116th United States Congress

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116th United States Congress
115th ←
→ 117th
U.S. Capitol grounds magnolias in March 2020.jpg

January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2021
Members100 senators
435 representatives
6 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
Senate PresidentMike Pence (R)
House MajorityDemocratic
House SpeakerNancy Pelosi (D)
1st: January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2020
2nd: January 3, 2020 – January 3, 2021

The 116th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C., on January 3, 2019, and ended on January 3, 2021, during the final two years of Donald Trump's presidency. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 finished their terms in this Congress, and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census.

In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate. Consequently, this was the first split Congress since the 113th Congress of 2013–2015, and the first Republican Senate–Democratic House split since the 99th Congress of 1985–1987. This Congress was the youngest incoming class by mean age in the past three cycles[1] and the most demographically diverse ever.

Upon joining the Libertarian Party on May 1, 2020,[2] Justin Amash became the first member of Congress to represent a political party other than the Democrats or the Republicans since Rep. William Carney, who served as a Conservative before switching to the Republican Party in 1985. Before joining the Libertarian Party, Amash had been serving as an independent since his departure from the Republican Party on July 4, 2019.[3] Paul Mitchell also left the Republicans in December 2020, becoming an independent.[4] Neither incumbent ran for re-election.

Major events

House of Representatives approved two articles of impeachment.
Chief Justice John Roberts presided over the Impeachment trial of Donald Trump

Major legislation


President Trump signing the Dingell Act, March 12, 2019
President Trump signing the Hong Kong Autonomy Act, together with Executive Order 13936, July 14, 2020

Proposed (but not enacted)

Major resolutions

The Green New Deal, championed by Democrats upon their new House majority, was proposed by Senator Ed Markey (speaking) and Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (next to him), February 7, 2019



Party summary

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section below.


Affiliation Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent
(caucusing with
End of previous Congress 47 2 50 99 1
Begin (January 3, 2019) 45 2 52 99 1
January 8, 2019[a] 53 100 0
December 31, 2019[b] 52 99 1
January 6, 2020[b] 53 100 0
December 2, 2020[c] 46 52
Final voting share 48.0% 52.0%
Beginning of the next Congress 46 2 51 99 1

House of Representatives

Affiliation Party
(shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Libertarian Republican
End of previous Congress 196 0 0 236 432 3
Begin (January 3, 2019)[d] 235 0 0 199 434 1
January 23, 2019[e] 198 433 2
February 10, 2019[f] 197 432 3
May 21, 2019[e] 198 433 2
July 4, 2019[g] 1 197
September 10, 2019[d][f] 199 435 0
September 23, 2019[h] 198 434 1
October 1, 2019[i] 197 433 2
October 17, 2019[j] 234 432 3
November 3, 2019[k] 233 431 4
December 19, 2019[l] 232 198
January 13, 2020[m] 197 430 5
March 30, 2020[n] 196 429 6
April 29, 2020[j] 233 430 5
May 1, 2020[g] 0 1
May 12, 2020[k][h] 198 432 3
May 22, 2020[o] 197 431 4
June 23, 2020[i] 198 432 3
July 17, 2020[p] 232 431 4
October 4, 2020[q] 197 430 5
December 1, 2020[p] 233 431 4
December 7, 2020[r] 196 430 5
December 14, 2020[s] 1 195
Final voting share 54.2% 0.2% 0.2% 45.3%  
Non-voting members 3 1 0 2 6 0
Beginning of the next Congress 222 0 0 211 433 2



Senate President
Senate President pro tempore


Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

House of Representatives

House Speaker


Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership


Most members of this Congress were Christian (88.2%), with approximately half being Protestant and 30.5% being Catholic. Jewish membership is 6.4%. Other religions represented included Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. One senator said that she was religiously unaffiliated, while the number of members refusing to specify their religious affiliation increased.[29][30][31]

Roughly 96% of members held college degrees. All but 128 members were white and all but 131 members were men.[32]


The Senate included 74 men and 26 women, the most women to date. In 6 states, both senators were women; 14 states were represented by 1 man and 1 woman; and 30 states were represented by 2 men. During this Congress, Johnny Isakson retired for health reasons and Kelly Loeffler was appointed, which increased the number of women from 25 after the 2018 elections to 26. There were 91 non-Hispanic white, 4 Hispanic, 2 Black, 2 Asian, and 1 multiracial (Black/Asian) senators. Additionally, 2 senators were LGBTQ+.[1][33][better source needed] The average age of Senators at the beginning of this congress was 62.9 years.[32]

House of Representatives

There were 101 women in the House, the largest number in history.[34] There were 313 non-Hispanic white, 56 Black, 44 Hispanic, 15 Asian, and 4 Native American congress members. Eight were LGBTQ+.[35] Two Democrats — Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Donna Shalala — were the youngest (30) and oldest (78) freshmen women in history.[36] Freshmen Rashida Tlaib (D-MI) and Ilhan Omar (DFL-MN) were the first two Muslim women and freshmen Sharice Davids (D-KS) and Deb Haaland (D-NM) were the first two Native American women elected as well.[37] The average age of Members of the House at the beginning of the 116th Congress was 57.6 years.[32]

With the election of Carolyn Maloney as the first woman to chair the House Oversight Committee,[38] women chaired a record six House committees in a single Congress (out of 26 women to ever chair House committees in the history of Congress), including House members Maxine Waters (Financial Services), Nita Lowey (Appropriations), Zoe Lofgren (Administration), Eddie Bernice Johnson (Science, Space and Technology) and Nydia Velázquez (Small Business), as well as Kathy Castor, who chaired the Select Committee on the Climate Crisis.[38] In addition, women chaired a record 39 House subcommittees. Lowey and Kay Granger were also the first women to serve as chair and ranking member of the same committee in the same Congress since the since-defunct Select Committee on the House Beauty Shop, which was chaired and populated entirely by congresswomen during its existence from 1967 to 1977.

Diversity of the freshman class

The demographics of the 116th U.S. Congress freshmen were more diverse than any previous incoming class.[39][40][41]

At least 25 new congressional representatives were Hispanic, Native American, or people of color, and the incoming class included the first Native American women, the first Muslim women, and the two youngest women ever elected.[39] The 116th Congress included more women elected to the House than any previous Congress.[40][41]



The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 seats were contested in the November 2018 elections. In this Congress, class 1 means their term commenced in the current Congress, requiring re-election in 2024; class 2 means their term ends with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2020; and class 3 means their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2022.

House of Representatives


Changes in membership


Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[y]
Vacant Senator-elect chose to wait until finishing term as Governor of Florida.[42] Rick Scott
January 8, 2019
Johnny Isakson
Incumbent resigned December 31, 2019.[43]
Successor was appointed the same day[t] to continue the term.[43]
Kelly Loeffler
January 6, 2020[54]
Martha McSally
Appointee lost special election to finish the term.
Successor elected November 3, 2020.
Mark Kelly
December 2, 2020[55]

House of Representatives

District Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[y]
North Carolina 9 Vacant Vacant from the start of the term as allegations of fraud in the 2018 general election prevented the results from being certified.
A special election was held September 10, 2019.[56]
Dan Bishop
September 17, 2019[57]
Pennsylvania 12 Tom Marino
Resigned January 23, 2019, to take job in private sector.[51]
A special election was held May 21, 2019.[58]
Fred Keller
June 3, 2019
North Carolina 3 Walter B. Jones Jr.
Died February 10, 2019.
A special election was held September 10, 2019.[59]
Greg Murphy
September 17, 2019[60]
Michigan 3 Justin Amash
Changed party July 4, 2019.[8] Justin Amash
July 4, 2019
Wisconsin 7 Sean Duffy
Resigned September 23, 2019.
A special election was held May 12, 2020.[61]
Tom Tiffany
May 19, 2020
New York 27 Chris Collins
Resigned October 1, 2019.
A special election was held June 23, 2020.[62]
Chris Jacobs
July 21, 2020
Maryland 7 Elijah Cummings
Died October 17, 2019.
A special election was held April 28, 2020.[48][63]
Kweisi Mfume
May 5, 2020
California 25 Katie Hill
Resigned November 3, 2019, due to allegations of improper relationships with staffer.
A special election was held March 3, 2020, and a runoff election was held May 12, 2020.[64][65]
Mike Garcia
May 19, 2020
New Jersey 2 Jeff Van Drew
Changed party December 19, 2019.[66] Jeff Van Drew
December 19, 2019
California 50 Duncan D. Hunter
Resigned January 13, 2020, following felony indictment.[67] Vacant until the next Congress
North Carolina 11 Mark Meadows
Resigned March 30, 2020, to become White House Chief of Staff.[68][69] Vacant until the next Congress
Michigan 3 Justin Amash
Changed party May 1, 2020.[2] Justin Amash
May 1, 2020
Texas 4 John Ratcliffe
Resigned May 22, 2020, to become Director of National Intelligence.
The seat will remain vacant until the next Congress.
Vacant until the next Congress
Georgia 5 John Lewis
Died July 17, 2020.
A special election runoff was held December 1, 2020.[70]
Kwanza Hall
December 3, 2020
Georgia 14 Tom Graves
Resigned October 4, 2020.
The seat will remain vacant until the next Congress.
Vacant until the next Congress
California 8 Paul Cook
Resigned December 7, 2020, after being elected a member of the San Bernardino County Supervisors.
The seat will remain vacant until the next Congress.
Vacant until the next Congress
Michigan 10 Paul Mitchell
Changed party December 14, 2020. Paul Mitchell
December 14, 2020


Section contents: Senate, House, Joint


Committee Chair Ranking Member[71]
Aging (Special) Tim Scott (R-SC) Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA)
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Pat Roberts (R-KS) Debbie Stabenow (D-MI)
Appropriations Richard Shelby (R-AL) Patrick Leahy (D-VT)
Armed Services Jim Inhofe (R-OK) Jack Reed (D-RI)
Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Mike Crapo (R-ID) Sherrod Brown (D-OH)
Budget Mike Enzi (R-WY) Bernie Sanders (I-VT)
Commerce, Science and Transportation Roger Wicker (R-MS) Maria Cantwell (D-WA)
Energy and Natural Resources Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) Joe Manchin (D-WV)
Environment and Public Works John Barrasso (R-WY) Tom Carper (D-DE)
Ethics (Select) Johnny Isakson (R-GA) until December 2019
James Lankford (R-OK) from January 2020[72]
Chris Coons (D-DE)
Finance Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Ron Wyden (D-OR)
Foreign Relations Jim Risch (R-ID) Bob Menendez (D-NJ)
Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Lamar Alexander (R-TN) Patty Murray (D-WA)
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Ron Johnson (R-WI) Gary Peters (D-MI)
Indian Affairs (Permanent Select) John Hoeven (R-ND) Tom Udall (D-NM)
Intelligence (Select) Richard Burr (R-NC) until May 15, 2020
Marco Rubio (R-FL) Acting from May 18, 2020
Mark Warner (D-VA)
International Narcotics Control (Permanent Caucus) John Cornyn (R-TX) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)
Judiciary Lindsey Graham (R-SC) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)
Rules and Administration Roy Blunt (R-MO) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Marco Rubio (R-FL) Ben Cardin (D-MD)
Veterans' Affairs Johnny Isakson (R-GA) until December 2019
Jerry Moran (R-KS) from January 2020[73]
Jon Tester (D-MT)

House of Representatives

Committee Chair Ranking Member
Agriculture Collin Peterson (D-MN) Mike Conaway (R-TX)
Appropriations Nita Lowey (D-NY) Kay Granger (R-TX)
Armed Services Adam Smith (D-WA) Mac Thornberry (R-TX)
Budget John Yarmuth (D-KY) Steve Womack (R-AR)
Climate Crisis (Select) Kathy Castor (D-FL) Garret Graves (R-LA)
Education and Labor Bobby Scott (D-VA) Virginia Foxx (R-NC)
Energy and Commerce Frank Pallone (D-NJ) Greg Walden (R-OR)
Ethics Ted Deutch (D-FL) Kenny Marchant (R-TX)
Financial Services Maxine Waters (D-CA) Patrick McHenry (R-NC)
Foreign Affairs Eliot Engel (D-NY) Michael McCaul (R-TX)
Homeland Security Bennie Thompson (D-MS) Mike Rogers (R-AL)
House Administration Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Rodney Davis (R-IL)
Intelligence (Permanent Select) Adam Schiff (D-CA) Devin Nunes (R-CA)
Judiciary Jerrold Nadler (D-NY) Doug Collins (R-GA) (until March 12, 2020)
Jim Jordan (R-OH) (from March 12, 2020)
Modernization of Congress (Select) Derek Kilmer (D-WA) Tom Graves (R-GA) (until October 4, 2020)[74]
Natural Resources Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ) Rob Bishop (R-UT)
Oversight and Reform Elijah Cummings (D-MD) (until October 17, 2019)[48]
Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) (from October 17, 2019)
Jim Jordan (R-OH) (until March 12, 2020, from March 31, 2020 – June 29, 2020)
Mark Meadows (R-NC) (March 12, 2020 – March 30, 2020)
James Comer (from June 29, 2020)
Rules Jim McGovern (D-MA) Tom Cole (R-OK)
Science, Space and Technology Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX) Frank Lucas (R-OK)
Small Business Nydia Velázquez (D-NY) Steve Chabot (R-OH)
Transportation and Infrastructure Peter DeFazio (D-OR) Sam Graves (R-MO)
Veterans' Affairs Mark Takano (D-CA) Phil Roe (R-TN)
Ways and Means Richard Neal (D-MA) Kevin Brady (R-TX)


Committee Chair Vice Chair Ranking Member Vice Ranking Member
Economic Mike Lee (R-UT) Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) (until January 16, 2020)
Don Beyer (D-VA) (from January 16, 2020)
David Schweikert (R-AZ) Martin Heinrich (D-NM)
Inaugural Ceremonies (Special) Roy Blunt (R-MO) Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Library Roy Blunt (R-MO) Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Rodney Davis (R-IL) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Printing Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Roy Blunt (R-MO) Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) Rodney Davis (R-IL)
Taxation[z] Richard Neal (D-MA) Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Ron Wyden (D-OR) Kevin Brady (R-TX)

Employees and legislative agency directors

Also called "elected" or "appointed" officials, there are many employees of the House and Senate whose leaders are included here.[75]


House of Representatives

Legislative branch agency directors

See also


Membership lists


  1. ^ In Florida: Rick Scott (R) assumed office late January 8, 2019.
  2. ^ a b In Georgia: Johnny Isakson (R) resigned December 31, 2019; Kelly Loeffler (R) was appointed January 6, 2020, to continue the term.
  3. ^ a b In Arizona: Mark Kelly (D) replaced interim appointee Martha McSally (R) in a special election.
  4. ^ a b c In North Carolina's 9th district: the November 2018 election results were not certified due to a dispute over voting irregularities. Dan Bishop (R) was elected September 10, 2019.
  5. ^ a b In Pennsylvania's 12th district: Tom Marino (R) resigned January 23, 2019, and Fred Keller (R) was elected May 21, 2019.
  6. ^ a b In North Carolina's 3rd district: Walter Jones (R) died February 10, 2019, and Greg Murphy (R) was elected September 10, 2019.
  7. ^ a b In Michigan's 3rd district: Justin Amash changed parties from Republican to Independent July 4, 2019,[8] then changed to Libertarian May 1, 2020.[2]
  8. ^ a b In Wisconsin's 7th district: Sean Duffy (R) resigned September 23, 2019, and Tom Tiffany (R) was elected May 12, 2020.
  9. ^ a b In New York's 27th district: Chris Collins (R) resigned October 1, 2019, and Chris Jacobs (R) was elected June 23, 2020.
  10. ^ a b In Maryland's 7th district: Elijah Cummings (D) died October 17, 2019, and Kweisi Mfume (D) was elected April 29, 2020.
  11. ^ a b In California's 25th district: Katie Hill (D) resigned November 3, 2019, and Mike Garcia (R) was elected May 12, 2020.
  12. ^ In New Jersey's 2nd district: Jeff Van Drew changed parties from Democratic to Republican December 19, 2019.
  13. ^ In California's 50th district: Duncan D. Hunter (R) resigned January 13, 2020.
  14. ^ In North Carolina's 11th district: Mark Meadows (R) resigned March 30, 2020.
  15. ^ In Texas's 4th district: John Ratcliffe (R) resigned May 22, 2020.
  16. ^ a b In Georgia's 5th district: John Lewis (D) died July 17, 2020, and Kwanza Hall (D) was elected December 1, 2020.
  17. ^ In Georgia's 14th district: Tom Graves (R) resigned October 4, 2020.
  18. ^ In California's 8th district: Paul Cook (R) resigned December 7, 2020.
  19. ^ In Michigan's 10th district: Paul Mitchell changed from Republican to Independent.
  20. ^ a b Loeffler's appointment was "effective December 31, 2019."[44]
  21. ^ a b c d e f g The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) is the Minnesota affiliate of the U.S. Democratic Party and its members are counted as Democrats.
  22. ^ Although Sanders ran for U.S. President in the Democratic primary and claimed to be a "bona fide Democrat" in accordance to DNC rules, he is officially an Independent senator who caucuses with the Democrats.[45]
  23. ^ In Michigan's 3rd district: Justin Amash changed from Republican to Independent, July 4, 2019.[8] He became a Libertarian on May 1, 2020.[2]
  24. ^ In New Jersey's 2nd district: Jeff Van Drew changed from Democratic to Republican, December 19, 2019.
  25. ^ a b When seated or oath administered, not necessarily when service began.
  26. ^ The Joint Taxation Committee leadership rotate the chair and vice chair and the ranking members between the House and Senate at the start of each session (calendar year) in the middle of the congressional term. The first session leadership is shown here.


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  2. ^ a b c d Schultz, Marisa (May 2, 2020). "Amash, taking historic step to White House bid, becomes first Libertarian in Congress: 'I'm in the race to win it'". Fox News. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  3. ^ Welch, Matt (April 29, 2020). "Justin Amash Becomes the First Libertarian Member of Congress". Reason. Reason Foundation. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  4. ^ Tapper, Jake (December 14, 2020). "Congressman cites Trump's efforts to overturn election in announcing decision to quit GOP". CNN. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  5. ^ Gay Stolberg, Sheryl (January 23, 2019). "Trump Says He'll Delay Speech Until After Shutdown, as Democrats Draft Border Security Plan". The New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  6. ^ "Michael D. Cohen's Congressional Testimony". The New York Times. February 27, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  7. ^ U.S. House Approves Resolution Opposing U.S. Troop Withdrawal From Syria, 354-60. C-Span. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
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  14. ^ a b "Senator Lankford to Serve on Deputy Whip Team for 116th Congress - U.S. Senator James Lankford of Oklahoma". www.lankford.senate.gov.
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  19. ^ McPherson, Lindsey (November 28, 2018). "James Clyburn Elected Majority Whip". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  20. ^ McPherson, Lindsey (November 28, 2018). "Rep. Ben Ray Luján Elected Assistant Democratic Leader". Roll Call. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  21. ^ McPherson, Lindsey (November 28, 2018). "Hakeem Jeffries Wins Democratic Caucus Chair Race Against Barbara Lee". Roll Call. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  22. ^ McPherson, Lindsey (November 29, 2018). "Katherine Clark Elected House Democratic Caucus Vice Chair". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  23. ^ Pathé, Simone (November 29, 2018). "Cheri Bustos Elected DCCC Chair". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  24. ^ a b c d e McPherson, Lindsey (December 4, 2018). "House Democrats' New Elected Leadership Team Is More Progressive and Diverse". Roll Call. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  25. ^ Ferris, Sarah (November 13, 2019). "Rep. Veronica Escobar Wins Freshman Leadership Seat". Politico. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
  26. ^ a b c "DeGette dropped from chief deputy whip spot". December 13, 2018. Archived from the original on December 14, 2018. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g "Here's the List of House Republican Leaders for the Next Congress". Roll Call. November 14, 2018. Archived from the original on December 6, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  28. ^ McPherson, Lindsey (November 27, 2018). "Scalise Appoints Rep. Drew Ferguson as House GOP's Chief Deputy Whip". Roll Call. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  29. ^ "Faith on the Hill". January 3, 2019. Archived from the original on January 4, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  30. ^ Women Elected at Historic Levels, But No Surprise Here: White Men Dominate 116th Congress Archived November 21, 2018, at the Wayback Machine November 7, 2018
  31. ^ "As Christians split over Trump, minority faiths make their mark". November 7, 2018. Archived from the original on January 2, 2019. Retrieved January 2, 2019. November 7, 2018
  32. ^ a b c "116th United States Congress: A Survey of Books Written by Members". Library of Congress. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
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  38. ^ a b Ferris, Sarah. "Rep. Carolyn Maloney wins election to chair House Oversight Committee". POLITICO.
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  42. ^ a b Sonmez, Felicia (January 8, 2019). "Rick Scott sworn in as Florida's newest senator". South Florida SunSentinel. Retrieved February 3, 2019.
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  44. ^ "Kemp Appoints Loeffler to U.S. Senate". Governor Brian P. Kemp Office of the Governor.
  45. ^ DiStaso, John (February 22, 2019). "Independent Bernie Sanders to put in writing that he's a 'bona fide' Democrat". WMUR.
  46. ^ Marquette, Chris (January 7, 2020). "Duncan Hunter resigns from Congress" – via www.rollcall.com.
  47. ^ "John Lewis, Georgia Congressman and Civil Rights Icon, Dies at 80".
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