).[62][63][64] The final positions of Junts (7) and CCa (1) were seen as decisive: if Junts did not support Armengol, CCa's single vote could decide the outcome.[65][66] In an attempt to break the deadlock, CCa proposed on 13 August that the Congress of Deputies should be presided over by a member of the PNV.[67] Feijóo was said to be willing to cede the post to the PNV in return for their support for Feijóo's investiture,[68] but this option was later ruled out by the PP due to the risk of losing the backing of Vox (who rejected supporting a PNV candidate for a post in the Congress bureau).[69][70] On 16 August, the day before the vote, Feijóo assured a meeting of his party's elected MPs that he had the confirmed support of "171 or 172 deputies", with talks ongoing to secure the support of CCa.[71]

The PSOE engaged in negotiations against the clock to secure the support of Junts, which had threatened to cast blank or invalid ballots and allow Gamarra's election with the support of PP and Vox.[72] Throughout the morning of 17 August, it was announced that the PSOE had reached an agreement with both Junts and ERC, promising to normalize the use of Catalan in Congress and the EU and to promote various investigative commissions (focused on Pegasus espionage and the 2017 Barcelona attacks) in exchange for both parties committing their support for Armengol and PSOE/Sumar candidates in the Congress bureau.[73][74][75]

Election of the President of the Congress of Deputies
Ballot → 17 August 2023
Required majority → 176 out of 350
Francina Armengol (PSOE)
178 / 350
checkY
Cuca Gamarra (PP)
139 / 350
☒N
Ignacio Gil Lázaro (Vox)
33 / 350
☒N
Blank ballots
0 / 350
Invalid ballots
0 / 350
Absentees
0 / 350
Sources[76]

Armengol received support from PSOE, Sumar, ERC, Junts, EH Bildu, PNV and the BNG, and was elected in the first ballot with 178 votes, two more than required for election. Unexpectedly, Gamarra received only 139 votes (of PP, UPN and CCa), with Vox voting for their own candidate after the PP refused to cede them a post in the Congress bureau.[76] This voting pattern was repeated for the remaining bureau posts (four vice presidencies and four secretaries), with PSOE and Sumar securing a majority of five posts in the parliamentary body, and the PP taking the remaining four.[77] Vox leader Santiago Abascal described the results as "real shame" and said he would demand an explanation from the PP, or else he would re-evaluate his party's support for any investiture attempt by Feijóo.[78] The outcome was seen as a victory for Pedro Sánchez, as the right-wing bloc split, leaving Feijóo in a precarious parliamentary situation for his investiture.[79][80] Later that day, following an emergency meeting of Feijóo with his executive to assess the political situation,[81] it was reported that the PP was considering holding a party congress to boost Feijóo's leadership internally.[82]

Candidate Alberto Núñez Feijóo (PP)

Nomination and negotiations

King Felipe VI summoned the political parties for a round of talks on 21 and 22 August to decide whether to nominate a candidate for investiture.[83] The king faced a difficult choice as, for the first time in the democratic era, two candidates—Sánchez and Feijóo—were equally intent on being nominated.[84] Feijóo's intentions were unchanged by his recent parliamentary setback, despite calls from some factions within his party asking him to "leave the fiction" of insisting that he had the required support for his investiture.[85][86]

Alberto Núñez Feijoó meeting Santiago Abascal in the Congress of Deputies
Alberto Núñez Feijoó meeting Vox leader Santiago Abascal on 5 September 2023.

Despite Feijóo's investiture being widely expected to fail, the King nominated him as candidate on 22 August.[87] He justified his decision by stating that the PP had won the most seats and that, since no other clear majority for investiture had been evidenced during the round of talks (Sánchez had been clear in that he was the only candidate able to muster a parliamentary majority, but acknowledged that he did not have it yet[88]), the tradition of nominating the leader of the largest party should continue, while allowing for the fact that other candidates could be nominated if their investiture attempt was unsuccessful.[89][90] Sánchez had previously told the King that an investiture was not an "exhibition procedure", but that he would not oppose Feijóo being nominated to attempt it first.[91] The new president of the Congress, Francina Armengol, announced that she had agreed with Feijóo to set the start of the investiture debate for 26 September, with the first ballot being scheduled for 27 September and the date of a hypothetical new election being automatically set for 14 January 2024.[92][93][94] The PP asked for time to secure the required numbers for the ballot, aiming to persuade the PNV, Junts or even ERC to abstain,[95][96][97] despite these parties having already voiced their opposition to a PP government.[98]

The PP's approaches to Junts caused an internal rift with the party's Catalan branch, whose leader, Alejandro Fernández, publicly expressed his opposition to any talks with Puigdemont's party.[99] On 27 August, Feijóo acknowledged that he would be defeated in his investiture attempt, but said he would be presenting a government program that would lay "the first stone" for future attempts.[100] Feijóo also attempted to meet regional presidents to ask if they wanted to "contribute" to his program,[101] but this was rejected by all non-PP regional premiers.[102][103] In a meeting with Sánchez on 30 August, Feijóo asked the PSOE to facilitate his investiture for a 15-ministry government that would pass six major state pacts in a legislature to last a maximum of two years, with a new election scheduled for 2025.[104][105] The PSOE mocked Feijóo's proposal as asking Sánchez to help him repeal sanchismo,[106] while privately expressing bewilderment with the PP's continuous changes in strategy.[107]

Amnesty and languages controversies

Second deputy prime minister and Sumar leader Yolanda Díaz and Junts leader Carles Puigdemont met in Brussels on 4 September, allegedly in search of a "stable relationship" to "explore democratic solutions to the political conflict" in Catalonia. Following this meeting, the PP shifted towards accusing Pedro Sánchez of negotiating with Junts to grant its request of an amnesty law for all those convicted or prosecuted for the events surrounding the 2017 Catalan independence referendum and the 2017–2018 Spanish constitutional crisis.[108][109][110] The following day, Feijóo announced his refusal to engage in further talks with Junts "if the requirement is to compromise on an amnesty", while Vox reaffirmed its support for Feijóo's investiture "in the face of the blow to the Constitution that would occur from La Moncloa if Pedro Sánchez is proclaimed prime minister".[111][112] Nonetheless, the PP later acknowledged maintaining "informal contacts" with Junts in the weeks previous to Feijóo's investiture attempt on 26–27 September.[113][114]

PSOE and Sumar expressed differing stances on how to approach the negotiations with Junts: whereas Sumar claimed than an amnesty was "a constitutional and democratic formula" that was an acceptable "payment" for investiture, the PSOE explained that "[Their] working method is to explain the agreements once they have occurred".[115] The issue of the amnesty also caused internal rifts within the PSOE, with former prime minister Felipe González and deputy prime minister Alfonso Guerra, as well as the incumbent president of Castilla–La Mancha, Emiliano García-Page, among the leading critics.[116][117][118] The PP's announcement of a demonstration in Madrid on 24 September against the proposed amnesty, two days ahead of Feijóo's scheduled investiture debate,[119] also saw the expulsion of Nicolás Redondo Terreros—former leader of the Socialist Party of the Basque Country—from the PSOE "for his repeated contempt for the party", after a long history of clashes with the party leadership's decisions, culminating in his vocal support for the PP-led protests.[120] The PP demonstration, initially expected to gather as many as 200,000 people,[121] had to be relocated to a smaller location due to "capacity issues";[122] finally, about 40,000 to 60,000 people from across Spain gathered to protest against Sánchez, which the PP described as a successful show of force ahead of Feijóo's investiture and "the largest political meeting in its history".[123][124] The PSOE criticized the demonstration, arguing that it saw the acknowledgment of Feijóo's failure to secure a parliamentary majority for his investiture.[125][126]

Simultaneously, a reform of the Congress internal regulations was proposed to allow for the use of co-official languages (Catalan, Basque and Galician, as well as any other "that has official status in any autonomous community in accordance with the Constitution and the corresponding Statute of Autonomy") in parliamentary debates, the fulfillment of a pledge from the PSOE to ERC and Junts in exchange for their support for Armengol's candidacy for the post of speaker.[127][128] This reform proposal was passed by the Congress on 21 September with a 180–170 result, with one PP deputy erroneously casting a 'Yes' vote.[129][130]

First investiture attempt

Alberto Núñez Feijoó listening to a speech in the Congress of Deputies
Alberto Núñez Feijoó during the second day of debate on his investiture on 27 September 2023.

Alberto Núñez Feijóo's investiture debate was scheduled to start at 12:00 CEST (UTC+2) on 26 September with Feijóo's speech, to be followed by responses from all other parties and a first round of voting on 27 September, with a second and final ballot on 29 September if required.[131]

In what was regarded by the media as an attempt to reaffirm his leadership within the PP, Feijóo used his speech to attack Sánchez and the amnesty proposal tabled by Catalan pro-independence parties.[132][133] He also stated that he had the votes to be prime minister within his reach, but that he would not pay the price for them.[134] Previously, Feijóo had arrived to the Congress accompanied by every deputy of his parliamentary group.[135]

The PSOE unexpectedly sent former mayor of Valladolid Óscar Puente, instead of Sánchez himself, to take the floor against Feijóo.[136][137]

Investiture
Alberto Núñez Feijóo (PP)
Ballot → 27 September 2023 29 September 2023[a]
Required majority → 176 out of 350 ☒N Simple ☒N
Yes
172 / 350
172 / 350
No
178 / 350
177 / 350
Abstentions
0 / 350
0 / 350
Absentees
0 / 350
0 / 350
Sources[138]

Candidate Pedro Sánchez (PSOE)

Investiture developments

Following Feijóo's defeat, King Felipe VI summoned all parties to a new round of talks on 2 and 3 October, after which he nominated Pedro Sánchez as the next candidate to attempt the investiture.[139][140] Upon his nomination, Sánchez commented that he was "not going to a false investiture", adding that everything agreed to secure the investiture would be "within the Constitution" and that agreements would be "transparent and known", considered to be a reference to criticisms of the amnesty proposed by pro-Catalan independence parties.[141]

In the following weeks, the PP criticized Sánchez and Congress speaker Armengol for not setting the investiture date, casting doubts on Armengol's neutrality.[142][143] Negotiations with other parties soon focused on the issue of an amnesty; by 8 October, talks were underway with the PNV while the PSOE sought to overcome tensions between Junts and ERC,[144] and on 12 October Sánchez spoke publicly about an amnesty law being negotiated with the two Catalan parties.[145] On 24 October, Sánchez and Sumar leader Yolanda Díaz signed an agreement to form a new coalition government, which included pledges to reduce the working week, raise the minimum wage and increase parental leave.[146] In an attempt to accelerate talks with PNV, EH Bildu and BNG, as well as with Junts and ERC,[147] Sánchez announced on 28 October that he had agreed to back an amnesty law, to include all those involved in the controversial 2017 Catalan independence referendum and the subsequent constitutional crisis. He acknowledged that this was a u-turn on his previous stance to regard the amnesty as unlawful, but said it was necessary "in the interest of Spain and in defence of coexistence between Spaniards".[148][149]

On 2 November, an agreement was reached with ERC to support Sánchez's investiture in exchange for the amnesty law (to include all those prosecuted for the organization of the 2014 Catalan self-determination referendum, the Democratic Tsunami, and the Committees for the Defense of the Republic (CDRs)), the transfer of Rodalies de Catalunya to the Catalan government, and forgiveness of part of Catalonia's debt to the state through a mechanism that could be extended to other autonomous communities.[150][151][152] Simultaneously, an agreement was reached with the BNG to reduce tolls on two Galician highways (namely AP-9 and AP-53) and the creation of railway connections in Galicia.[153][154] CCa, which had voted in favour of Feijóo's failed investiture, announced its abstention in Sánchez's, on the grounds that it was "comfortable with any government" that could depend on its vote. The party also did not rule out an affirmative vote if the PSOE agreed to their agenda for the Canary Islands.[155][156]

Negotiations with Junts were more challenging. An agreement was considered as all but certain following the publication of a photo by both Junts and PSOE on 30 October showing PSOE organization secretary Santos Cerdán and Carles Puigdemont together in Brussels, but the negotiations stalled after ERC's pledge of support to Sánchez.[157] Disagreements over the wording and scope of the proposed amnesty law were reported to be the main obstacles to an agreement,[158] in particular whether it would apply to those prosecuted or convicted for corruption scandals (such as the family of Jordi Pujol or Junts president Laura Borràs), which the PSOE opposed.[159][160] Junts secretary-general Jordi Turull was reported as saying that "we will not leave any soldier stranded. We will not do a VIP-only amnesty".[161] Negotiations continued for longer than initially expected,[162][163] but an agreement was finally reached on the night of 8 November, and formally announced the next day.[164][165] The accord stopped short of granting several of Puigdemont's maximalist requests, but was said to come at a "heavy price" for the PSOE.[166] Following the announcement of the PSOE–Junts agreement, the investiture debate was set to start on 15 November, with the first ballot scheduled for 16 November.[167] Finally, agreements with both the PNV and CCa for their supporting votes were reached on 10 November, virtually guaranteeing Sánchez's investiture in the first ballot.[168][169]

Reactions to amnesty and PSOE–Junts alliance

A demonstration in front of the headquarters of the PSOE in Madrid
A demonstration against the amnesty in front of PSOE's HQs in Madrid on 6 November 2023, with a sign stating "Pedro Sánchez to prison".

In a meeting between Pedro Sánchez and Alberto Núñez Feijóo on 9 October, Sánchez reminded the PP leader of "the need to respect the electoral results of last 23-J, parliamentary democracy, and the majority will of the citizens to form a government of progress", whereas Feijóo accused Sánchez of "massive electoral fraud" while warning that the PP would oppose any amnesty law "with all intensity".[170] Following Sánchez's announcement of an amnesty law on 28 October, the PP described it as an "attack on democracy" and demanded a re-run of the election,[171] while adopting a strategy of street protests against the incoming government.[172] Vox and other right-wing groups called a demonstration in Plaza de Colón for 29 October, which saw 100,000 people peacefully protesting the formation of the new government.[173][174] The PP also called a political rally in Valencia for 5 November, which saw 10,000 to 20,000 people protesting against the amnesty.[175]

Political tensions grew following a controversial speech by José María Aznar on 2 November, in which the former prime minister described Sánchez as "a danger to Spanish constitutional democracy", and asked supporters to "assume the risks" of acting against Sánchez, saying: "Whoever can speak, let them speak; whoever can do, let them do; whoever can contribute, let him contribute; whoever can move, let them move."[176][177] These remarks were later interpreted by some political commentators as an attempt to politically interfere with the investiture process,[178] or even as an attempt to instigate a right-wing uprising.[179] That same day, eight conservative-leaning members of the General Council of the Judiciary (CGPJ)—in a deep constitutional crisis over a lack of renewal since 2018—called for an extraordinary plenary session to approve an institutional declaration against the amnesty.[180][181] The majority association of judges, the conservative Professional Association of Magistrates, issued a further declaration criticising the amnesty as unlawful and as "the beginning of the end" of democracy.[182] The progressive Judges for Democracy association criticized the actions of the CGPJ, due to its interim nature, the perceived overreach of its functions, and the fact that the contents of the amnesty law were still unknown.[181][183] The acting president of the CGPJ later distanced himself from the declaration against the amnesty and asked the institution's members not to interfere in politics.[184]

On 3 November, a manifesto against the amnesty law signed by over 300 Spanish jurists was registered in the Cortes Generales.[185] In response, 200 jurists released a separate manifesto on 6 November defending the amnesty and criticizing any "attacks on the normal functioning of institutions".[186][187] That same day, National Court judge Manuel García-Castellón indicted Puigdemont and ERC secretary-general Marta Rovira for crimes of terrorism during the 2019–2020 Catalan protests, specifically during the riots involving the Democratic Tsunami and the CDRs, in a move seen as interference in the investiture negotiations.[188][189] This followed a Civil Guard report delivered three weeks ahead of schedule.[190][191] The Prosecutor's Office considered the evidence presented against Puigdemont and Rovira as "insufficient",[192] and argued that the judge was "misrepresenting, making assumptions and omitting data".[193]

Vox leader Santiago Abascal in a demonstration in front of the headquarters of the PSOE in Madrid
Vox leader Santiago Abascal in one of the protests in front of PSOE's HQs in Madrid on 7 November 2023.

The amnesty was supported by the Financial Times which, while viewing it as an "expedient policy" by a Pedro Sánchez who "would not go down this path if his job were not on the line", also regarded it as "a gamble worth taking" to ease tensions in Catalan society following the 2017 events.[194] On 8 November, European Commissioner for Justice Didier Reynders sent a letter to the Spanish government requesting more information "on the personal, material and temporal scope" of the planned amnesty law, as it had become "an issue of considerable importance in public debate" seeing how the European Commission had been contacted about it "among others, by a large number of citizens"; the Spanish government replied that legislative initiative belonged to Congress, not the executive branch, which was still in acting capacity and was legally barred from tabling any bill.[195] The European Commission later commented that, beyond the information request, it was not concerned by the amnesty law proposal and that it was an "internal affair" of Spain.[196][197]

Starting on 3 November 2023, street protests were organized outside PSOE offices around Spain, with the main focus on the party's headquarters on Calle de Ferraz in Madrid.[198] Initially peaceful, the protests came under scrutiny because of the participation of Vox members as well as far-right and neo-Nazi organizations.[199][200][201] The largest of the protests, on 7 November, was attended by 7,000 people; the ensuing riots saw 29 police officers wounded,[202][203] as well as an attempt to force entry into the heavily fortified Congress of Deputies.[204] The protests saw frequent chants against Pedro Sánchez, immigration, the Constitution and the monarchy as well as sexist slurs and fascist and francoist symbology.[205][206][207] Sánchez condemned the harassment of his party's headquarters by "reactionaries", and proclaimed that "no one will be able to intimidate the PSOE",[208] receiving the support of other parties.[209] Feijóo blamed Sánchez for creating "social unrest" and called for further protests to be held on 12 November.[210] Basque Lehendakari Iñigo Urkullu, a member of the PNV, demanded that Feijóo "call off his protests against the amnesty law", as they were "serving as an excuse to generate hatred, resentment and violence".[211]

Following the announcement of the PSOE–Junts agreement, Madrid premier Isabel Díaz Ayuso controversially stated during an interview on Antena 3 that Spain was now "entering a dictatorship", and that she was counting on the King, the security forces and the army to "save the situation".[212] Associations of judges and prosecutors, bar associations, tax inspectors, labor inspectors, police unions, law firms and the CGPJ issued statements criticizing references both to "lawfare"—the alleged judicialization of politics during the 2017 and subsequent events[213]—and the creation of parliamentary inquiry committees in the signed text of the agreement,[214][215] describing it as an unprecedented attack on the judiciary's independence.[216][217] The PSOE later remarked that these inquiry committees would not investigate lawfare nor supervise judges but, rather, oversee political operations such as Operation Catalonia—the alleged gathering of information about Catalan independence leaders without judicial authorization aimed at creating false evidence—and the use of Pegasus spyware against Catalan and Basque officials.[218] On 10 November, the Pro-Civil Guard Association (APROGC) issued a statement expressing their "deep concern" on the amnesty law and stating to be "willing to shed even the last drop of blood in defence of the sovereignty and independence of Spain and its constitutional order";[219] the Interior ministry subsequently opened an investigation to determined whether those constituted disciplinary or criminal infraction.[220]

Party membership votes

Several of the parties involved in the negotiations held internal votes among their members to gauge support for Pedro Sánchez's investiture. PSOE and PSC members approved of the renewal of the alliance with Sumar and the support "of other political formations to achieve the required majority" by 88% and 87% respectively, in votes held between 30 October and 4 November.[221][222]

30 October–4 November PSOE & PSC membership vote
Question: "Do you support the accord to form a government with Sumar and
secure the support of other political formations to achieve the required majority?"
PSOE PSC
Choice Votes % Choice Votes %
checkY Yes 95,365 87.96 checkY Yes 6,742 87.48
No 13,053 12.04 No 965 12.52
Valid votes 108,418 99.05 Valid votes 7,707 97.45
Invalid or blank votes 1,035 0.95 Invalid or blank votes 202 2.55
Total votes 109,453 100.00 Total votes 7,909 100.00
Registered voters and turnout 172,611 63.41 Registered voters and turnout 12,835 61.62
Source[221] Source[222][223]

ERC's membership approved the signed agreement on 3 November with 91% of valid votes,[224] whereas Junts did so with the support of 86% of its members on a 67% turnout in a vote held between 11 and 12 November.[225]

Within Sumar, members of United Left (IU) voted 85% in favour of joining a PSOE–Sumar coalition in an internal vote held between 3 and 5 November,[227] while 87% of Podemos members approved their party's deputies to vote in favour of Sánchez's investiture in a vote held between 11 and 14 November.[228]

Second investiture attempt

Pedro Sánchez giving a speech in the Congress of Deputies
Pedro Sánchez during the first day of debate on his investiture on 15 November 2023.

Pedro Sánchez's investiture debate began at 12:00 CET (UTC+1) on 15 November with Sánchez's speech, followed by the replies of all other parties. The first round of voting was on 16 November. The second round of voting, which was not required, would have taken place on 18 November.[231][232]

During the debate, Feijóo attacked Sánchez over the amnesty and his concessions to pro-independence parties, accusing him of "political corruption".[233] During his initial address to parliament he also attempted to undermine Sánchez by accusing him of cutting off a quotation from a poem by Antonio Machado; it was later established that Feijóo's allegedly complete Machado quotation was in fact a much later adaptation of the poem written by songwriter Ismael Serrano.[234] Also during the debate, the president of the Community of Madrid, PP's Isabel Díaz Ayuso—who attended the debate as a visitor—was filmed in the chamber's gallery mouthing the Spanish words for "son of a bitch" after Sánchez mentioned the corruption allegations against Ayuso's brother, which led to the downfall of former PP leader Pablo Casado.[235] Feijóo's position was weakened following a remark by PNV spokesman Aitor Esteban, in which he denounced the PP's criticism of Sánchez's agreement by commenting that "someday maybe I will get to say what [Feijóo] offered us" in exchange for the PNV's support for Feijóo's investiture.[236] Subsequently, some media reported that Feijóo had offered the PNV the Industry ministry "and more" during failed negotiations in August–September.[237][238]

Investiture
Pedro Sánchez (PSOE)
Ballot → 16 November 2023
Required majority → 176 out of 350 checkY
Yes
179 / 350
No
171 / 350
Abstentions
0 / 350
Absentees
0 / 350
Sources[239]

Pedro Sánchez was elected by an absolute majority during the first round of voting, with higher support than he received in 2020.[239] Sánchez's re-election marked the first time since the Spanish transition to democracy that a successful candidate for investiture was not the leader of the party with the most seats. It was also the first time since 2011 that a repeat election was not needed, or that a candidate was elected in the first investiture ballot.[240]

Opinion polls

Opinion polls were conducted throughout the 14th Legislature and during the government formation process to gauge public opinion on the preferred composition of the government. Polls mostly indicated that the most popular option was a repetition of the ruling PSOE–Sumar coalition.

Opinion on government formation
Polling firm/Commissioner Fieldwork date Sample size PSOE
UP/
Sumar
PSOE PP
PSOE
PP PP
Vox
Other None/
New election
Question? Notes
40 dB/Prisa[241][242] 29 Sept–2 Oct 2023 2,000 29.8 11.1 48.2 10.9 [b]
40 dB/Prisa[243][244] 25–28 Aug 2023 2,000 33.2 9.8 13.1 16.0 17.9 9.9 [c]
Simple Lógica/elDiario.es[245] 31 Jul–7 Aug 2023 1,098 40.4 3.1 14.0 9.4 3.9 24.5 4.7 [d]
GESOP/Prensa Ibérica[246] 13–15 Jul 2023 1,200 37.8 28.7 21.2 0.5 11.8 [e]
GAD3/NIUS[247] 27–28 Jun 2023 1,005 22.0 17.6 7.8 26.4 11.6 5.3 2.4 6.9 [f]
40 dB/Prisa[248][249] 23–26 Jun 2023 2,000 25.7 14.1 9.8 17.1 16.7 6.6 9.9 [g]
40 dB/Prisa[250][251] 12–14 Jun 2023 2,000 23.5 12.3 11.5 17.2 16.9 7.2 11.5 [g]
GESOP/Prensa Ibérica[252] 30 May–1 Jun 2023 1,003 32.8 31.9 22.7 3.1 4.8 4.8 [e]
40 dB/Prisa[253][254] 23–26 Nov 2022 2,000 34.1 16.5 15.9 17.1 16.4 [h]
Sigma Dos/Antena 3[255] 16 Oct 2022 ? 27.8 17.3 27.2 8.2 12.1 7.4 [i]
GESOP/Prensa Ibérica[256] 20–22 Jun 2022 1,001 30.0 33.8 17.1 13.0 6.2 [j]

Notes

  1. ^ 1 Junts MP involuntarily cast an invalid ballot in the 29 September vote.
  2. ^ Question asked was "After the failed attempt to invest Alberto Núñez Feijóo as Prime Minister, (...) what do you prefer to happen?"
  3. ^ Question asked was "As you know, at this time, the different parties represented in Congress must negotiate who will be sworn in as prime minister as none of them have obtained an absolute majority. Which of the following formulas would be your favorite one?"
  4. ^ Question asked was "How do you prefer the investiture to be resolved?"
  5. ^ a b Question asked was "Which of the following government coalitions would you prefer?"
  6. ^ Question asked was "If you could choose, overall, which government type would you prefer to govern?"
  7. ^ a b Question asked was "And, overall, which government would you prefer to preside over Spain after this general election?"
  8. ^ Question asked was "And, overall, which government do you think would be best for Spain?"
  9. ^ Question asked was "In the event that, in the next general election, no political party achieves an absolute majority to govern, what pact or government coalition would you prefer?"
  10. ^ Question asked was "Which coalition do you regard as best to govern Spain?"

References

  1. ^ "The Spanish Constitution" (PDF). Official Gazette of the State. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  2. ^ "Spanish elections: Popular Party wins tight election but no clear majority". BBC News. 23 July 2023. Archived from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 25 July 2023.
  3. ^ "Spain election: Ruling leftists withstood the odds, far right lost 19 seats". France 24. 24 July 2023. Archived from the original on 25 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  4. ^ "Spain election: Conservatives win but fall short of majority". Deutsche Welle. 23 July 2023. Archived from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  5. ^ "Spain in 'political limbo' after election yields no clear winner". Al Jazeera. 24 July 2023. Archived from the original on 25 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  6. ^ "Spain's election ends in deadlock". The Economist. Archived from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  7. ^ Agencias (29 July 2023). "El PP reclama su derecho a presentarse a la investidura tras el voto CERA y el PSOE presiona a Junts" (in Spanish). RTVE. Archived from the original on 7 August 2023. Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  8. ^ Faus, Joan; Carreño, Belén; Carreño, Belén (24 July 2023). "Fugitive Catalan leader holds key to Spanish electoral impasse". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  9. ^ Castro, Irene (23 July 2023). "Los posibles pactos: la derecha no suma y la izquierda depende de una abstención de Junts". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 25 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  10. ^ "Autonomía fiscal, Renfe y aeropuertos: las exigencias de Junts para ceder sus votos". La Información (in Spanish). 23 July 2023. Archived from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  11. ^ Agencias (24 July 2023). "Junts pone 'la amnistía y la autodeterminación' como condiciones para investir a Sánchez" (in Spanish). RTVE. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  12. ^ Esteban, Paloma (26 July 2023). "Feijóo pretende ir a la investidura si el Rey se lo propone aunque sea fallida". El Periódico de España (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  13. ^ Palomera, Esther; Castro, Irene (26 July 2023). "Los barones del PP dan por hecho que Feijóo irá a una investidura fallida y que se quedará en la oposición". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 28 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  14. ^ Palomera, Esther (27 July 2023). "Feijóo busca con su investidura fallida acotar el tiempo de negociación de Sánchez con los independentistas". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 28 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  15. ^ Ramos, Ana Belén (23 July 2023). "Feijóo pide paso: "Le pido expresamente al PSOE que no bloquee el Gobierno de España"". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  16. ^ "Maillo (PP) no descarta que Feijóo sea presidente y recuerda lo que pasó tras la repetición electoral en 2016" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 24 July 2023. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  17. ^ "El PSOE ve "imposible" facilitar una investidura de Feijóo y le acusa de "fingir" que puede lograr apoyos y "tapar su fracaso"" (in Spanish). RTVE. 26 July 2023. Archived from the original on 28 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  18. ^ Casqueiro, Javier; García de Blas, Elsa (27 July 2023). "El PP pasa de ofrecer un pacto al PSOE a alertar de un riesgo de ruptura de España si sale investido Sánchez". El País (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 30 July 2023. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  19. ^ "Coalición Canaria rechaza apoyar una 'investidura fantasma' de Feijóo: 'No hay ninguna posibilidad de que sea presidente'" (in Spanish). RTVE. 24 July 2023. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  20. ^ "El PNV frustra la opción de Feijóo de intentar ir a una investidura". El Periódico (in Spanish). 24 July 2023. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 25 July 2023.
  21. ^ "Vox anuncia que no será "obstáculo" para la investidura de Feijóo si convence a "un puñado" de diputados del PSOE" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 26 July 2023. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  22. ^ González, Miguel (27 July 2023). "Abascal se niega a regalar a Feijóo el "voto patriótico" de sus 33 diputados para echar a Sánchez". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 30 July 2023. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  23. ^ "Otegi garantiza a Sánchez los 6 votos de EH Bildu para su investidura sin "líneas rojas en público"". El Mundo (in Spanish). 25 July 2023. Archived from the original on 26 July 2023. Retrieved 26 July 2023.
  24. ^ Camps, Carlota (28 July 2023). "ERC refrendará con la militancia la investidura de Pedro Sánchez". El Periódico (in Spanish). Barcelona. Archived from the original on 28 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  25. ^ "El BNG quiere evitar "un gobierno de la derecha" pero no le dará a Sánchez "un cheque en blanco"". elDiario.es (in Spanish). 24 July 2023. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  26. ^ Alonso, María Eugenia (24 July 2023). "Feijóo se estrella contra sus expectativas". Heraldo de Aragón (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  27. ^ Esteve, Mireia (25 July 2023). "El PP blinda a Feijóo pese a pagar por el fracaso de su estrategia". Ara (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  28. ^ Junquera, Natalia (30 July 2023). "Anatomía del 23-J: los datos que sepultaron el relato de la derecha". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 30 July 2023. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  29. ^ "El público interrumpe el discurso de Feijóo tras el 23-J con gritos de '¡Ayuso, Ayuso!'" (in Spanish). Madrid: Cadena SER. 24 July 2023. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  30. ^ "Esperanza Aguirre critica la campaña de Feijóo y sugiere que el futuro del PP pasa por Ayuso" (in Spanish). Madrid: Onda Cero. Europa Press. 25 July 2023. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  31. ^ Martínez, Virginia; García de Blas, Elsa (26 July 2023). "Ayuso descarta disputar el liderazgo a Feijóo, pero reconoce que le llegan 'mensajes' pidiéndoselo". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  32. ^ De la Hoz, Cristina (26 July 2023). "Ayuso replica a Aguirre que 'no se puede tirar a Feijóo por un puente. No somos podemitas'". El Independiente (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  33. ^ Sáenz de Ugarte, Iñigo (26 July 2023). "Feijóo mira al abismo y Ayuso le devuelve la mirada". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  34. ^ Caballero, Fátima (26 July 2023). "Ayuso avisa a Feijóo sobre un acuerdo con Sánchez: 'Siempre he dicho que con el desastre no se puede pactar'". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 28 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  35. ^ Martiarena, Asier (27 July 2023). "Gamarra blinda el liderazgo de Feijóo y sitúa las críticas de Aguirre fuera de "la unidad" del partido". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  36. ^ Gómez, Pilar (30 July 2023). "Feijóo se agarra al "esto no está cerrado" mientras el PP mira a Ayuso". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 30 July 2023. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  37. ^ García de Blas, Elsa (30 July 2023). "Feijóo, cambio de rumbo tras el 23-J". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 30 July 2023. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  38. ^ Coll, Vicente (29 July 2023). "El PP afirma que está dispuesto a hablar con Junts "dentro de la Constitución" para hacer presidente a Feijóo". El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  39. ^ "El PP se abre a hablar con Junts "dentro de la Constitución" tras el recuento del voto CERA". elDiario.es (in Spanish). 29 July 2023. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  40. ^ Camacho, Susana (31 July 2023). "Génova descarta por ahora hablar con Puigdemont para hacer a Feijóo presidente: "No está encima de la mesa"". NIUS (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 July 2023. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  41. ^ "Puigdemont asegura que el 'chantaje político' no hará que Junts vote a favor de Pedro Sánchez". NIUS (in Spanish). Barcelona. Europa Press. 29 July 2023. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  42. ^ Gil, Iván (25 July 2023). "Sánchez pisa el freno de su investidura ante los riesgos de una legislatura ingobernable". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  43. ^ García Mangas, Marina; Llapart, María (26 July 2023). "Feijóo insiste en una investidura fallida y el PSOE apuesta por dejar que Junts 'reflexione'" (in Spanish). laSexta. Archived from the original on 29 July 2023. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  44. ^ Martínez, Virginia (30 July 2023). "Feijóo pide por carta a Sánchez una reunión esta semana para negociar su investidura". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 30 July 2023. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  45. ^ "Feijóo reclama por carta a Sánchez una reunión para pedirle que le deje gobernar tras meses de ataques al 'sanchismo'". elDiario.es (in Spanish). 30 July 2023. Archived from the original on 30 July 2023. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  46. ^ Martínez, Virginia; González, Miguel (30 July 2023). "Feijóo pide cita urgente a Sánchez y este le emplaza a después de que se constituyan las Cortes". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 31 July 2023. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  47. ^ "Sánchez responde a Feijóo que gobierna quien más apoyos suma en el Congreso y le emplaza a reunirse tras la constitución de las Cortes". elDiario.es (in Spanish). 30 July 2023. Archived from the original on 30 July 2023. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  48. ^ "Coalición Canaria se abre a investir tanto a Sánchez como a Feijóo, pero mantiene su veto a Vox y a Sumar" (in Spanish). Cadena SER. 31 July 2023. Archived from the original on 31 July 2023. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  49. ^ Escartín, Javier (31 July 2023). "Coalición Canaria se abre a negociar un acuerdo de investidura con Sánchez". El Huffington Post (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 July 2023. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  50. ^ "Esparza (UPN): "Nosotros vamos a votar a Feijóo, él sabrá con quién llega a acuerdos o no"". Diario de Navarra (in Spanish). EFE. 24 July 2023. Archived from the original on 31 July 2023. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  51. ^ "UPN asume que Feijóo no será presidente "en ninguno de los escenarios" y puntualiza que "no se puede estar engañando a la gente"". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Europa Press. 31 July 2023. Archived from the original on 31 July 2023. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  52. ^ Moraga, Carmen (31 July 2023). "Vox carga contra el PP por "engañar a los españoles" el 23J: "Feijóo se pasó la campaña hablando de que rozaba la mayoría absoluta"". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 July 2023. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  53. ^ "Feijóo y Abascal se reunieron en secreto la semana pasada para analizar el escenario tras el 23J". elDiario.es (in Spanish). 31 July 2023. Archived from the original on 31 July 2023. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  54. ^ González, Miguel (6 August 2023). "Abascal regala a Feijóo el voto de sus 33 diputados para evitar que Sánchez sea investido con "los enemigos de España"". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 6 August 2023. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  55. ^ "El PP emplaza al PNV a reconsiderar su veto a Vox para la investidura tras regalar Abascal sus votos a Feijóo". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. 7 August 2023. Archived from the original on 7 August 2023. Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  56. ^ "El PNV vuelve a decir que no al PP: "Fijamos nuestra posición con meridiana claridad"" (in Spanish). Cadena SER. 7 August 2023. Archived from the original on 7 August 2023. Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  57. ^ "El PNV mantiene su 'no' a facilitar una investidura de Feijóo tras el intento del PP de atraer su apoyo a un Gobierno sin Vox". elDiario.es (in Spanish). 7 August 2023. Archived from the original on 7 August 2023. Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  58. ^ "El Senado avanza hacia una nueva legislatura con la mayoría absoluta del PP". El Periódico (in Spanish). Madrid. 17 August 2023. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  59. ^ "El PSOE propone a la expresidenta de Baleares Francina Armengol para la Presidencia del Congreso" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 15 August 2023. Archived from the original on 16 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  60. ^ "Cuca Gamarra, candidata del PP para presidir la Mesa del Congreso" (in Spanish). Cadena SER. 16 August 2023. Archived from the original on 16 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  61. ^ "Vox reclama al PP una Vicepresidencia del Congreso" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 17 August 2023. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  62. ^ "El BNG votará a Armengol para presidir el Congreso y apoya grupo para ERC y Junts para que aligere el Grupo Mixto" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 16 August 2023. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  63. ^ "EH Bildu espera que Armengol salga elegida y se avance en la investidura para un Gobierno progresista" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 17 August 2023. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  64. ^ Riancho, V. (16 August 2023). "El BNG votará a favor de Armengol, ERC la ve con buenos ojos y el PNV no descarta repetir elecciones". El Español (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  65. ^ Ríos, Daniel (17 August 2023). "PSOE o PP: Puigdemont decidirá hoy quién presidirá el Congreso y marcará el camino a una investidura o a unas nuevas elecciones". 20 minutos (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  66. ^ Ramos, Ana Belén (16 August 2023). "Feijóo coge aire tras el órdago de Junts y confía en Coalición Canaria para controlar la Mesa". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  67. ^ "Coalición Canaria apuesta por el PNV para presidir el Congreso de los Diputados" (in Spanish). RTVE. 13 August 2023. Archived from the original on 16 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  68. ^ D. Prieto, Alberto; P. Nova, I. (16 August 2023). "Feijóo dispuesto a ofrecer al PNV la Presidencia del Congreso a pesar del rechazo del PP de Madrid repetir elecciones". El Español (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  69. ^ Martiarena, Asier; H. Valls, Fernando (15 August 2023). "El PP rechaza que el PNV presida el Congreso para mantener el apoyo de Vox". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  70. ^ Z., I. (16 August 2023). "Abascal exige al PP una vicepresidencia en la Mesa y avisa: Vox no apoyará un puesto para el PNV". El Español (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  71. ^ Ruiz de Almirón, Víctor; Vicente Escudero, Emilio (16 August 2023). "Feijóo anuncia que Pedro Rollán presidirá el Senado y confirma a Cuca Gamarra como candidata al Congreso". ABC (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 November 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  72. ^ Espada, Ferrán (16 August 2023). "Junts se plantea la abstención o el voto nulo y abre la puerta a una presidencia del Congreso del PP". Público (in Spanish). Barcelona. Archived from the original on 16 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  73. ^ "Junts alcanza un principio de acuerdo con el PSOE para la Mesa del Congreso". El Periódico (in Spanish). Barcelona. 17 August 2023. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  74. ^ Monrosi, José Enrigue; Puente, Arturo (17 August 2023). "El PSOE cierra un acuerdo con Junts y ERC para elegir a Francina Armengol presidenta del Congreso". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  75. ^ Rovira, Marc (17 August 2023). "Claves del acuerdo por la Presidencia de la Mesa del Congreso: catalán en el Parlamento y en la UE e investigación del espionaje de Pegasus y los atentados del 17-A". El País (in Spanish). Barcelona. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  76. ^ a b Monrosi, José Enrigue; Puente, Arturo; Ortiz, Alberto (17 August 2023). "Francina Armengol, presidenta del Congreso tras el acuerdo con Junts y ERC". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  77. ^ Díaz, Sato (17 August 2023). "PSOE y Sumar superan la primera prueba de la legislatura al lograr una Mesa progresista en el Congreso". Público (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  78. ^ "Abascal deja en el aire el apoyo de Vox al PP en una posible investidura de Feijóo por apartarles de la Mesa del Congreso" (in Spanish). Madrid: Cadena SER. 17 August 2023. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  79. ^ "Spain: Pedro Sánchez's socialist candidate wins crucial vote for control of parliament". Euronews. 17 August 2023. Archived from the original on 19 August 2023. Retrieved 19 August 2023.
  80. ^ Juliana, Enric (17 August 2023). "Sánchez suma 178, Junts cruza la frontera, la derecha se rompe". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  81. ^ Vázquez, Pepe Luis (17 August 2023). "Feijóo reúne en Génova de forma extraordinaria a la cúpula del PP: no sabía que Vox no votaría a Gamarra". El Español (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  82. ^ Gómez, Pilar (17 August 2023). "Génova plantea convocar un congreso para reforzar a Feijóo tras el varapalo en la Mesa". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  83. ^ "El Rey celebrará el lunes y el martes su ronda de contactos para la investidura, con sólo siete formaciones" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 18 August 2023. Archived from the original on 18 August 2023. Retrieved 19 August 2023.
  84. ^ "El Rey se enfrenta a una ronda de consultas inédita con dos candidatos que quieren ir a la investidura" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 16 August 2023. Archived from the original on 19 August 2023. Retrieved 19 August 2023.
  85. ^ García de Blas, Elsa; González, Miguel (18 August 2023). "Feijóo insiste en presentarse a una investidura pese a la falta de apoyos y el revés de la Mesa del Congreso". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 18 August 2023. Retrieved 19 August 2023.
  86. ^ García de Blas, Elsa (18 August 2023). "Una corriente del PP pide a Feijóo salir de la "ficción" de defender que tiene apoyos para ir a una investidura". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 18 August 2023. Retrieved 19 August 2023.
  87. ^ Riveiro, Aitor; Monrosi, José Enrique (22 August 2023). "El rey encarga a Feijóo que intente la investidura sin tener garantizados los apoyos necesarios". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 22 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  88. ^ Ruiz Sierra, Juan (22 August 2023). "Sánchez transmite al Rey su confianza en lograr la investidura: "Solo hay una mayoría posible"". El Periódico (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 22 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  89. ^ Riveiro, Aitor (22 August 2023). "Felipe VI se ampara en la "costumbre" para lanzar a Feijóo a una investidura sin mayoría suficiente". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 23 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  90. ^ Piña, Raúl (22 August 2023). "El Rey protege la normalidad institucional y propone a Feijóo como ganador de las elecciones". El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 23 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  91. ^ Elordi Cué, Carlos (22 August 2023). "Sánchez le dice al Rey que tendrá apoyos para la investidura pero no se opone a que Feijóo lo intente". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 23 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  92. ^ Marcos, José (23 August 2023). "Armengol fija el debate de investidura el 26 y 27 de septiembre para dar tiempo a Feijóo pese a la oposición del PSOE". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 23 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  93. ^ Monrosi, José Enrique; Riveiro, Aitor (23 August 2023). "Armengol fija el intento de investidura de Feijóo para el 26 y 27 de septiembre". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 23 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  94. ^ Aduriz, Iñigo (23 August 2023). "La investidura de Feijóo activa la cuenta atrás: si fracasa será el turno de Sánchez o elecciones el 14 de enero". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 23 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  95. ^ Llapart, María; Rull, Jaime (23 August 2023). "El PP no quiere investidura la semana que viene y pide ahora a Armengol tiempo para negociar" (in Spanish). laSexta. Archived from the original on 23 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  96. ^ Hernández, Marisol (23 August 2023). "El PP se sentará con Junts, PNV y ERC a partir del lunes para que apoyen a Feijóo". El Periódico de España (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 23 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  97. ^ Martiarena, Asier (23 August 2023). "El PP se sentará con Junts y PNV para que se abstengan y faciliten la investidura de Feijóo". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 23 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  98. ^ Caballero, Fátima; Aduriz, Iñigo (23 August 2023). "El PP sale en tromba a defender que Feijóo vaya a una investidura fallida y alienta la vía de pactos improbables". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 23 August 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  99. ^ "Alejandro Fernández, líder del PP en Cataluña, se revuelve contra Feijóo por querer sentarse a dialogar con Junts" (in Spanish). Cadena SER. 27 August 2023. Archived from the original on 30 August 2023. Retrieved 30 August 2023.
  100. ^ Casqueiro, Javier (27 August 2023). "Feijóo se resigna a liderar la oposición un mes antes de ir a la investidura". El País (in Spanish). Soutomaior. Archived from the original on 30 August 2023. Retrieved 30 August 2023.
  101. ^ Hernández, Marisol (28 August 2023). "Feijóo ampliará sus contactos a los presidentes autonómicos sin descartar a Aragonès". El Periódico de España (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 29 August 2023. Retrieved 30 August 2023.
  102. ^ Hernández, Marisol (29 August 2023). "Rechazo frontal de los presidentes autonómicos a la ronda de contactos con Feijóo". El Periódico de España (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 30 August 2023. Retrieved 30 August 2023.
  103. ^ "Todos los presidentes autonómicos que no son del PP o sus aliados plantan a Feijóo en su ronda de contactos". elDiario.es (in Spanish). 29 August 2023. Archived from the original on 30 August 2023. Retrieved 30 August 2023.
  104. ^ Sarriá, Belén (30 August 2023). "Feijóo propone a Sánchez un gobierno del PP de dos años con 6 pactos de Estado para evitar el bloqueo y "desactivar" al independentismo". 20 minutos (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  105. ^ De la Cruz, Sergio (30 August 2023). "Feijóo ofrece a Sánchez que le deje gobernar dos años y convocar elecciones en 2025". El Economista (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 30 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  106. ^ López Macías, Javier (30 August 2023). "El PSOE rechaza la propuesta "fallida" de Feijóo para gobernar dos años e ironiza con que le pida a Sánchez "derogar el sanchismo"". 20 minutos (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  107. ^ Hernández, Marisol; Esteban, Paloma (31 August 2023). "El PP desconcierta al PSOE con sus cambios de estrategia: "Nadie entiende a Feijóo"". El Periódico de España (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  108. ^ Piña, Raúl; Carvajal, Álvaro; García Zornoza, María (4 September 2023). "Yolanda Díaz se reúne con Puigdemont en Bruselas en busca de "una relación estable" para "explorar soluciones democráticas al conflicto político"". El Mundo (in Spanish). Brussels. Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  109. ^ Caballero, Fátima (4 September 2023). "El PP califica de "escándalo" la reunión entre Díaz y Puigdemont pero mantiene que se sentará con Junts". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  110. ^ García, Amanda (11 September 2023). "Feijóo pone al PP a hacer oposición a 15 días de su investidura". Público (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  111. ^ García de Blas, Elsa (5 September 2023). "Feijóo renuncia ahora a sentarse con Junts tras escuchar las condiciones de Puigdemont". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 4 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  112. ^ Del Riego, Carmen (5 September 2023). "Feijóo renuncia a hablar con Junts si plantea lo mismo que Puigdemont". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 30 September 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  113. ^ Fernández Pereda, Cristina (10 September 2023). "Feijóo reconoce que hubo contactos "informales" con Junts". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 September 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  114. ^ García de Blas, Elsa (12 September 2023). "Feijóo reconoce contactos del PP con Junts: "Hemos escuchado sus planteamientos"". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  115. ^ López Macías, Javier (6 September 2023). "Sumar dice que la amnistía es el "pago" de la investidura de Sánchez y el PSOE pide "explicar los acuerdos cuando se produzcan"". 20 minutos (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  116. ^ Méndez, Lucía (9 September 2023). "Dirigentes territoriales del PSOE desdeñan las críticas: la amnistía tiene "coste cero para el partido"". El Mundo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  117. ^ Sánchez, Diego (13 September 2023). "Page: "Les dijimos a los electores que la amnistía no cabe en la Constitución. Cambiar de un día para otro es enormemente grave"". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  118. ^ Cruz, Marisa (20 September 2023). "Alfonso Guerra y Felipe González llaman al PSOE a rebelarse contra la amnistía: "No podemos dejarnos chantajear por nadie"". El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  119. ^ "El PP anuncia un "gran acto" en Madrid contra la amnistía para el fin de semana previo a la investidura de Feijóo" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 13 September 2023. Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  120. ^ Sánchez, Diego (14 September 2023). "El PSOE expulsa a Nicolás Redondo Terreros por su "reiterado menosprecio" al partido". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  121. ^ Rodríguez Roces, Pablo (14 September 2023). "El PP convoca en la Plaza de España de Madrid un "gran acto" contra la amnistía". El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  122. ^ Coll, Vicente (15 September 2023). "El PP traslada "por aforo" el acto del 24-S a Felipe II y asistirán Rajoy y Aznar". El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  123. ^ "La Delegación del Gobierno en Madrid cifra en 40.000 los asistentes a la manifestación del PP contra la amnistía" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 24 September 2023. Archived from the original on 3 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  124. ^ Coll, Vicente; Lamet, Juanma (24 September 2023). "El PP cifra en "más de 60.000" los asistentes al acto contra la amnistía: "Es el mitin más grande de nuestra historia"". El Mundo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 30 September 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  125. ^ "Sánchez carga contra el PP por su manifestación en Madrid y da por hecha su investidura para los próximos cuatro años: "Lo siento, habrá gobierno socialista"" (in Spanish). Madrid: Cadena SER. 24 September 2023. Archived from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  126. ^ Junquera, Natalia (24 September 2023). "Feijóo alerta contra la amnistía y pasa por alto su investidura ante 40.000 personas". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 3 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  127. ^ Llapart, María; Rupérez, Irene (6 September 2023). "Registrada la reforma del reglamento del Congreso para el uso de todas las lenguas cooficiales" (in Spanish). laSexta. Archived from the original on 4 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  128. ^ "El Congreso tramita la reforma del Reglamento para permitir el uso de lenguas cooficiales con el no del PP y Vox" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 19 September 2023. Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  129. ^ "El Congreso vota este jueves incorporar formalmente el uso de las lenguas cooficiales". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Madrid. Servimedia. 21 September 2023. Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  130. ^ "El Congreso aprueba de forma definitiva del uso de las lenguas cooficiales en el hemiciclo" (in Spanish). Cadena SER. 21 September 2023. Archived from the original on 5 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  131. ^ "A qué hora empieza el debate de investidura de Alberto Núñez Feijóo". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 26 September 2023. Archived from the original on 1 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  132. ^ Triper, José María (25 September 2023). "Feijóo buscará afianzar su liderazgo en el PP con el debate de investidura". El Economista (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  133. ^ Hermida, Xosé (26 September 2023). "Feijóo transforma la investidura en una moción de censura y Sánchez opta por ignorarlo". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 3 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  134. ^ Del Riego, Carmen (26 September 2023). "Feijóo: "Tengo a mi alcance los votos para ser presidente, pero no pagaré el precio que me piden"". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 1 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  135. ^ "El PP hace esto en la llegada de Feijóo al Congreso y se disparan los comentarios: este detalle de la foto se recordará mucho tiempo" (in Spanish). Madrid: Cadena SER. 26 September 2023. Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  136. ^ Monrosi, José Enrique (26 September 2023). "Sánchez encarga a Puente "retratar" a Feijóo: "¿Por qué tiene usted más derecho a ser presidente que yo alcalde?"". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 1 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  137. ^ Marcos, José (27 September 2023). "Óscar Puente: "La investidura ya venía dinamitada antes de empezar"". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 1 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  138. ^ Riveiro, Aitor; Ortiz, Alberto; Monrosi, José Enrique (27 September 2023). "Feijóo fracasa en la primera votación de su investidura frente a la mayoría absoluta del Congreso". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  139. ^ "El rey convoca una nueva ronda de consultas el lunes y martes para designar un candidato para la investidura" (in Spanish). Madrid: Cadena SER. 29 September 2023. Archived from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  140. ^ "El Rey propone a Pedro Sánchez para que intente formar gobierno tras el fracaso de Feijóo". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. 3 October 2023. Archived from the original on 3 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  141. ^ "Sánchez acepta con "ilusión" y "responsabilidad" el encargo del rey para intentar la investidura" (in Spanish). Madrid: Cadena SER. 3 October 2023. Archived from the original on 4 October 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
  142. ^ Casqueiro, Javier (10 October 2023). "El PP cuestiona la neutralidad de la presidenta de las Cortes por no fijar fecha para la investidura de Sánchez". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 2 November 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  143. ^ Riveiro, Aitor (24 October 2023). "El PP urge a Armengol a fijar la fecha de la investidura de Sánchez tras conocer el acuerdo de PSOE y Sumar". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2 November 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  144. ^ Monrosi, José Enrique (8 October 2023). "El PSOE ata el apoyo del PNV a la investidura y sortea las tensiones entre Junts y ERC para cerrar la ley de amnistía". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2 November 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  145. ^ Monrosi, José Enrique (12 October 2023). "Sánchez asegura que el PSOE ya tiene una propuesta de amnistía y que la explicará tras escuchar la del resto de grupos". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2 November 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  146. ^ Jones, Sam (24 October 2023). "Spain's ruling socialists and leftwing alliance sign coalition deal". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 October 2023. Retrieved 24 October 2023.
  147. ^ Romero, Alexis; Muñoz, Miguel (24 October 2023). "La intrahistoria del acuerdo entre PSOE y Sumar: así sellaron Sánchez y Díaz su alianza". Público (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 29 October 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  148. ^ Marcos, José (28 October 2023). "Sánchez defiende la amnistía en el comité federal del PSOE por "el interés de España y en defensa de la convivencia entre españoles"". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  149. ^ "Spain's acting PM Sanchez backs Catalan amnesty deal in bid to form government". Reuters. 28 October 2023. Archived from the original on 30 October 2023. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  150. ^ Tort, Àlex (2 November 2023). "ERC sella el acuerdo para investir a Sánchez tras pactar la amnistía y el "traspaso integral" de Rodalies". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 6 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  151. ^ Puente, Arturo (2 November 2023). "ERC votará la investidura de Sánchez tras acordar el traspaso de Rodalies y condonar parte de la deuda de Catalunya". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  152. ^ "La Ley de Amnistía está lista al 98%, abarcará diez años e incluirá a los encausados por el Tsunami y los CDR" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 2 November 2023. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  153. ^ "BNG y PSOE alcanzan un principio de acuerdo para la investidura de Sánchez con rebajas de peajes en la AP-9 y la AP-53". El Mundo (in Spanish). Europa Press. 2 November 2023. Archived from the original on 2 November 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  154. ^ Muñoz, Beatriz (3 November 2023). "El acuerdo de PSOE y BNG para la investidura incluye la creación de las cercanías ferroviarias en Galicia". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  155. ^ "Clavijo dice ahora que Coalición Canaria se abstendrá en la investidura porque está "cómodo" con cualquier Gobierno". Canarias Ahora (in Spanish). EFE. 27 October 2023. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  156. ^ "Coalición Canaria mantiene su postura de abstenerse en la investidura de Pedro Sánchez" (in Spanish). RTVC. Europa Press. 4 November 2023. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  157. ^ Pardo Torregrosa, Iñaki; Herrera, Esther (2 November 2023). "Junts prolonga la negociación con el PSOE y no da todavía por cerrado el pacto". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Brussels. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  158. ^ Alarcón, Nacho; Fernández, Antonio (2 November 2023). "Puigdemont retrasa el acuerdo con Sánchez al poner trabas en un párrafo de la ley de amnistía". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Brussels / Barcelona. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  159. ^ Portillo, Javier (4 November 2023). "La exigencia de Puigdemont de una "amnistía total" trastoca los planes de investidura de Pedro Sánchez". VozPópuli (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  160. ^ Segovia, Carlos (5 November 2023). "Los Pujol presionan a Junts a la desesperada para intentar entrar en la amnistía de la investidura". El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  161. ^ Ruiz Sierra, Juan; Masreal, Fidel (3 November 2023). "PSOE y Junts se estancan y no prevén un acuerdo inminente para la investidura". El Periódico de España (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  162. ^ Pardo Torregrosa, Iñaki; Navarro, Beatriz (7 November 2023). "PSOE y Junts reanudan las negociaciones sobre la amnistía en medio de la ofensiva judicial". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona / Brussels. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  163. ^ "PSOE y Junts siguen sin llegar a un acuerdo tras una noche de negociaciones "intensas"" (in Spanish). Brussels: Europa Press. 8 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  164. ^ Monrosi, José Enrique (8 November 2023). "PSOE y Junts cierran el pacto que garantiza la investidura de Sánchez". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 9 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  165. ^ Monrosi, José Enrique; Puente, Arturo; Aduriz, Iñigo (9 November 2023). "El PSOE y Junts se comprometen a "abrir una nueva etapa" que resuelva "el conflicto histórico" en Catalunya". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 9 November 2023. Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  166. ^ "Spain's prime minister offers an amnesty to Catalan separatists". The Economist. 9 November 2023. Archived from the original on 9 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  167. ^ "El debate de la investidura de Sánchez será la semana que viene, los días 15 y 16". elDiario.es (in Spanish). 9 November 2023. Archived from the original on 9 November 2023. Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  168. ^ Lerma Ruf, Guillermo; Carretero Castaño, Inmaculada (10 November 2023). "Sánchez y Ortuzar (PNV) firmarán este viernes el acuerdo que cierra la mayoría de la investidura" (in Spanish). Madrid: Cadena SER. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  169. ^ "Coalición Canaria da el sí a la investidura de Sánchez, que suma 179 votos". Canarias Ahora (in Spanish). 10 November 2023. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  170. ^ Monrosi, José Enrique; Ortiz, Alberto (9 October 2023). "Sánchez pide a Feijóo que respete el resultado electoral y abandone "su intento desesperado de agitar la calle"". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2 November 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  171. ^ Martínez, Virginia (1 November 2023). "El PP considera "un ataque a la democracia" el acuerdo para la amnistía y pide repetir elecciones". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 1 November 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  172. ^ Ramos, Ana Belén; Martínez Reillo, Javier; García Crespo, Gonzalo (29 October 2023). "PP y Vox salen a la calle contra la "amnistía por España" de Sánchez y Puigdemont". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2 November 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  173. ^ "El PP no acudirá a la manifestación de Vox en Colón contra la amnistía aunque "respeta" la convocatoria" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 5 October 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  174. ^ "Vox concentra a 100.000 personas en Colón para protestar contra la amnistía y Sánchez y promete "responder"" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 29 October 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  175. ^ Talens Ferrando, Ana María (5 November 2023). "Carlos Mazón y María José Catalá cargan contra la amnistía junto a Feijóo: "No lo vamos a tolerar"" (in Spanish). València: Cadena SER. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  176. ^ Del Riego, Carmen (2 November 2023). "Aznar asegura que Sánchez "es un peligro para la democracia española"". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  177. ^ Ramos, Ana Belén (2 November 2023). "Aznar pide "asumir los riesgos" de "actuar" contra Sánchez: "Es un peligro para la democracia"". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  178. ^ Juliana, Enric (4 November 2023). "La Huelga Nacional de Aznar". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  179. ^ Jaume, José (7 November 2023). "José María Aznar llama a la sublevación de las derechas". Diario de Mallorca (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  180. ^ "El presidente del CGPJ convoca un Pleno para debatir la propuesta de declaración institucional contra la amnistía" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 2 November 2023. Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  181. ^ a b "La mayoría conservadora del CGPJ impone una declaración crítica con la ley de amnistía aún desconocida". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Madrid. Servimedia. 6 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  182. ^ Rincón, Reyes (2 November 2023). "La asociación mayoritaria de jueces, la conservadora APM, ve la amnistía como "el principio del fin" de la democracia". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  183. ^ "Juezas y Jueces para la Democracia critica al CGPJ por pronunciarse contra la Amnistía de Sánchez" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 7 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  184. ^ Herrera, Elena (8 November 2023). "El presidente del Poder Judicial se desmarca de la declaración contra la amnistía y pide a los vocales no interferir en la actividad política". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  185. ^ "Registran ante las Cortes el manifiesto de más de 300 juristas en contra de la amnistía". ABC (in Spanish). 6 November 2023. Archived from the original on 17 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  186. ^ "Más de cien juristas firman un manifiesto en apoyo a la amnistía y contra los "ataques al normal funcionamiento de las instituciones"". elDiario.es (in Spanish). 6 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  187. ^ Rincón, Reyes (6 November 2023). "Más de 200 juristas firman un manifiesto en defensa de la amnistía". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  188. ^ Elordi Cué, Carlos; Ayuso, Silvia; Rovira, Marc (6 November 2023). "Un juez de la Audiencia Nacional irrumpe en una investidura que no termina de cerrarse". El País (in Spanish). Madrid / Brussels / Barcelona. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  189. ^ González, Germán; Marraco, Manuel (7 November 2023). "El juez que investiga 'Tsunami' imputa a Puigdemont y Marta Rovira por "terrorismo" y la Fiscalía recurrirá porque sólo ve "desórdenes"". El Mundo (in Spanish). Barcelona / Madrid. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  190. ^ López-Fonseca, Óscar (3 November 2023). "La Guardia Civil concluye que Marta Rovira, número dos de ERC, fue una de las cabecillas de Tsunami Democràtic". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  191. ^ Solé Altimira, Oriol (3 November 2023). "La Guardia Civil acelera el informe final sobre Tsunami y Marta Rovira y lo entrega tres semanas antes de lo previsto". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Barcelona. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  192. ^ Jiménez Gálvez, José María (10 November 2023). "La Fiscalía considera "insuficientes" los indicios para imputar a Puigdemont en el 'caso Tsunami Democràtic'". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  193. ^ Águeda, Pedro (10 November 2023). "La Fiscalía alega que García Castellón tergiversa, hace suposiciones y omite datos para imputar a Puigdemont". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  194. ^ "Más de 200 juristas firman un manifiesto en defensa de la amnistía". Financial Times. 6 November 2023. Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  195. ^ Navarro, Beatriz (8 November 2023). "Bruselas reacciona a las críticas y pide información al Gobierno por la ley de amnistía". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Brussels. Archived from the original on 9 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  196. ^ Rodríguez Sahuquillo, María (9 November 2023). "Bruselas dice que la amnistía es un asunto interno español, pero defiende la petición de información". El País (in Spanish). Brussels. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  197. ^ Rodríguez Sahuquillo, María (10 November 2023). "Bruselas aguarda información sobre la ley de amnistía de las autoridades españolas para analizarla". El País (in Spanish). Brussels. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  198. ^ Gil, Iván (3 November 2023). "La Policía blinda la sede del PSOE en Ferraz de una manifestación contra la amnistía". El Periódico (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  199. ^ Menéndez, María (7 November 2023). "La calle se calienta contra la amnistía jaleada por Vox y el PSOE denuncia "acoso" y suspende los actos en sus sedes" (in Spanish). RTVE. Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  200. ^ González, Miguel; Piñol, Àngels; Sánchez, Diego; Rodríguez Arroyo, Jorge; Puentes, Ana (6 November 2023). "La cúpula de Vox se suma y jalea las protestas callejeras contra la amnistía ante las sedes del PSOE". El País (in Spanish). Madrid / Barcelona. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  201. ^ López-Fonseca, Óscar (8 November 2023). "Grupos neonazis y colectivos 'fantasma' de ultraderecha provocaron los graves disturbios de Ferraz". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  202. ^ Sánchez, Diego; López-Fonseca, Óscar; González, Miguel; Martínez, Virginia (7 November 2023). "La protesta convocada por grupos ultra ante la sede del PSOE de Madrid vuelve a terminar con tensión y cargas policiales". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  203. ^ Fernández, Juan José; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel (8 November 2023). "La extrema derecha más violenta se adueña de las protestas ante la sede del PSOE en otra noche de disturbios". El Periódico (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  204. ^ "La Policía blinda Ferraz pero algunos manifestantes trasladan la protesta contra la amnistía al Congreso" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 7 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  205. ^ "La Insultos, racismo, franquismo y acoso a periodistas: así fue la 'mani' facha en Ferraz". Público (in Spanish). 7 November 2023. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  206. ^ "De los insultos y cánticos fascistas a los ataques a la Policía: así fueron los disturbios ultra en Ferraz" (in Spanish). laSexta. Europa Press. 8 November 2023. Archived from the original on 9 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  207. ^ ""¡Alzamiento nacional!" y "¡Borbones, a los tiburones!": las consignas de los ultras en las protestas ante la sede del PSOE" (in Spanish). laSexta. 10 November 2023. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  208. ^ "Sánchez apoya a la militancia tras el acoso de "reaccionarios" en las sedes: "Nadie será capaz de amedrentar al PSOE"" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 6 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  209. ^ "PNV condena "el acoso" a las sedes del PSOE y advierte de que "la amenaza" no tiene cabida en la libertad de expresión" (in Spanish). Bilbao: Europa Press. 7 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  210. ^ "El PP titubea con la condena de las protestas en Ferraz y culpa a Sánchez de crear "malestar social"" (in Spanish). laSexta. Europa Press. 8 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  211. ^ Pérez Chávarri, Inés (8 November 2023). "Urkullu pide a Núñez Feijóo que desconvoque las protestas contra la ley de amnistía". El Periódico (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  212. ^ Pozas, Alberto (9 November 2023). "Ayuso asegura que España entra en una dictadura y que para salvar la situación cuenta con el rey, las fuerzas de seguridad y el ejército". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  213. ^ Solé Altamira, Oriol (9 November 2023). "'Lawfare': la guerra judicial contra el independentismo que PSOE y Junts pactan investigar en el Congreso". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Barcelona. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  214. ^ Pozas, Alberto (9 November 2023). "Todas las asociaciones judiciales critican las comisiones de investigación de 'lawfare' del acuerdo entre PSOE y Junts". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 9 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  215. ^ Rincón, Reyes (9 November 2023). "Jueces, fiscales y el Poder Judicial salen en tromba contra las referencias al "lawfare" o judicialización de la política en el acuerdo entre el PSOE y Junts". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 9 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  216. ^ "La Asociación de Fiscales ve en el pacto PSOE-Junts un "ataque sin precedentes a la independencia judicial"". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Madrid. Servimedia. 9 November 2023. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  217. ^ Juliana, Enric (11 November 2023). "Protesta o alzamiento". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 11 November 2023. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  218. ^ Moreno, Ana (9 November 2023). "El PSOE asegura que no se creará ninguna comisión para investigar 'lawfare' y que el Congreso "no fiscalizará a los jueces"". 20 minutos (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  219. ^ "Una asociación de guardias civiles, contra el pacto PSOE-Junts: "Estamos dispuestos a derramar nuestra sangre"". El Periódico (in Spanish). Madrid. Europa Press. 10 November 2023. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  220. ^ Águeda, Pedro (10 November 2023). "Interior abre una investigación a los guardias civiles que prometen "derramar" su sangre contra el acuerdo de Gobierno". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  221. ^ a b "El 87,1% de la militancia del PSOE apoya los pactos de Sánchez para lograr la investidura". elDiario.es (in Spanish). 4 November 2023. Archived from the original on 4 November 2023. Retrieved 4 November 2023.
  222. ^ a b "La militancia del PSC avala los pactos con otras formaciones con un 61,6 por ciento de participación" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 4 November 2023. Archived from the original on 4 November 2023. Retrieved 4 November 2023.
  223. ^ "El 85,4% de la militancia del PSC ratifica el acuerdo para formar Gobierno en España". Socialists' Party of Catalonia (in Spanish). 4 November 2023. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 4 November 2023.
  224. ^ a b "Aval massiu de la militància d'ERC a l'acord amb el PSOE". Público (in Catalan). 3 November 2023. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  225. ^ a b Peñascal, Júlia (12 November 2023). "La militancia de Junts ratifica con un 86% de los votos el acuerdo con el PSOE para investir a Sánchez". El Nacional (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 12 November 2023. Retrieved 12 November 2023.
  226. ^ "La militància d'Esquerra Republicana avala la llei d'amnistia, obrir la fase resolutiva del conflicte polític, el traspàs integral de Rodalies i avenços econòmics i socials". Republican Left of Catalonia (in Catalan). 3 November 2023. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  227. ^ a b "Las bases de IU apoyan la investidura de Sánchez con el 85% del total de 5.360 personas que votaron en su consulta" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 6 November 2023. Archived from the original on 15 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  228. ^ a b Cabanillas, Ana (15 November 2023). "Las bases de Podemos avalan el 'sí' a la investidura de Sánchez con un 86%". El Periódico de España (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 15 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  229. ^ "Consulta Ciudadana: Consulta sobre el la sesión de investidura del gobierno de Pedro Sánchez". IU (in Spanish). 6 November 2023. Archived from the original on 15 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  230. ^ "Consulta Ciudadana: Consulta sobre el la sesión de investidura del gobierno de Pedro Sánchez". Podemos (in Spanish). 15 November 2023. Archived from the original on 15 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  231. ^ Wilson, Joseph; Giles, Ciarán (15 November 2023). "Spain leader defends amnesty deal for Catalan in parliament ahead of vote to form new government". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 15 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  232. ^ Cruz, Marisa (13 November 2023). "Armengol confirma las fechas para el debate y la votación de la investidura de Sánchez: el 15 y 16 de noviembre". El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 13 November 2023.
  233. ^ Riveiro, Aitor (15 November 2023). "Feijóo acusa de "corrupción política" a Sánchez en su investidura: "La amnistía no mejora la convivencia, la destruye"". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 November 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  234. ^ "Feijóo se inventa una cita de Machado para criticar a Sánchez ignorando que era una canción de Ismael Serrano". elDiario.es (in Spanish). 15 November 2023. Archived from the original on 16 November 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  235. ^ Camut, Nicolas (16 November 2023). "'Son of a bitch': Madrid chief insults Sánchez during heated debate". Politico. Archived from the original on 16 November 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  236. ^ Garmendia, Xabier (16 November 2023). "«Algún día quizá llegue a decir lo que nos ofreció», desafía Esteban a Feijóo". Diario Vasco (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 November 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  237. ^ Roldán Moré, Javier (16 November 2023). "Feijóo ofreció al PNV el Ministerio de Industria a cambio de su apoyo a la investidura". Diario Vasco (in Spanish). San Sebastián. Archived from the original on 17 November 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  238. ^ Rioja Andueza, Iker (16 November 2023). "Feijóo ofreció el Ministerio de Industria "y más" al PNV, que se negó a negociar su investidura". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Vitoria. Archived from the original on 17 November 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  239. ^ a b Monrosi, José Enrique; Ortiz, Alberto (16 November 2023). "Pedro Sánchez es investido presidente del Gobierno con más apoyos que en 2020". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 16 November 2023. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  240. ^ Ramos, Ana Belén; Rocha, Carlos (16 November 2023). "Pedro Sánchez, investido presidente del Gobierno con 179 votos tras conceder una amnistía al 'procés'". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 20 November 2023. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
  241. ^ "El PP avanza, Vox se recupera y la derecha ronda la mayoría absoluta". El País (in Spanish). 9 October 2023. Archived from the original on 24 October 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  242. ^ "Barómetro Mensual. Octubre 2023" (PDF). 40dB (in Spanish). 9 October 2023. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  243. ^ "Los pactos de Sánchez tienen más apoyos que la gran coalición". El País (in Spanish). 4 September 2023. Archived from the original on 4 September 2023. Retrieved 4 September 2023.
  244. ^ "Barómetro Mensual. Septiembre 2023" (PDF). 40dB (in Spanish). 4 September 2023. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 September 2023. Retrieved 4 September 2023.
  245. ^ Monrosi, José Enrique (15 August 2023). "Una coalición progresista apoyada por partidos vascos y catalanes, la opción preferida para la investidura". elDiario.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 August 2023. Retrieved 19 August 2023.
  246. ^ Rico, José; Moya, Francisco J. (17 July 2023). "Sondeo elecciones generales: Los votantes de PSOE y Sumar se abren a investir a Feijóo para evitar que pacte con Vox". El Periódico de España (in Spanish). Barcelona. Archived from the original on 20 August 2023. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  247. ^ Fuentecilla, José Luis (1 July 2023). "Barómetro GAD3: los votantes de la derecha respaldan mayoritariamente los pactos PP-Vox que suscitan un rechazo rotundo en la izquierda". NIUS (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 1 July 2023. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  248. ^ Junquera, Natalia (3 July 2023). "El PP sigue en cabeza, pero aumenta su fuga de votos a Vox y el PSOE gana cinco escaños en la precampaña". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 3 July 2023. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  249. ^ "40dB. Encuesta preelectoral. Julio 2023" (PDF) (in Spanish). 40dB. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 July 2023. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  250. ^ Junquera, Natalia; Catalán, Nacho (19 June 2023). "El PP afianza su ventaja sobre el PSOE y roza la mayoría absoluta con Vox". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 19 June 2023. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  251. ^ "40dB. Barómetro Mensual. Junio 2023" (PDF) (in Spanish). 40dB. 19 June 2023. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 June 2023. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  252. ^ Rico, José; Gràcia, Ricard (5 June 2023). "Sondeo: Los españoles, divididos entre un Gobierno de izquierdas y una coalición PP-PSOE tras las elecciones generales". El Periódico (in Spanish). Barcelona. Archived from the original on 20 August 2023. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  253. ^ Hermida, Xosé (5 December 2022). "El PP retrocede y el PSOE vuelve a igualarlo en el primer puesto en vísperas del año electoral". El País (in Spanish). Madrid. Archived from the original on 5 December 2022. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  254. ^ "40dB. Barómetro Mensual. Diciembre 2022" (PDF) (in Spanish). 40dB. 6 December 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 August 2023. Retrieved 6 December 2022.
  255. ^ "El PP ganaría las elecciones generales con una ventaja de 5 puntos respecto al PSOE, según una encuesta de Sigma Dos" (in Spanish). Antena 3. 16 October 2022. Archived from the original on 28 November 2022. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  256. ^ Regué, Júlia; R. Fischer, Álex (24 June 2022). "Un tercio de los españoles apuestan por un Gobierno de coalición PP-PSOE". El Periódico de España (in Spanish). Barcelona. Archived from the original on 20 August 2023. Retrieved 20 August 2023.